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1293 CE Quake

11 Jan. 1293 - 8 Feb. 1293 CE

by Jefferson Williams









Introduction & Summary

Multiple sources report an earthquake during the month of Safar A.H. 692 (11 Jan. 1293 - 8 Feb. 1293 CE) that, depending on the author, struck Karak, Tafila, Fakul, Ramla, Lod/Lydda, Gaza, Qaqun, and/or coastal areas. All of the authors mention damage to Karak and Ramla, most of the authors mention damage to three towers of the Citadel in Karak, and indications from the various reports are that Karak suffered the most. al-Jazari adds that a number of buildings in Karak were also destroyed. This suggests an earthquake in the Northern Araba/Dead Sea for which there appears to be corroborating paleoseismic evidence. Several authors describe rebuilding efforts undertaken in Karak soon after the earthquake struck. See Kagan (2011) in Notes for some speculation on the causitive fault breaks.

Textual Evidence

Text (with hotlink) Original Language Biographical Info Religion Date of Composition Location Composed Notes
Damage and Chronology Reports from Textual Sources n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a
al-Nuwairi Arabic
Biography

al-Nuwairi was born in Egypt in 1279 CE and died in Cairo in 1333 CE. He had a career in government dealing with the financial administration of the Mamluk empire. After retiring in 1312 CE, he wrote a book titled The Ultimate Ambition in the Arts of Erudition (Nihāyat al-arab fī funūn al-adab) consisting of multiple volumes and over 2 million words (wikipedia and Muhanna, 2018). The book was divided into 5 sections. ( Muhanna, 2018).

Muslim ? between 1312 and 1333 CE Cairo States that between 11 Jan. 1293 and 8 Feb. 1293 CE there was a violent earthquake at the towns of Gaza, Ramla, Ludd [Lydda], and Karak with the Karak particularly affected and three towers of the citadel [of Karak] were destroyed.
Ibn Kathir Arabic
Biography

Ibn Kathir was a historian and traditionist born around 1300 CE in Bosra. He moved to Damascus in 1306 CE and died there in 1373 CE (H. Laoust in Encyclopedia of Islam v. 3, 1991:817-818). His most notable work, The Beginning and the End (Al-Bidaya wa'l-Nihaya). was written in 14 volumes (H. Laoust in Encyclopedia of Islam v. 3, 1991:817-818). The earthquake account may be in Volume 13.

Muslim Before 1373 CE Damascus States that between 11 Jan. 1293 and 8 Feb. 1293 CE there was an earthquake at Karak and many buildings were destroyed at Tafila.
Ibn al-Furat Arabic
Biography

Ibn al-Furat (1334-1405 CE) was an Egyptian historian and the author of a universal history titled History of the Dynasties and Kingdoms. He was born in Cairo and made a living partly by doing bureaucratic tasks such as working as a notary public and issuing marriage contracts, taught and preached at the Muʿizziyya school in Fustat and obtained hadith licenses from Yusuf ibn Abd al-Rahman al-Mizzi and Al-Dhahabi in Damascus (wikipedia citing Bora, 2019). History of the Dynasties and Kingdoms is noted for its attention to details and its wide range of sources, often quoted verbatim, including Shia Muslims and Christian authors (Claude Cahen in Encyclopedia of Islam v. 3, 1991:768-769).

Muslim before 1405 CE Egypt States that between 11 Jan. 1293 and 8 Feb. 1293 CE a vigorous earthquake occurred in the area of Ghaza, Ramleh, Lydda and Kerak with the worst damage at Kerak where three towers of the fortress were ruined. Also states that it was particularly destructive along the coast, ruined many places, and damaged the minarets of the Mosques in Ramla and Ghaza.
Ibn al-Jazari Arabic
Biography

Ibn al-Jazari was born in Damascus in 1350 CE. He lived or traveled to a variety of places including Cairo, Alexandria, Mecca, Medina, Damascus, Busra, Samarkand, Khurasan, Herat, Yazd, Isfahan, Basra, and Shiraz where he died in 1429 CE (M. Ben Cheneb in Encyclopedia of Islam v. 3, 1991:753). He worked at different times as a judge (qadi) and a teacher and wrote a great number of works (M. Ben Cheneb in Encyclopedia of Islam v. 3, 1991:753). Ibn al-Jazari was apparently responsible for the manuscript Arabic text no.6739 in the Bibliotheque Nationale de France, which is a history of Egypt and Syria from the year 689 of the Hegira (1289-1290 AD) to 699 H. (1299-1300 AD) ( Guidoboni and Comastri, 2005). This work is apparently a continuation of Sibt Ibn al-Jawzi's Mir'at al-zaman by Shams al-Din al-Jazari (see Blochet 1925) ( Guidoboni and Comastri, 2005).

Muslim before 1429 CE ? States that between 11 Jan. 1293 and 8 Feb. 1293 CE there was a violent earthquake in the towns of Gaza, Ramla, Ludd [Lydda], Qaqun and Karak with the worst damage at Kerak where three towers of the citadel were destroyed along with many houses.
al-Maqrizi Arabic
Biography

Al-Maqrizi was born around 1364 CE in Cairo, spent most of his life in Egypt, and died in 1442 CE (Rabbat, 2003:6, 18). He worked at clerical and administrative jobs in government and, at one time, was an inspector of the markets of Cairo and northern Egypt (wikipedia). He later gave all that up to become a preacher and later president of a Mosque. In 1408 CE, he moved to Damascus but finally retired to Cairo. In 1430 CE, he traveled for 5 years. His literary works exceed 200 and are focused on Egypt (wikipedia).

Sunni Muslim Shafi‘i (Rabbat, 2003:9) before 1442 CE Cairo or Damascus States that between 11 Jan. 1293 and 8 Feb. 1293 CE the towns of Ghaza, Ramla, Ludd and especially Al-Karak, were struck by a violent earthquake and that three towers in Karak were destroyed. Also states that a tremendous earthquake struck the coastal towns, the earthquake caused destruction in many places, and the minaret of the congregational mosque at Ramla was so badly cracked that it collapsed.
as-Suyuti Arabic
Biography

al-Suyuti is presently recognized as the most prolific author in the whole of Islamic literature (E. Geoffroy in Encyclopedia of Islam v. 9, 1991:913-916). He was widely read and famous across the Islamic world during his lifetime and was known for extreme self-confidence in his mental abilities (e.g. he had memorized 200,000 hadiths and was a polymath) which mingled with arrogance and created acrimonious relations inside Egypt (E. Geoffroy in Encyclopedia of Islam v. 9, 1991:913-916). E. Geoffroy in Encyclopedia of Islam v. 9 (1991:913-916) describes his procedure as scientific in so far as he quotes his sources with precision and presents them in a critical way and states that he cannot be considered as a mere compiler. He may have authored close to a thousand books writing on many subjects (e.g., History, Biography, Science) besides religion and Islamic jurisprudence. as-Suyuti was born in Egypt in 1445 CE and at the age of eighteen taught Shafi'i law at the mosque of Shaykhu and gave juridicial consultations. In 1472 CE, he became a teacher of hadith at the same mosque. In 1486 CE at the age of 40, as-Suyuti retired from public life. By 1501 CE, he had completely isolated himself in his home on Rawda Island in Cairo where he worked on the editing and revision of his literary works. He died there in 1505 CE (E. Geoffroy in Encyclopedia of Islam v. 9, 1991:913-916). His book Clearing up the Description of Earthquakes is a valuable reference for historical earthquakes and is one of the earliest extant earthquake catalogs.

