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En Feshka

Aerial shot of En Feshka from the west Aerial shot of "The Canyons" in En Feshka from the west

Click on Image for high resolution magnifiable image

Panorama from Drone Photos by Jefferson Williams 27 Feb. 2023


Transliterated Name Source Name
En Feshka, Ein Feshka
Einot Tzukim Hebrew
Ayn Fashkhah Arabic عين فشخة
En Feshka Archaeoseismic Site Webpage

Aerial Views and Other Material
Aerial Views and Other Material

Aerial Views

  • Kagan et al. (2011) Sample Site in En Feshka in Google Earth
  • Kagan et al. (2011) Sample Site

Age Models

Age-Depth Plot

Figure 3

Stratigraphic section of Ein Feshkha outcrop and (right) age-depth deposition model derived by OxCal 4.1. Breccias are marked in section by hatched black layers. Probability density functions (histograms) on the graph give model ages for radiocarbon calibrated ages (marked with arrows; arrow directions are meaningless) and model boundaries (details given in Table 3). The histograms give the distributions for the single calibrated dates while the darker center part of each histogram take into account the stratigraphic information (see section 4 and Bronk Ramsey [2008] for model specifics). The depth model curves are envelopes for the 95% (outer, lighter, approximately 2σ) and 68% (inner, darker, approximately 1σ) highest probability density ranges. Color of model age curve changes at boundaries.

Kagan et al (2011)

Age Model

Figure 4

Date distribution of calibrated 14C ages

JW: Radiocarbon dates come from En Feshka

Kagan et al (2010)

Seismite Assignment Tables

Nahal Ze'elim (ZA-2 and ZA-1(?)) and En Feshka

  • from Kagan et al. (2011)
  • these have been incorporated into the Master Seismic Events Tables for all sites
Table 3

Ze'elim and Ein Feshka Seismites with Model Ages and Historic Event Correlation

  1. LS, local source, moderate earthquake, not appearing in the historical catalogs, may have produced these seismites
  2. Gully depth below fan delta surface
  3. Seismite type

    A, Intraclast breccia layer
    B, Microbreccia (“homogenite” to the naked eye)
    C, liquefied sand
    D, Folded laminae
    E, Small offsets
    Q, Questionable as seismite. See Table 1 and Figure 2.

  4. Model ages of seismites extrapolated from deposition model (see section 5 for details)
  5. Fit of historical earthquake dates within 1σ or 2σ calibrated age ranges of seismites. Although model ages are tabulated here with 1 year precision for convenience, event fit considers the realistic precision of 10 years (see section 5.1)
  6. All other possible events within the age probability range (1σ or 2σ range) of the designated earthquake; 1068a refers to March 1068 A.D., and 1068b refers to May 1068 A.D. (see Table A1)
  7. Outside model range, extrapolated from model (Figure 4)
  8. Outside model range, estimated based on below and above radiocarbon ages (Figure 4)
  9. Alternately, this historic earthquake could have formed seismites below or above the one marked

Kagan et al (2011)

Nahal Ze'elim (ZA-1 and ZA-2), En Gedi, and En Feshka



Table 4

Multisite Comparison of Holocene Seismites from four lacustrine sediments sites along the Western Dead Sea Basin

Kagan et al (2011)

Table 4

Multisite Comparison of Holocene Seismites from four lacustrine sediments sites along the Western Dead Sea Basin

Kagan et al (2011)


  • from Kagan et al. (2011)
  • these have been incorporated into the Master Seismic Events Tables for all sites
Table 4

Multisite Comparison of Holocene Seismites from four lacustrine sediments sites along the Western Dead Sea Basin

Kagan et al (2011)


Figure 7

Recurrence intervals and cumulative number of breccias in time.

  1. Ein Feshkha (EFE)
  2. Ein Gedi (EG)
  3. Zeelim (ZA1 and ZA2)

  • Diamonds represent breccias
  • circled diamonds are the IBS (intrabasin seismites)
  • Horizontal gray bars indicate periods of seismic quiescence

(left) the earlier period is recorded at EG and ZA, and (right) the younger quiescence period is recorded at all three sites. Horizontal lines connect IBS events at the three sites.

Kagan et al (2011)

Lithology Profiles For the 3 GSI/GFZ 1997 Cores in En Feshka, En Gedi, and Nahal Ze 'elim (includes hiatuses)

Fig. 2

Lithology of the sediment cores and the established age-depth models of the different profiles. The Ze'elim coring profile is paralleled by the Ze'elim gully wall [16] . The Ein Gedi chronology is based on 20 radiocarbon dates and on the varve counted section (black line) in the upper part.

Migowski et. al. 2004

Age-Depth, Pollen Diagram, and Lithosection from Neumann et al. (2007)

Age-Depth Plot

Figure 14

Neumann et al (2007)

Figure 14

Neumann et al (2007)

Pollen Diagram

Figure 7

Neumann et al (2007)


Figure 5

Neumann et al (2007)

En Feshka Core (DSF) Photos

This core was taken in 1997 by GFZ/GSI

Image Description Image Description Image Description Image Description Image Description
Composite Core DSF
Sections B1-B5

0-499 cm.
Section B1

0-93 cm.
Section B2

100-197 cm.
Section B3

200-298 cm.
Section B4

300-396 cm.
Section B5

400-499 cm.

Master Seismic Events Table
Master Seismic Events Table

Wikipedia pages

Ein Feshkha


PEF rock: a reference line 14 feet above the Dead Sea in 1900

PEF Rock Inscription

Rock used by the Palestine Exploration Fund to mark the level of the Dead Sea in the beginning of the 20th century

Wikipedia - CC BY 2.0

In October 1900, R. A. Stewart Macalister found a suitable rock towards the southern end of 'Ain Feshkah's reeds area, next to the Dead Sea shore and standing some 20 ft above the water.[13] A second boulder underneath the first offered a ledge to stand on.[13] He had brought with him a stonemason from Jericho, who carved an 8-9 inches long line into the rock face which was to be used for reference, and the initials "PEF" beneath it.[13] It became known as the PEF rock. Macalister undertook a first measurement and noted that the line stood at exactly 14 ft above the water. [13] Macalister's reference line was then used until 1913 by the PEF researcher, E. W. G. Masterman (1867-1943), who came down from Jerusalem for rigorous biannual measurements. [14][15] Long-forgotten, it was rediscovered after the Six Day war by Israeli geographer and cultural researcher, Zev Vilnay.[14][15]

JW:Macalister (1901:4-5) wrote the following about his inscription on the PEF rock
This mark is a horizontal line, 8 or 9 inches long, with the initials PEF beneath it. The line at the time when it was cut was exactly 14 feet above the surface of the sea (determined by a common tape-measure). Time, 10 a.m., October 9th, 1900