Sufi Muslim 15th c. CE Cairo States that between 11 Jan. 1293 and 8 Feb. 1293 CE Ramla, Fakul, and Karak were destroyed in an earthquake.
Text (with hotlink) Original Language Biographical Info Religion Date of Composition Location Composed Notes
Damage and Chronology Reports from Textual Sources

Seismic Effects

Seismic Effects
Effect Sources Notes
Three Towers in Karak ruined al-Furat, al-Jazari, al-Nuwairi, Ibn Kathir, al-Maqrizi al-Jazari adds that a number of buildings in Karak were destroyed
as-Suyuti says the village of Karak was destroyed but does not mention the towers (in the abbreviated translation I currently have access to)
Minaret of Mosque in Ramla damaged al-Furat, al-Maqrizi
Minaret of Mosque in Ghaza damaged al-Furat
Many buildings destroyed at Tafila Ibn Kathir

Locations

Locations
Effect Sources Notes
Ghaza al-Furat, al-Jazari, al-Nuwairi, al-Maqrizi
Ramla al-Furat, al-Jazari, al-Nuwairi, al-Maqrizi, as-Suyuti
Lydda al-Furat, al-Jazari, al-Nuwairi, al-Maqrizi
Karak al-Furat, al-Jazari, al-Nuwairi, Ibn Kathir, al-Maqrizi, as-Suyuti
Qaqun al_Jazari
Tafila Ibn Kathir
Fakul as-Suyuti
Coastal Areas al-Furat, al-Maqrizi

Date

Date
Date Sources Notes
11 Jan. 1293 - 8 Feb. 1293 CE al-Furat, al-Jazari, al-Nuwairi, Ibn Kathir, al-Maqrizi, as-Suyuti

The Ultimate Ambition in the Arts of Erudition by al-Nuwairi

نهاية الأرب في فنون الأدب by شهاب ال

Aliases

Aliases Arabic
Al-Nuwayrī شهاب ال
Shihāb al-Dīn Ahmad bin 'Abd al-Wahhāb al-Nuwayri شهاب الدين أحمد بن عبد الوهاب النويري
Background and Biography
Background and Biography

al-Nuwairi was born in Egypt in 1279 CE and died in Cairo in 1333 CE. He had a career in government dealing with the financial administration of the Mamluk empire. After retiring in 1312 CE, he wrote a book titled The Ultimate Ambition in the Arts of Erudition (Nihāyat al-arab fī funūn al-adab) consisting of multiple volumes and over 2 million words (wikipedia and Muhanna, 2018). The book was divided into 5 sections. ( Muhanna, 2018).

Excerpts
English from Guidoboni and Comastri (2005)

In this year, during the month of Safar [692 H. = 11 January 1293 - 8 February 1293], there was a violent earthquake at the towns of Gaza, Ramla, Ludd [Lydda], and Karak. Karak was particularly affected, for three towers of its citadel were destroyed, and the Emir 'Ala' al-Dine of Damascus was sent with some artisans to rebuild what had been destroyed there.

Chronology
Year Reference Corrections Notes
11 Jan. 1293 - 8 Feb. 1293 CE Safar A.H. 692 (assumed year) none Calculated using CHRONOS
Seismic Effects Locations Online Versions and Further Reading
References

al-Nuwairi, Muhammad b. Qasim, Kitab al-ilman, vol. iv, ed. A. S. Atiya, Hyderabad, 1390/1970.

al-Nuwairi, Muhammad b. Qasim, Nuhayat, MS Leiden Or. 2-0.

Muhanna, E. (2018). The World in a Book: Al-Nuwayri and the Islamic Encyclopedic Tradition, Princeton University Press.

The Beginning and the End by Ibn Kathir

Al-Bidaya wa'l-Nihaya by ابن كثير

Aliases

Aliases Arabic
Ibn Kathīr ابن كثير
Abu al-Fiḍā ‘Imād Ad-Din Ismā‘īl ibn ‘Umar ibn Kathīr al-Qurashī Al-Damishqī إسماعيل بن عمر بن كثير القرشي الدمشقي أبو الفداء عماد
Abū l-Fidāʾ Ismāʿīl ibn ʿUmar ibn Kaṯīr أبو الفداء إسماعيل بن عمر بن كثير
Imād ad-Dīn عماد الدين
Background and Biography
Background and Biography

Ibn Kathir was a historian and traditionist born around 1300 CE in Bosra. He moved to Damascus in 1306 CE and died there in 1373 CE (H. Laoust in Encyclopedia of Islam v. 3, 1991:817-818). His most notable work, The Beginning and the End (Al-Bidaya wa'l-Nihaya), was written in 14 volumes (H. Laoust in Encyclopedia of Islam v. 3, 1991:817-818). The earthquake account may be in Volume 13.

Excerpts
English from Guidoboni and Comastri (2005)

In the month of Safar [692 H. = 11 January 1293 - 8 February 1293], it was very cold in Syria, and in that year there was an earthquake at Karak and many buildings were destroyed at Tafila.

Chronology
Year Reference Corrections Notes
11 Jan. 1293 - 8 Feb. 1293 CE Safar A.H. 692 (assumed year) none Calculated using CHRONOS
Seismic Effects Locations Sources
Sources

H. Laoust in Encyclopedia of Islam v. 3 (1991:817-818) describes Ibn Kathir's sources as follows

His history of the caliphate makes use, among other sources, of al-Tabari, Ibn 'Asakir, Ibn al-Djawzi, Ibn al-Athir, Sibt Ibn al-Djawzi, Kutb al-Din al-Yunini, al-Dhahabi, etc. The Biddya ends with a chronicle of the history of Damascus, which owes much to the Ta'rikh of al-Birzali (d, 739/1338-9) and his Mu'djam.

Online Versions and Further Reading
References

Ibn Kathir, al-Bidaya wa’l-nihaya fi ’l-tarikh, 13 volumes, ed. Cairo, 1932–39 (1300–1373) 1351-58.

Ibn Kathir, al-Bidaya wa'l-nihaya, Beirut 1966.

al-Bidaya complete text

zlib booklist on Ibn Kathir (Indonesian)

IBN KATHIR, al-Bidaya wa wa 'l-nihaya fi al-tarikh, 14 vols., Cairo 1932-1939.

Notes
Dependants

H. Laoust in Encyclopedia of Islam v. 3 (1991:817-818) describes some of Ibn Kathir's dependants

The popularity of the Biddya is proved by the great number of historical works for which it, in its turn, was the basis, including those of Ibn Hidjdji (d. 816/1413), Ibn Katfi Shuhba (d. 851/1348) and especially Ibn Hadjar al-'Askalani (d. 852/1449), who wrote a continuation not only of Ibn Kathir but of two of the latter's great teachers, al-Mizzi and al-Dhahabi. Al-'Ayni (d. 855/1451) was also indebted to the Biddya.

History of the Dynasties and Kingdoms by Ibn al-Furat

Taʾrīkh al-duwal wa ’l-mulūk by Ibn al-Furat

Aliases

Aliases Arabic
Ibn al-Furat
Nāṣir al-Dīn Muḥammad b. ʿAbd al-Raḥīm b. ʿAlī al-Miṣrī al-Ḥanafī نصرالدين محمد بن عبدالرحيم بن علي المصري الحنفي
Background and Biography
Background and Biography

Ibn al-Furat (1334-1405 CE) was an Egyptian historian and the author of History of the Dynasties and Kingdoms (Taʾrīkh al-duwal wa ’l-mulūk aka al-Ṭaʾrīq al-wāḍiḥ al-maslūk ilā tarājim al-khulafā’ wa ’l-mulūk) - a universal history. The earthquake is apparently in Volume VIII. He was born in Cairo and made a living partly by doing bureaucratic tasks such as working as a notary public and issuing marriage contracts. He taught and preached at the Muʿizziyya school in Fustat and obtained hadith licenses from Yusuf ibn Abd al-Rahman al-Mizzi and Al-Dhahabi in Damascus (wikipedia citing Bora, 2019). History of the Dynasties and Kingdoms is noted for its attention to details and its wide range of sources, often quoted verbatim, including Shia Muslims and Christian authors (Claude Cahen in Encyclopedia of Islam v. 3, 1991:768-769).

Excerpts
English from Arieh (1977)

  • from Arieh (1977)
In the month of Safar (12th January - 9th February) a vigorous earthquake occurred in the area of Ghaza, Ramleh, Lydda and Kerak. It was most heavily felt in Kerak where three towers of the fortress were ruined ... It was particularly destructive along the coast. It ruined many places. The minaret of the Friday mosque of Ramleh cracked and collapsed ... as well as the minaret of Ghaza.

Chronology
Year Reference Corrections Notes
11 Jan. 1293 - 8 Feb. 1293 CE Safar A.H. 692 (assumed year) none Calculated using CHRONOS
Seismic Effects Locations Online Versions and Further Reading
References

Ibn al-Furat, Ta'rikh al-duwal wa 7-muluk, vol.VIII, ed. C.K.Zurayk and N.Izzedin, Beirut 1939 - from Guidoboni and Comastri (2005)

IBN AL-FURAT, Tarikh al-duwal wa âl-muluk, vol. iv/1-v, Hassan al-Shamma, Basra 1967; also vol. vii, ed. C. K. Zurayk and N. Izzedin, Beirut, 1936–42 - from Ambraseys (2009)

Ibn al-Furat (1971). Jonathan Riley-Smith (ed.). Ayyubids, Mamlukes and Crusaders: Text. Vol. 1. Translation by Malcolm Cameron Lyons, Ursula Lyons. W. Heffer. ISBN 9780852700587.

Ibn al-Furat (1971). Jonathan Riley-Smith (ed.). Ayyubids, Mamlukes and Crusaders; selections from the Tarikh al-duwal wa'l-Muluk. Vol. 2. Translation by Malcolm Cameron Lyons, Ursula Lyons. Cambridge: W. Heffer.

Le Strange (1900). "The Death of the Last Abbasid Caliph, from the Vatican MS. of Ibn al-Furat". Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society. 32: 293–300.

Bora, F. (2019). Writing History in the Medieval Islamic World: The Value of Chronicles as Archives, Bloomsbury Academic.

Bibliography from the Encyclopedia of Islam

Brockelmann, II, 50, S II, 49

Cl. Cahen, in Comptes-rendus de l'Acad. des Inscr., 1935br>

idem, in BIFAO, 1937

idem, Syrie Nord, 85-6

C. Zurayk, in the preface to the first volume of his edition to appear (ix/i, 1936).

Main extractspublished in addition to Zurayk's ed.:

Levi Delia Vida, in Orientalia (on the Mongol invasion in Syria)

Le Strange, in JRAS, 1900 (on the capture of Baghdad by the Mongols)

Karabacek, in Beitrdge zur Geschichte der Mazyaditen, Leipzig 1874, 117

Michaud, Bibliotheque des Croisades, iv (by Reinaud, various extracts on the I3th century)

the MS Paris, Bibl. Nat. 1596 contains the French translation, by Amable Jourdain, of passages relating to the early Mamluks.

Notes
Characterization of the text and extant sections and editions

Claude Cahen in Encyclopedia of Islam v. 3 (1991:768-769) notes the following

He finished completely only the volumes covering the years after 500/1106-7. The majority of the fragments which survive (mainly in Vienna) are autographs and the work does not seem to have been much copied, or indeed much valued in its own time (perhaps because of suspicions concerning its style and orthodoxy), although it was used by al-Makrlzi and others. Its value rests not only in its being very detailed, but also in the wide range of its sources, which are often cited side by side verbatim and chosen with great broad-mindedness, the Shi'i Ibn Abi Tayyi' and the Christian Ibn al-'Amid, for example, appearing together with writers of irreproachable Muslim orthodoxy.
...
the volumes covering the first two-thirds of the 6th/12th century are of considerable interest owing to the wide use made of the lost chronicle of the Shi'i of Aleppo, Ibn Abi Tayyi', of the Egyptian Ibn Tuwayr, etc.; those covering the Ayyubid period and that of the early Mamluks are of less importance, though not without interest, while those concerning the period of the author's own life are once again important. Apart from a few extracts here and there, there have, up to now, been published only two volumes (vol. ix of Vienna) covering the years 789-99/1387-97 (by C. K. Zurayk, Beirut 1936 and, with Nadjla 'Izz al-Din, 1938), and two others (vols. vi and vii) covering the years 672-96/1274-97 (same editors, 1939-42); nothing has been found on the period of over a century which separates them. There do exist, however, in addition to a few volumes on the early periods (Paris, London, Bursa), the whole of those for the years 500-65 and 585-696 (the lacuna which until recently existed between 625 and 638 has just been filled by the discovery of a volume in Morocco, of which photographs have been sent to the American University of Beirut, which published the volumes edited by Zurayk). Similarly, the years 563-8 and 585 (which come together in vol. iv of the Vienna MS) have been published by M. Hasan M. al-Shamma', Basra 1967. The manuscripts for the 6th/i2th, 7th/i3th, and 8th/14th centuries all belong to the autograph series Vienna AF 814 into which may be inserted the MS Vatican V 720 (years 639-58) and the manuscript of Morocco. Al-Sakhawi (see, e.g., F. Rosenthal, Historiography, 419) accuses Ibn al-Furat of vulgarity of style, but this can apply only to the later years, the remainder of the work consisting of extracts from earlier writers.

Ms. 6739 by Ibn al-Jazari

Ms. 6739 by Ibn al-Jazari

Aliases

Aliases Arabic
Ibn al-Jazari
Ibn al-Djazari
Abu al-Khayr Shams al-Din Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn Ali ibn Yusuf al-Jazari أبو الخير شمس الدين محمد بن محمد بن محمد بن علي بن يوسف الجزري
Shams al-Din Abu al-Khayr Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn 'Ali ibn Yusuf al-Djazari
Background and Biography
Background and Biography

Ibn al-Jazari was born in Damascus in 1350 CE. He lived or traveled to a variety of places including Cairo, Alexandria, Mecca, Medina, Damascus, Busra, Samarkand, Khurasan, Herat, Yazd, Isfahan, Basra, and Shiraz where he died in 1429 CE (M. Ben Cheneb in Encyclopedia of Islam v. 3, 1991:753). He worked at different times as a judge (qadi) and a teacher and wrote a great number of works (M. Ben Cheneb in Encyclopedia of Islam v. 3, 1991:753). Ibn al-Jazari was apparently responsible for the manuscript Arabic text no.6739 in the Bibliotheque Nationale de France, which is a history of Egypt and Syria from the year 689 of the Hegira (1289-1290 AD) to 699 H. (1299-1300 AD) ( Guidoboni and Comastri, 2005). This work is apparently a continuation of Sibt Ibn al-Jawzi's Mir'at al-zaman by Shams al-Din al-Jazari (see Blochet 1925) ( Guidoboni and Comastri, 2005).

Excerpts
English from Guidoboni and Comastri (2005)

In that year [692 H. = 1292-1293], there was a violent earthquake in the towns of Gaza, Ramla, Ludd [Lydda], Qaqun and Karak. The worst damage was at Karak, to the extent that three of the citadel's towers were destroyed, as were a number of buildings. The earthquake occurred during the month of Safar [692 H. = 11 January 1293 - 8 February 1293], and the news reached Damascus at the same time as the sultan's order, in the month of Rabi`I [692 H. = 9 February 1293 - 10 March 1293], to send Ala' al-Din al-Shuja`i, one of the emirs of Damascus, together with a group of artisans, engineers and stonecutters, with a large quantity of tools to rebuild those parts of the citadel at Karak which had been destroyed.

Chronology
Year Reference Corrections Notes
11 Jan. 1293 - 8 Feb. 1293 CE Safar A.H. 692 none Calculated using CHRONOS
Seismic Effects Locations Online Versions and Further Reading
References

al-Jazari, Jawahir al-sulak fi al-khulafa', Ms. 6739, BIBLIOTHEQUE NATIONALE DE FRANCE, PARIS - from Guidoboni and Comastri (2005)

Mufaddal b. Abil-Fadd'il, al-Nahj al-sadid wa 'l-durr al-farad ft-ma ba`cl ta'rikh Ibn al-Amid, ed. and trans. E.Blochet, Histoire des sultans mamlouks, PO 20, Paris 1929; ed. S.Kortantamer, Agypten and Syrien zwischen 1317 and 1341, Freiburg 1973.

Ambraseys (2009) finds al-Jazari's account in fol. 176-177 in a translation by Sauvaget on p. 29 but he does not specify which Sauvaget

Sauvaget, J. (1941a), Alep, Paris: Bibliotheque d’Archeologie ´Historique.

Sauvaget, J. (1941b), La poste aux chevaux dans l’empire des mamelouks, Paris

Bibliography from the Encyclopedia of Islam

Ghaydt al-nihdya, ii, 247 ff. contains some useful information on the author as recorded by one of his students

Tashkopruzade, al-Shaka'ik al-nu'maniyya, in the margin of Ibn Khallikan, Cairo 1310, i, 39

Suyuti, Tabakat al-huffaz, xxiv, 5

Sakhawi, Daw', viii, 256 ff.

Ibn Khawand-Shah, Rawdat al-safa', Lucknow 1874, vi, 1234

Khaandamir, Habib al-siyar, Bombay 1273/1857, iii, 90

Shawkani, al-Badr al-tali', Cairo 1348/1930, ii, 251

Ma'drif (Urdu monthly), A'zamgafh, 8I/v (Nov. 1957), 325-44, 8i/vi (Dec. 1957), 441-52, 82/i (Jan. 1958), 62-76

Dhahabi, Dhayl Tabakat al-huffaz, Damascus 1347/1949, 377

Siddik Hasan Khan Kannawdji, Ithaf al-nubala' al-muttakin, Cawnpore 1288/1871, 392

Brockelmann, II, 201-3, S II, 274-8

F. Bustani, Da'irat al-ma'arif, ii, 405-6.

al-Maqrizi

by المقريزي

Aliases

Aliases Arabic
Al-Maqrīzī المقريزي
Maḳrīzī
Taqī al-Dīn Abū al-'Abbās Aḥmad ibn 'Alī ibn 'Abd al-Qādir ibn Muḥammad al-Maqrīzī تقي الدين أحمد بن علي بن عبد القادر بن محمد المقريزي
Background and Biography
Background and Biography

Al-Maqrizi was born around 1364 CE in Cairo, spent most of his life in Egypt, and died in 1442 CE (Rabbat, 2003:6, 18). He worked at clerical and administrative jobs in government and, at one time, was an inspector of the markets of Cairo and northern Egypt (wikipedia). He later gave all that up to become a preacher and later president of a Mosque. In 1408 CE, he moved to Damascus but finally retired to Cairo. In 1430 CE, he traveled for 5 years. His literary works exceed 200 and are focused on Egypt (wikipedia).

Excerpts
English from Guidoboni and Comastri (2005)

In the month of Safar [692 H. = 11 January - 8 February 1293], the towns of Ghaza, Ramla, Ludd and especially Al-Karak, were struck by a violent earthquake. Of the towers at Al-Karak, three were destroyed. A message from al-Ghars ibn Shawr, governor of Ramla, told that there had been incessant rain, causing destruction in fields and houses. The flood knocked down bridges and mills on the river 'Awja'. The bodies of eleven drowned lions were found in the flood waters. Immediately after the flood, a tremendous earthquake struck the coastal towns. The earthquake caused destruction in many places; and the minaret of the congregational mosque at Ramla was so badly cracked that it collapsed. The governor was ordered to assess the damage, and the Emir 'Ala' al-Din Aydgudi al-Shuja`i was sent with labourers and skilled workers to rebuild what had collapsed at Al-Karak.

Chronology
Year Reference Corrections Notes
11 Jan. 1293 - 8 Feb. 1293 CE Safar A.H. 692 (assumed year) none Calculated using CHRONOS
Seismic Effects Locations Sources
Sources and Notes

Ambraseys (2009) states that, for this 1293 CE earthquake, Al-Suyuti's source is Ibn al-Mutawwaj (died 730/1330), who was also extensively used by al-Maqrizi in his Khitat on the topography of Fustat, see Guest (1902, 116, 125).

The following comes from a blog post titled Al-Maqrizi’s works are the most comprehensive account of the Fatimid era by Nimira Dewji March 7 2015

One of the most important sources of Fatimid history is the works of the prolific Egyptian Taqi al-Din Ahmad b. Ali al-Maqrizi (1364-1442). Al-Maqrizi was the first historian to understand that the history of space – a city, building – can reveal as much as any text or document. He attempted to reconstruct the vanished Fatimid city by tracing its walls and streets and enumerating its mosques and palaces in his massive book, Exhortations and Instructions on the Districts and Antiquities, usually known as Khitat (Districts).

Al-Maqrizi also wrote a chronicle of Fatimid history from its origins to the end of the dynasty: Admonitions of the Orthodox, usually known as the Itti’az (Admonitions). One of the sources that al-Maqrizi repeatedly cites is the Book of Treasures and Curiosities, written in Arabic by an anonymous eyewitness to some of the events of the Fatimid period; this work describes the material and the visual world of the period. The manuscript was thought to have been lost but was discovered in the 1950s in the Gedik Ahmet Pasa Library at Afyonkarahsar in Turkey. It was subsequently translated into English and published.

The Khitat provides unique insights into the topographical facets of Cairo, a city founded by al-Mu‘izz in 969, describing the many spectacular structures established in Egypt. His other work, the Muqaffa, records invaluable biographical accounts of the prominent figures of Fatimid society.

Al-Maqrizi’s writings represent the most comprehensive account of the Fatimid era. His Itti‘az al-hunafa’ bi-akhbar al a’imma al-Fatimiyyin al-khulafa’ (Lessons for the Seekers of Truth in the History of the Fatimid Imams and Caliphs) focuses principally on the Fatimid age.

The Institute of Ismaili Studies has published the book, Towards a Shi‘i Mediterranean Empire, that focuses on the reign of the Fatimid Caliph-Imam al-Mu‘izz as discussed in the Itti‘az. The Institute has also published an Arabic critical edition of al-Maqrizi’s Itti‘az al-hunafa.

References:

Jonathan. M. Bloom, Arts of the City Victorious: Islamic art and architecture in Fatimid North Africa and Egypt. Yale University Press. 2008

Dr. Shainool Jiwa, Towards a Shi‘i Mediterranean Empire: Fatimid Egypt and the Founding of Cairo. I.B. Taurus in association with The Institute of Ismaili Studies

Online Versions and Further Reading
References

al-Maqrizi, Taqi al-Din, Kitab al-suluk li-ma’rifat duwal al-muluk, ed. M. Ziada and A. ’Ashur, 4 volumes, Cairo 1934-72, also ed. J. M. de Goeje, Leiden: Bibl. Geograph. Arabes, 1906.

al-Maqr. khit.: Taqi al-Din al-Maqrizi, Kitab al-mawa’z wa’l-itibar fi dhikr al-khitat wal’athar, ed Bulaq, Cairo, 1853–54; partial trans. ed. G. Wiet, MIFAO xxx–liii, Cairo, 1911–25.

al-Maqrizi, Taqi al-Din partial trans. in M. Quatremere ` (1837), Histoire des sultans Mamlouks de l’Egypte, London: Oriental Translations Fund, 4 volumes in 2, 1837–45.

al-Maqrizi, Kitab al-sulak li-mdrifat duwal al-muluk, ed. M.Mustafa Ziada and Sa`id A.F `Ashur, 4 vols. in 8, Cairo 1934-72, partial trans. in M.Quatremere, Histoire des sultans Mamlouks de l'Egypte, London 1937-45.

Rabbat, N. (2003) Who was Maqrizi ? A biographical sketch

al-Maqqari, Ahmad b. Muhammad al-Tilimsani, Nafit al-tib, Beirut n.d 355

al-Maqrizi, Ahmad b. 'Ali, Daw' al-sari li-ma'rifat khabar tamim al-dari, (1) ed. C. D. Matthews, JPOS, 19:147, 1939/40

Cairo 1972 201 al-Dhahab al-masbuk fi dhikr man hajja min al-khulafa' wa'l-muluk, Cairo 1955 259

Book: The Megrazi plans called "sermons and consideration by mentioning plans and monuments" - in Arabic but your browser can translate to English

Guest, A. R. (1902), ‘The Delta in the Middle Ages’, J. R. Asiat. Soc. for 1912, 941–982.

Khitat

Ambraseys (2009) quotes Khitat by al-Maqrizi for the Earthquake of 1068 CE.

al-Mawa`iz wa'l-i`tibar bi-dhikr al-khitat wa'l-athar, Beirut n.d. 76, 175, 245, 259, 304, 313, 344, 364, 422, 460, 469, 475-476, 483, 549-550, 552-553, 564, 566, 569, 571, 576-577, 585, 592, 598, 702, 709-710, 836, 918, 941-942, 943 al-Muqaffa, ed. T. Bianquis, BEO, 26:185, 1973 550, 552, 553, 558

Maqrīzī (al-), Taqī al-Dīn Aḥmad ibn 'Alī (1908) [1906]. Kitāb al-Khiṭaṭ al-Maqrīzīyah (in Arabic). Vol. 4. Cairo: Al-Nīl Press.

al-Maqrizi, Kitab al-Mawa`iz wa 7-ietibar f ti dhikr al-khitat wa'l-athar ft Misr wa'l-Qahira wa'l Nil wa-mayatdallaqu biha min al-akhbar al-mdruf bi-ism al-khitat, Cairo, 1270/1853-54.

Description topographique et historique de l'Égypte by Urbain Bouriant (Trans.) - Translated from Al-Mawāʻiẓ wa-al-lʻtibār bi-Dhikr al-Khiṭaṭ wa-al-āthār - did not find the earthquake in here

al-Mutawwaj, Ibn al-Mutawwaj, in Maqrisi's Khitat, see Guest (1902), pp. 116 and 125.

Guest, A. R. (1902), 'The Delta in the Middle Ages', J. R. Asiat. Soc. for 1912,941-982.

Itti‘az

Gil (1992:409 n. 60) quotes Itti‘az by al-Maqrizi for the Earthquake of 1068 CE.

al-Maqrizi, Taqi al-Din, Ittiaz al-huntafa, ed. Jamal al-Din al-Shayyal, 3 volumes, Cairo, 1967–73.

Itti‘az al-hunafa’ bi-akhbar al-a’imma al-Fatimiyyin al-khulafa’ (Lessons for the Seekers of Truth on the History of the Fatimid Imams and Caliphs)

News article - IIS Publishes Arabic Critical Edition of al-Maqrizi’s Itti‘az al-hunafa’

Redjala, M. b., et al. (1975). "Les Éditions De L'Itti'Āz Al-Hunafā' (Histoire Fatimide) De Maqrīzī Par Ahmad Hilmy, Sadok Hunī (Khouni), Fātiha Dib Et Peter Kessler." Arabica 22(3): 302-323.

Wiet, M.G. (1911) El-mawâ'iz wa'l-i'tibâr fî dhikr el-khitat wa'l-âthâr. t.1 Chap. I-XXX - Arabic with french footnotes - online

Itti'az al-hunafa', Cairo 1967/73 255, 304, 463, 545, 547, 548-549, 550, 552-553, 555, 557-558, 560-561, 564-566, 576, 585, 587-588, 592, 595-596, 598, 600, 602-603, 607, 610-611, 811, 894, 944

Itti'az al-hunafa by Aḥmad ibn ʻAlī Maqrīzī (ed. 1948)

Clearing up the Description of Earthquakes by Jalal al-Din al-Suyuti

كتاب كشف الصلصلة عن وصف الزلزلة by عبد الرحمن بن كمال الدين أبي بكر بن محمد سابق الدين خضر الخضيري الأسيوطي

Aliases

Aliases Arabic
Al-Suyuti
As-Suyuti
Jalal al-Din al-Suyuti
Abu 'l-Fadl 'Abd al-Rahman ibn Abi Bakr ibn Muhammad Djalal al_Din al-Khudayri
Background and Biography
Background and Biography

al-Suyuti is presently recognized as the most prolific author in the whole of Islamic literature (E. Geoffroy in Encyclopedia of Islam v. 9, 1991:913-916). He was widely read and famous across the Islamic world during his lifetime and was known for extreme self-confidence in his mental abilities (e.g. he had memorized 200,000 hadiths and was a polymath) which mingled with arrogance and created acrimonious relations inside Egypt (E. Geoffroy in Encyclopedia of Islam v. 9, 1991:913-916). E. Geoffroy in Encyclopedia of Islam v. 9 (1991:913-916) describes his procedure as scientific in so far as he quotes his sources with precision and presents them in a critical way and states that he cannot be considered as a mere compiler. He may have authored close to a thousand books writing on many subjects (e.g., History, Biography, Science) besides religion and Islamic jurisprudence. as-Suyuti was born in Egypt in 1445 CE and at the age of eighteen taught Shafi'i law at the mosque of Shaykhu and gave juridicial consultations. In 1472 CE, he became a teacher of hadith at the same mosque. In 1486 CE at the age of 40, as-Suyuti retired from public life. By 1501 CE, he had completely isolated himself in his home on Rawda Island in Cairo where he worked on the editing and revision of his literary works. He died there in 1505 CE (E. Geoffroy in Encyclopedia of Islam v. 9, 1991:913-916). His book Clearing up the Description of Earthquakes (Kashf as-Salsalah 'an wasf Az-zalzalak) is a valuable reference for historical earthquakes and is one of the earliest extant earthquake catalogs.

Excerpts
English from Sprenger (1843)

A.H. 692. In the month of Safr at Ramla, Fakul and El-Kerk three villages were destroyed.

English from Sprenger (1843) - embedded



An Original Manuscript - Arabic

  • The Noor book courtesy of Najib Abou Karaki (personal correspondence, 2022)



























Chronology
Year Reference Corrections Notes
11 Jan. 1293 - 8 Feb. 1293 CE Safar A.H. 692 none Calculated using CHRONOS
Seismic Effects Locations Sources
Sources

Ambraseys (2009) states that, for this 1293 CE earthquake, Al-Suyuti's source is Ibn al-Mutawwaj (died 730/1330), who was also extensively used by al-Maqrizi in his Khitat on the topography of Fustat, see Guest (1902, 116, 125).

Notes and Further Reading
References

Sprenger (1843). "As-Soyuti's work on Earthquakes, ." Journal of The Asiatic Society of Bengal 12(141): 741-749.

Nejjar, S. (1973-1974). Traité du tremblement de terre / Jalal ad-Din as-Suyut'i ; trad. annotée [de l'arabe] de Saïd Nejjar. Rabat, Cahiers du centre universitaire de la recherche scientifique.

Al-Sadani, A. (1971). (Jalal-Eddine Al-Suyouti) Kasff Al-Salsala Wa Wasf Al-Zalzalah, in Arabic. Rabat, Morocco.

WORKS & BOOKS OF IMAM JALALUDDIN SUYUTI

al-Suyuti, J. (1971). Kashf al-salsala 'an wasf al-zalzala. A. a.-L. Sa'adan. Fez.

Guest, A. R. (1902), ‘The Delta in the Middle Ages’, J. R. Asiat. Soc. for 1912, 941–982.

References form the Encyclopedia of Islam

al-Suyuti's biography, written by his disciple 'Abd al-Kadir al-Shadhili, Bahdjat al-adbidin bitardjamat Djaldl al-Din (mss. in London, Dublin, Kuwayt)

Shams al-Din al-Dawudi, Taradjamat al-Suyuti (ms. Tubingen)

Nadjm al-Din al-Ghazzi, al-Kawakib al-sa'ira bi-a'ydn al-mi'a a al-'ashira, Beirut 1945, i, 226-31.

E.M. Sartain, Jalal al-Din al-Suyuti - remains the most complete study in a Western language

eadem, Jalal al-Din as-Suyuti's relations with the people of Takrur, in JSS, xvi (1971), 193-8.

S. Abu Djib mentions several studies in Arabic (op. cit., 331-2).

In his Muhammad's birthday festival (Leiden 1993, 45-70), N.J. Kaptein presents and translates al-Suyuti's fatwa which validates the practice of the mawlid nabawi

Archaeoseismic Evidence

Location (with hotlink) Status Intensity Notes
Karak Rebuilding efforts reported by some authors soon after the earthquake struck may have removed destruction evidence leaving rebuilding evidence instead.
Jericho - Introduction n/a n/a n/a
Jericho - Hisham's Palace probable ≥ 8
9-10
Later Earthquake - Alfonsi et al (2013) dated the causitive earthquake for the major seismic destruction at Hisham's Palace to the earthquake of 1033 CE unlike previous researchers who dated it to one of the Sabbatical Year earthquakes. Their discussion is reproduced below:
The archaeological data testify to an uninterrupted occupancy from eighth century until 1000 A.D. of the Hisham palace (Whitcomb, 1988). Therefore, if earthquakes occurred in this time period, the effects should not have implied a total destruction with consequent occupancy contraction or abandonment. Toppled walls and columns in the central court cover debris containing 750-850 A.D. old ceramic shards (Whitcomb, 1988). Recently unearthed collapses north of the court confirm a widespread destruction after the eighth century (Jericho Mafjar Project - The Oriental Institute at the University of Chicago). These elements support the action of a destructive shaking event at the site later than the 749 A.D. earthquake. The two well-constrained, major historical earthquakes recognized in the southern Jordan Valley are the 749 and 1033 A.D. (Table 1; Marco et al (2003); Guidoboni and Comastri, 2005). We assign an IX—X intensity degree to the here-recorded Hisham damage, whereas a VII degree has been attributed to the 749 A.D. earthquake at the site (Marco et al, 2003). Furthermore, Whitcomb (1988) defines an increment of occupation of the palace between 900 and 1000 A.D. followed by a successive occupation in the 1200-1400 A.D. time span. On the basis of the above, and because no pottery remains are instead associated with the 1000-1200 A.D. period at Hisham palace (Whitcomb, 1988), we suggest a temporary, significant contraction or abandonment of the site as consequence of a severe destruction in the eleventh century.
Petra - Introduction n/a n/a n/a
Petra - Jabal Harun possible ≥ 8 Phase 12 destruction event - not well dated - Mikkola et al (2008) noted that in this destruction event all remaining roof structures collapsed and there was a layer of stone tumble. Hard-packed, clayey soil directly under the lowermost deposits of stone tumble [...] contained relatively few finds apparently making it difficult to date. Also found in the stone tumble were the remains of two fallen arches, a row of voussoirs, some drums fallen from a column, and many other architectural elements found throughout the complex.
Petra - Petra Church possible ≥ 8 Fiema et al (2001) characterized structural destruction of the church in Phase X as likely caused by an earthquake with a date that is not easy to determine. A very general terminus post quem of the early 7th century CE was provided. Destruction due to a second earthquake was identified in Phase XIIA which was dated from late Umayyad to early Ottoman. Taken together this suggests that the first earthquake struck in the 7th or 8th century CE and the second struck between the 8th and 16th or 17th century CE.
Petra - Blue Chapel and the Ridge Church possible Later undated earthquake(s)- Perry in Bikai et al (2020:70) noted that from the 8th c. A.D. on, the abandoned structures suffered extensive damage from repeated earthquakes.
Shivta possible ≥ 8 Erickson-Gini (2013) identified earthquake collapse at Shivta which she dated to possibly in the Middle Islamic period after the site was abandoned at the end of the Early Islamic period. Korjenkov and Mazor (1999a) identified a post Byzantine earthquake which struck after 7th century CE abandonment. The terminus ante quem for this earthquake is not well established. Korjenkov and Mazor (1999a) estimated an Intensity of 8-9 for the post Byzantine earthquake and placed the epicenter a few tens of kilometers away in the WSW direction. They also report that a site effect is not likely at this location.
Baydha possible ≥ 8 Late Islamic (Mamluk/Ottoman) earthquake - Sinibaldi (2018:75) reports that Mosque 2 (aka the Western Mosque) which Sinibaldi (2016:95) dates to not earlier than the 13th-14th century CE (Mamluk period) was probably destroyed by an earthquake.
el-Lejjun possible ≥ 8 4th Earthquake - ~600 CE - 1918 CE - Groot et al (2006:183) report discovery of a nearly complete Umayyad Lamp in Square 4 of Area B (Barracks - B.6.038) in the Post Stratum Gap - above and later than the 3rd earthquake layer. Above the Ummayyad lamp was a 0.7 m thick layer of tumble containing some roof beams and many wall blocks (Groot et al, 2006:183). They note that the basalt roof beams found embedded in the lowest tumble level (B.6.032) suggests initial massive destruction rather than gradual decay over time. The wall blocks, found in the upper layer of tumble, contained one late Islamic (1174-1918 CE) and one Ayyubid/Mamluk (1174-1516 CE) sherd indicating a significant amount of time may have passed between the possibly seismically induced roof collapse and the wall collapse which was not characterized as necessarily having a seismic origin. This opens up the possibility that one of the mid 8th century CE earthquakes or a later earthquake may have also caused damage at el-Lejjun. deVries et al (2006:196) suggests that Umayyad abandonment of the northwest tower was probably triggered by further major collapse. In the North Gate, deVries et al (2006:207) found evidence of full scale destruction in layers above 3rd earthquake debris and post-earthquake occupation layers which contained Late Byzantine/Umayyad and Umayyad sherds. Subsoil/tumble was found in C.9.008 (north room), C.9.009 (south room) and C.9.005 (stairwell) bear ample witness to the destruction of the rooms, perhaps in the Umayyad period. Although Late Byzantine sherds were found in Post Stratum layers in the North Gate, if one assumes that the 3rd earthquake was the Inscription at Aeropolis Quake which struck before 597 CE - probably within a decade of 597 CE, one can establish an approximate and fairly conservative terminus post quem for this earthquake of ~600 CE. While the terminus ante quem is the end of the post stratum III gap (1918 CE), it is probable that that the earthquake struck much earlier.
Castellum of Qasr Bshir possible ≥ 8 Later Earthquake(s) - Above what was presumed to be a Late Umayyad collapse layer Clark (1987:490) found another collapse layer in H.2
A period of abandonment followed [the Late Umayyad collapse], punctuated by a squatter occupation of the room, during which a fire was lit in the corner. There followed a major collapse of masonry, after which no further occupation of the room took place.
Location (with hotlink) Status Intensity Notes
Karak



Jericho and environs - Introduction



Jericho and environs - Hisham's Palace at the Khirbet el-Mefjer site



Petra - Introduction



Petra - Jabal Harun



Petra - The Petra Church



Petra - The Ridge Church and the Blue Chapel



Shivta



Baydha



el-Lejjun



Castellum of Qasr Bshir



Landslide Evidence

Tsunamogenic Evidence

Paleoseismic Evidence

Location (with hotlink) Status Intensity Notes
Jordan Valley - Tell Saidiyeh and Ghor Kabed Trenches possible ≥ 7 Ferry et al (2011) detected 12 surface rupturing seismic events in 4 trenches (T1-T4) in Tell Saidiyeh and Ghor Kabed; 10 of which were prehistoric. The tightest chronology came from the Ghor Kabed trenches (T1 and T2) where Events Y and Z were constrained to between 560 and 1800 CE.
Dead Sea - Seismite Types n/a n/a n/a
Dead Sea - En Feshka possible to probable 8.2 - 9.0 (0 cm.)
8.1 - 8.9 (12 cm.)
8.0 - 8.8 (28 cm.)
Kagan et. al. (2011) identified several seismites from around this time.
Depth (cm.) Thickness (cm.) Seismite Type Modeled Age (± 1σ) Modeled Age (± 2σ) Quake Assignment (Kagan) Quake Assignment (Williams)
0 10 4 1322 CE ± 22 1350 CE ± 71 Kagan et. al. (2011) assigned a date of 1312 CE based on an erroneous catalog entry from Ben-Menahem which is a duplicate of the 1212 CE Quake not assigned
12 7 4 1277 CE ± 17 1303 CE ± 64 1293 CE Quake 1293 CE Quake
28 2 4 1220 CE ± 21 1222 CE ± 46 1202 CE Quake and 1212 CE Quake not assigned
Dead Sea - En Gedi possible 7.9 - 8.8
  • Seismites assigned to earthquakes in 1202, 1212, and 1293 CE from Agnon et al (2006)
Migowski et. al. (2004) assigned a 1293 CE date to a 1 cm. thick Type 4 seismite at a depth of 94.81 cm. (0.9481 m).
Dead Sea - Nahal Ze 'elim possible 8.3 - 9.1 At site ZA-1, Ken-Tor et al (2001a) assigned a a date of 1293 CE to a ~15 cm. thick Type 4 seismite which they labeled as Event F and was dated between 1270 and 1400 CE (± 2σ). In Table 4 of Kagan et. al. (2011), a 16 cm. thick seismite at ZA-1 was associated with the 1293 CE earthquake. At site ZA-2, Kagan et. al. (2011) did not find any seismites whose time window encompassed 1293 CE.
Araba - Introduction n/a n/a n/a
Araba - Taybeh Trench possible LeFevre et al. (2018) assigned a 1293 CE date to a seismite labeled as E3supp (aka E3bis) which was age modeled to between 819 and 1395 CE.
Araba - Qatar Trench possible ≥ 7 Klinger et. al. (2015) identified one seismic event which might fit.
Event Mean Date Age Range Quake Assignment (Klinger) Quake Assignment (Williams)
E2 1212 CE ± 57 1155-1269 CE 1212 CE Quake not assigned
Araba - Taba Sabhka Trench possible ≥ 7 Allison (2013) assigned a 1068 CE date to a seismic event which they dated to between 1045 and 1661 CE and Allison (2013) assigned a 1212 CE date to a seismic event which they dated to between the mid 11th century CE and the 16-17th centuries CE.
Araba - Elat Sabhka Trenches possible Kanari et al (2020) suggested that a dewatering structure (aka a liquefaction fluid escape structure) found in Trench T1 and dated to before 1269-1389 CE was caused by the 1068 CE Quake(s) or the 1212 CE Quake. Kanari et al (2020) also dated Event E2 in Trench T3 to after 1294 CE and assigned it to earthquakes in 1458 or 1588 CE. Kanari et al (2020) dated sand blows SB1 and SB2 in Trench T3 to between 1287 and 1635 CE and suggested they may have formed during an earthquake in 1458 CE.
Araba - Trenches in Aqaba possible ≥ 7 Niemi (2011:153) noted that the most recent scarp-forming event fault [in Trench AQ-1] occurred after A.D. 1045-1278 based on a corrected, calibrated radiocarbon age from charcoal collected from a buried campfire at the base of the scarp in Trench T-1. This likely represents fault motion in one of the historical earthquakes affecting southern Jordan (e.g. 1068, 1212, 1458, or 1588).
Location (with hotlink) Status Intensity Notes
Tell Saidiyeh and Ghor Kabed Trenches

Ferry et al (2011) detected 12 surface rupturing seismic events in 4 trenches (T1-T4) in Tell Saidiyeh and Ghor Kabed; 10 of which were prehistoric. The tightest chronology came from the Ghor Kabed trenches (T1 and T2) where Events Y and Z were constrained to between 560 and 1800 CE.

Note: Although Ferry et al (2011) combined archaeoseismic interpretations, their paleoseismic evidence, and entries from earthquake catalogs to produce earthquake dates and some overly optimistic probabilities, only the paleoseismic data is presented here. Ferry et al (2011)'s archaeoseismic data was researched and is treated separately.



Dead Sea - Seismite Types



Dead Sea - En Feshka

Kagan et. al. (2011) identified several seismites from around this time.

Depth (cm.) Thickness (cm.) Seismite Type Modeled Age (± 1σ) Modeled Age (± 2σ) Quake Assignment (Kagan) Quake Assignment (Williams)
0 10 4 1322 CE ± 22 1350 CE ± 71 Kagan et. al. (2011) assigned a date of 1312 CE based on an erroneous catalog entry from Ben-Menahem which is a duplicate of the 1212 CE Quake not assigned
12 7 4 1277 CE ± 17 1303 CE ± 64 1293 CE Quake 1293 CE Quake
28 2 4 1220 CE ± 21 1222 CE ± 46 1202 CE Quake and 1212 CE Quake not assigned


Dead Sea - En Gedi

Migowski et. al. (2004) assigned a 1293 CE date to a 1 cm. thick Type 4 seismite at a depth of 94.81 cm. (0.9481 m).



Dead Sea - Nahal Ze 'elim

At site ZA-1, Ken-Tor et al (2001a) assigned a a date of 1293 CE to a ~15 cm. thick Type 4 seismite which they labeled as Event F and was dated between 1270 and 1400 CE (± 2σ). In Table 4 of Kagan et. al. (2011), a 16 cm. thick seismite at ZA-1 was associated with the 1293 CE earthquake. At site ZA-2, Kagan et. al. (2011) did not find any seismites whose time window encompassed 1293 CE.



Araba - Introduction



Araba - Taybeh Trench

LeFevre et al. (2018) assigned a 1293 CE date to a seismite labeled as E3supp (aka E3bis) which was age modeled to between 819 and 1395 CE.



Araba - Qatar Trench

Klinger et. al. (2015) identified one seismic event which might fit.

Event Mean Date Age Range Quake Assignment (Klinger) Quake Assignment (Williams)
E2 1212 CE ± 57 1155-1269 CE 1212 CE Quake not assigned


Araba - Taba Sabhka Trench

Allison (2013) assigned a 1068 CE date to a seismic event which they dated to between 1045 and 1661 CE and Allison (2013) assigned a 1212 CE date to a seismic event which they dated to between the mid 11th century CE and the 16-17th centuries CE.



Araba - Elat Sabhka Trenches

Kanari et al (2020) suggested that a dewatering structure (aka a liquefaction fluid escape structure) found in Trench T1 and dated to before 1269-1389 CE was caused by the 1068 CE Quake(s) or the 1212 CE Quake. Kanari et al (2020) also dated Event E2 in Trench T3 to after 1294 CE and assigned it to earthquakes in 1458 or 1588 CE. Kanari et al (2020) dated sand blows SB1 and SB2 in Trench T3 to between 1287 and 1635 CE and suggested they may have formed during an earthquake in 1458 CE.



Araba - Trenches in Aqaba

Niemi (2011:153) noted that the most recent scarp-forming event fault [in Trench AQ-1] occurred after A.D. 1045-1278 based on a corrected, calibrated radiocarbon age from charcoal collected from a buried campfire at the base of the scarp in Trench T-1. This likely represents fault motion in one of the historical earthquakes affecting southern Jordan (e.g. 1068, 1212, 1458, or 1588).



Notes

Ambraseys (2009)

AD 1293 Jan Palestine

The earthquake in Safar in 692 a.H. (1293) affected the region of al-Karak, destroying three towers of the citadel and many houses. Orders were given to assess the losses, and a team of builders was sent from Damascus to repair the damage. Amir Ala al-Din Aidughdi al-Shujai was put in charge of this expedition, accompanied by builders, engineers and stone-cutters (Ibn al-Furat viii. 154-155; al- Maqrizi:i/3.783), see al-Jaziri (fol. 177).

In al-Ramla, the earthquake was followed by a destructive flood and the minaret of the main mosque fissured and fell.

The earthquake affected places in coastal Palestine from Gaza in the south, where a minaret collapsed, to al-Ramla, Ludd and the castle of Qaqun in the north, where houses were damaged (Al-Jazari, fol. 176- 177/trans. Sauvaget p. 29; al Nuwairi, MS 1578 fol. 164ro; Ibn Kathir xiii. 333; al-Suyuti 50/36 (wrongly under 672 a.H.).

Al-Suyuti says that, during the following year 693 a.H. (1294), an earthquake that was felt throughout Egypt caused some pillars in the mosque of `Amr (in Fustat) to become partially detached, but this was less serious than what happened in the main mosque in Cairo (Al- Suyuti 50/36 and Husn ii. 210. See also Taher (1979, 171-172/238).

Al-Suyuti's source is Ibn al-Mutawwaj (died 730/1330), who was also extensively used by al-Maqrizi in his Khitat on the topography of Fustat, see Guest (1902, 116, 125). The earthquake in Cairo is not mentioned under either 692 or 693 by contemporary Egyptian historians. It is possible that there is a confusion with the earthquake of 698/1299; see below.

It is very likely that the same earthquake is involved. No earlier confirmation of the earthquake in Egypt has yet been found.

Guidoboni and Comastri (2005)

(144) 1293 January 11 - February 8 [Safar 692 H.] Al-Karak [Jordan]

In the month of Safar in the year of the Hegira 692, which corresponds to the period 11 January - 8 February 1293, a strong earthquake struck Palestine, causing the most serious damage at Al-Karak, to the east of the Dead Sea (now Jordanian territory). Three towers in the citadel collapsed, as well as some other buildings. There was also comparable damage at the nearby town of At-Tafilah, where many building collapses are reported. In the coastal area (now part of Israel), there was serious damage at Ramla, where the earthquake followed a devastating flood, and caused the minaret of the congregational mosque to collapse. The earthquake also caused damage, not specified, at Gaza, Lydda (present-day Lod) and Qaqun.

The reports of this earthquake in Arabic sources are all very similar, except in the case of Ibn Kathir, who is the only historian to mention At-Tafilah amongst the places that suffered damage. The contemporary Damascene writer al-Jazari (1260-1338) reports:
In that year [692 H. = 1292-1293], there was a violent earthquake in the towns of Gaza, Ramla, Ludd [Lydda], Qaqun and Karak. The worst damage was at Karak, to the extent that three of the citadel's towers were destroyed, as were a number of buildings. The earthquake occurred during the month of Safar [692 H. = 11 January 1293 - 8 February 1293], and the news reached Damascus at the same time as the sultan's order, in the month of Rabi`I [692 H. = 9 February 1293 - 10 March 1293], to send Ala' al-Din al-Shuja`i, one of the emirs of Damascus, together with a group of artisans, engineers and stonecutters, with a large quantity of tools to rebuild those parts of the citadel at Karak which had been destroyed.
Al-Nuwayri (1279-1332) provides a briefer report:
In this year, during the month of Safar [692 H. = 11 January 1293 - 8 February 1293], there was a violent earthquake at the towns of Gaza, Ramla, Ludd [Lydda], and Karak. Karak was particularly affected, for three towers of its citadel were destroyed, and the Emir 'Ala' al-Dine of Damascus was sent with some artisans to rebuild what had been destroyed there.
As already mentioned, the evidence provided by Ibn Kathir (1300-1373) is important, because it also tells of damage at Tafila:
In the month of Safar [692 H. = 11 January 1293 - 8 February 1293], it was very cold in Syria, and in that year there was an earthquake at Karak and many buildings were destroyed at Tafila.
Finally, al-Maqrizi (1364-1442) records:
In the month of Safar [692 H. = 11 January - 8 February 1293], the towns of Ghaza, Ramla, Ludd and especially Al-Karak, were struck by a violent earthquake. Of the towers at Al-Karak, three were destroyed. A message from al-Ghars ibn Shawr, governor of Ramla, told that there had been incessant rain, causing destruction in fields and houses. The flood knocked down bridges and mills on the river 'Awja'. The bodies of eleven drowned lions were found in the flood waters. Immediately after the flood, a tremendous earthquake struck the coastal towns. The earthquake caused destruction in many places; and the minaret of the congregational mosque at Ramla was so badly cracked that it collapsed. The governor was ordered to assess the damage, and the Emir 'Ala' al-Din Aydgudi al-Shuja`i was sent with labourers and skilled workers to rebuild what had collapsed at Al-Karak.

Ambraseys et al (1994)


Fig. 2.13 1293 January, Dead Sea. (Ambraseys et al, 1994)

1293 January Safar 692 Dead Sea

A strong earthquake occurred in the region of Ghazza (Gaza), affecting al-Ramla, Ludd, Qaqun and al-Karak - particularly the latter, where three towers of the citadel were destroyed and many houses (see Figure 2.13).1 In al-Ramla, the earthquake followed a destructive flood. The earthquake ruined many places in coastal Palestine and the minaret of the main mosque at al-Ramla fissured and fell; the minaret at Gaza also collapsed. Orders were given to assess the damage in both places, and a team was sent from Damascus to repair the damage to al-Karak.2

Al-Suyuti says that the following year, 693/1294, an earthquake that affected all Egypt caused some pillars in the mosque of 'Amr (in Fustat) to became partially detached, but this was less serious than what happened in the main mosque in Cairo.3 It is very likely that the same earthquake is involved. No earlier confirmation of the earthquake in Egypt has yet been found.4

Footnotes

1 Al-Jazari, fol. 176-7/trans. Sauvaget, p. 29; al-Nuwairi, Ms. 1578, fol. 164ro; Ibn Kathir, XIII, 333; al-Suyuti, p. 50/36 (wrongly under 672 H).

2 Ibn al-Furat, VIII, 154-5; al-Maqrizi, I/3, 783. Amir 'Ala al-Din Aidughdi al-Shuja'i was put in charge of this expedition, accompanied by builders, engineers and stone-cutters, see al-Jazari, fol. 177.

3 Al-Suyuti, l.c. and Husn, II, 210. See also Taher (1979), pp. 171- 2/238; Ambraseys (1961), p. 27.

4 Al-Suyuti's source is Ibn al-Mutawwaj (d. 730/1330), who was also extensively used by al-Maqrizi in his Khitat on the topography of Fustat, see Guest (1902), pp. 116, 125. The earthquake in Cairo is not mentioned under either 692 or 693 by contemporary Egyptian historians. It is possible that there is a confusion with the earthquake of 698/1299.

Abou Karaki (1987) Earthquake Catalog

English

* from 12 JAN. - 11 FEB. 1293 AD, SAFAR 692 A.H

- SAFAR 692 A.H. (1293 A.D.), Ramla (VIII) Karak (VIII) (PTAH).

- Same dates and remarks as above,... The cities of Gaza, Ramla, Lod and Karak were affected by a violent earthquake, the maximum intensity is located in Karak where three towers of the citadel were destroyed,... In a letter from the Governor of Ramla we find,..., "the rain has not ceased falling day and night, causing the destruction of houses and bridges, as well as flooding; this was followed by a violent earthquake, which particularly affected the areas coastal; the minaret of the mosque of Ramla cracked and it fell,..., The emir in Damascus has wrote to the governor of Ramla, asking him for an assessment of the damage,..., this emir sent masons to repair the destruction that occurred in KARAK. (TAHA)

NAJA: this earthquake therefore affected both Karak and Ramla and its region, localities east and west of the transform (Dead Sea area).

French

* J = Dans l'intervalle (12 JAN. 1293, 11 Fév. 1293), SAFAR 692 apr. H

- SAFAR 692 apr. H, (1293 apr. J.C,), Ramla (VIII) Karak (VIII) Karak (VIII) (PTAH). - Mêmes dates et remarques que ci-dessus,... Les villes de Gaza, Ramla, Lod et Karak ont été affectées par un séisme violent, dont l'intensité maximale est située à Karak où trois tours de la citadelle ont été détruites,... Dans une lettre du Gouverneur de Ramla on trouve,..., "la pluie n'a cessé de tomber jour et nuit, causant la destruction des maisons et de ponts, ainsi que des inondations; cela a été suivi par un tremblement de terre' violent, qui a touché particulièrement les zones côtières; le minaret de la mosquée de Ramla s'est fissuré et il est tombé,..., L'émir à Damas a écrit au gouverneur de Ramla, en lui demandant une évaluation des dégâts,..., cet émir a envoyé des maçons pour réparer les destructions survenues à KARAK. (TAHA)

NAJA : ce séisme a donc affecté aussi bien Karak que Ramla et sa région, soient des localités à l'Est et à l'ouest de la transformante (zone de la Mer Morte).

References

Abou-Karaki, N. (1987). Synthèse et carte sismotectonique des pays de la bordure Orientale de la Méditerranée: sismicité du système de foilles du Jourdain – Mer Morte, University of Strasbourg, France. Ph.D. Diss.

Arieh (1977)

5. THE EARTHQUAKE OF 1293

a. Sources

This was a destructive earthquake. Ibn al-Furat writes (Ta'rikh, Beirut, 1939, vol. VII, p. 154):

In the month of Safar (12th January - 9th February) a vigorous earthquake occurred in the area of Ghaza, Ramleh, Lydda and Kerak. It was most heavily felt in Kerak where three towers of the for less were ruined ... It was particularly destructive along the coast. It ruined many places. The minaret of the Friday mosque.of Ramleh cracked and collapsed ... as well as the minaret of Ghaza.
b. Estimated Seismic Intensities and Epicenter

Highest seismic intensity - VIII (MMS) - was possibly attained in the destruction of the three fortress towers in Kerak. Seismic intensities at Ramleh and Ghaza were probably VII - suggested by cracking of the minarets (which are generally delicate structures), and by the absence of other reported damages. Effects are summed up in Table 5 and plotted in Figure 4.

Table 5: The 1293 Earthquake
Site Damage Estimated Max I (MMS)
Kerak Three fortress towers destroyed VIII
Ramleh Mosque's minaret cracked VII
Lydda No damage reported VI
Ghaza Mosque's minaret cracked VII
The epicenter was probably in the Dead Sea Rift Valley near Kerak. However, it is difficult to explain the absence of reported damages from other cities (e.g. Nablus, Jerusalem, Hebron, etc) which generally suffer from such earthquakes.

Maximal seismic intensity at the NP-1 site could not exceed the intensities attained at the affected sites nearer the epicenter (Ramleh, Lydda). Thus it could not exceed VII.

References

Arieh, E. (1977). An Evaluation of Six Significant Historical Earthquakes, Jerusalem, Israel: Report for the Seismological Section of the Geologic Survey of Israel.


Figure 4

Kagan (2011)

1293 AD: Based on evidence at an archeological site built on the Arava segment of the DST, the northern Arava did not rupture during this event [ Haynes et al., 2006]. We consider the 12 km-long Amatzyahu fault (Figure 3.1.1) as the source for this event. This rupture length is consistent with a 6.2-6.7 magnitude earthquake. The maximum intensity recorded for this event was recorded at Karak (eastern Dead Sea), 45 km from the Amatzaya fault [ Ambraseys et al., 1994, Guidoboni and Comastri, 2005] consistent with a magnitude of 6.7 according to the Ambraseys and Jackson equation (eq. 1). Taking into account poor construction and site effects this intensity could be achieved at a somewhat lower magnitude.

Additional Note by JW: The Qasr Tilah site ( Haynes et al., 2006) may not have ruptured during more than one Araba earthquake. It is possible that ruptures in the Araba during the 1293 AD event occurred to the west of Qasr Telah on other sub parallel faults or the Amatzyahu fault mentioned by Kagan (2011). Masson et al (2015) suggests that relative motions between tectonic plates in the Northern Araba/ Southern Dead Sea is taken up by multiple faults to the east and west. In some ways the 1293 CE Quake may be a more energetic version (i.e., bigger fault break) of the Jerusalem Quake.

References

Kagan, E. J. (2011). Multi Site Quaternary Paleoseismology Along the Dead Sea Rift: Independent Recording by Lake and Cave Sediments, PhD. Diss. Hebrew University of Jerusalem.

Masson, F., et al. (2015). "Variable behavior of the Dead Sea Fault along the southern Arava segment from GPS measurements." Comptes Rendus Geoscience(0).

Paleoclimate - Droughts

References

Taher, M. A. (1979). Corpus des textes arabes relatifs aux tremblements de terre et autres catastrophes naturelles de la conquête arabe au XII H./XVIII J.C. [S.l.], [s.n.].