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Crash Quake

Sunrise 15 June 873 CE

by Jefferson Williams









Introduction & Summary

An earthquake is reported by al-Yaʿqūbī, a contemporaneous source, at sunrise on 15 June 873 CE. The location of the earthquake does not seem to be specified although Poirier and Taher (1980b), citing al-Yaʿqūbī as a source, report that it was felt in Arabia1. Ambraseys (2009) lists this earthquake in his catalogue with a date of 15 June 871 CE, location unspecified, and al-Yaquti as the source. He also notes a fire in the sky followed by a crash preceding the earthquake could suggest the appearance of a comet, or the fall of a meteorite and that an earthquake may not have caused the shock (crash). Guidoboni et al (1994) do not list this earthquake in their catalogue. Ambraseys et. al. (1994) lists another earthquake in September ? 873 CE (late AH 259) in the Hejaz. Ambraseys et. al. (1994) may have relied on Taher (1979) and Poirier and Taher (1980b) who may have made some errors. This may explain why the Hejaz Quake of 873 CE is missing from the catalogue of Ambraseys (2009).
Footnotes

1 Poirier and Taher (1980b), citing al-Yaquti as a source, report an earthquake was felt in Arabia on 10 Shaban A.H. 259 which they date to 874 CE. CHRONOS using fourmilab converts 10 Shaban A.H. 259 to 11 June 873 CE. This seems to suggest an error on the part of Poirier and Taher (1980b). There appears to be some calendaric confusion in Poirier and Taher (1980b) and possibly Taher (1979) as well which Ambraseys et. al. (1994) tried to sort out - apparently unsuccessfully - possibly due to a lack of a good translation of al-Yaquti at the time Ambraseys et. al. (1994) and Ambraseys (2009) were writing.

Textual Evidence

Text (with hotlink) Original Language Biographical Info Religion Date of Composition Location Composed Notes
History of Ibn Wāḍiḥ by al-Yaʿqūbī Arabic Geographer, Historian, Imperial bureaucrat. Gordon et al (2018:3) provide the following biographical information:
al-Ya‘qubi was of notable Iraqi birth and education, and that he spent much of his professional life in the employment of provincial governing families of the late third/ninth-century ‘Abbasid empire. His own statements indicate that he worked in Armenia, perhaps at an early point in his career, and that he took up subsequently with the Tahirid family in the Iranian province of Khurasan. We have no direct evidence, but it seems that [al-Yaqubi] then made his way to Egypt following the fall of the Tahirids around 258/872. There he lent his skills to the administration of the Tūlūnid state (254—292/868—905), which was among the first autonomous regional dynasties to challenge the ‘Abbasid state, founded roughly a century earlier.
Muslim. Gordon et al (2018:3) state that
Al-Ya‘qubi’s religious views were clearly Shi'ite, but they seem to conform neither to the Imami Shiite tradition that would prevail later, nor to what would become the Zaydi Shrite tradition. ... Writing as he did before ‘classical’ Shi‘ism crystallized, al-Ya‘qubi held religious views that later Muslims likely found difficult to categorize.
Late 9th century CE Cairo ? States that A great fire appeared in the sky, moving from east to west and then dispersing. It was followed by a great crash and an earthquake. This occurred at sunrise, eight nights remaining in Rajab, corresponding to the non-Arab month of Hazīrān (June). The year was specified earlier in the text as A.H. 257. Taken together, the earthquake is dated to 15 June 873 CE.
Text (with hotlink) Original Language Biographical Info Religion Date of Composition Location Composed Notes
History of Ibn Wāḍiḥ by al-Yaʿqūbī

(شذرات الذهب في أخبار من ذهب) by أبو العب

Aliases Aliases
al-Yaʿqūbī أبو العب
ʾAbū l-ʿAbbās ʾAḥmad bin ʾAbī Yaʿqūb bin Ǧaʿfar bin Wahb bin Waḍīḥ al-Yaʿqūbī أبو العباس أحمد بن أبي يعقوب بن جعفر بن وهب بن واضح اليعقوبي
al-Ya'qubi was a Geographer, Historian, and an Imperial bureaucrat. Gordon et al (2018:3) provide the following biographical information:
al-Ya‘qubi was of notable Iraqi birth and education, and that he spent much of his professional life in the employment of provincial governing families of the late third/ninth-century ‘Abbasid empire. His own statements indicate that he worked in Armenia, perhaps at an early point in his career, and that he took up subsequently with the Tahirid family in the Iranian province of Khurasan. We have no direct evidence, but it seems that [al-Yaqubi] then made his way to Egypt following the fall of the Tahirids around 258/872. There he lent his skills to the administration of the Tūlūnid state (254—292/868—905), which was among the first autonomous regional dynasties to challenge the ‘Abbasid state, founded roughly a century earlier.
Gordon et al (2018:4) describes History of Ibn Wāḍiḥ (aka Ta’rikh al-Yaqubi) as follows:
The Ta’rikh (History)

The text, of which we possess two manuscripts, is a universal chronicle consisting of two parts: a pre-Islamic section covering a variety of empires and peoples that is primarily sequential in organization, and an Islamic-era section that tracks the history of the Islamic polity from the prophet Muhammad's day until roughly 259/872-873.

...

The second half of the History contains a concise narrative of Islamic and Middle Eastern history, beginning with a biography of the Prophet Muhammad and proceeding with his immediate successors (the so-called ‘Rashidun’ caliphs, a designation that does not occur, however, anywhere in these texts), followed by the Umayyad and ‘Abbasid rulers to about 259/873. Throughout, al- Ya'qübi follows a fairly consistent scheme: he begins with each ruler's accession and (often) the horoscope for the date of accession, then provides a brief nar- rative of the major events of his reign; the circumstances of the caliph’s death; a list of the major officials and religious scholars active during his reign; and a brief assessment of his character and male progeny. Ibn Wadih’s employment of horoscopes ought not be viewed as a bow to superstition; instead, it reflects — and, perhaps, champions— the broad cultural tastes of his still Late Antique readership.
In a translation from Gordon et al (2018:1288-1290 Vol. 3) we can read
THE DAYS OF AHMAD AL-MU TAMID ALĀ-LLĀH

...

Ahmad b. Tulün, the governor of Egypt, received letters from al-Mu'tamid ordering him to restore the offices of the land tax to Ahmad b. Muhammad b. al-Mudabbir. The latter was imprisoned in his custody, and Muhammad b. Hilal was administering the land tax. Ibn al-Mudabbir was released from prison on Saturday, 7 nights remaining in Dhū l-Qa'da in the year 256,3830 and assumed administration of the land tax. His imprisonment had lasted 9 months and 25 days.

In this year, some members of the Banu Hilal3831 and some of the people of Mecca clashed during the Station at Mount 'Arafat.3832 People from each group were killed. | The master of the pilgrimage that year was al-Husayn b. Isma‘il al- Tāhirī, and Ahmad b. Isma‘il b. Ya'gūb, who was nicknamed Kab al-Baqar3833 led the people in the pilgrimage rites.

Following the death of Bayakbak al-Turki, al-Mu‘tamid transferred the latter's appointments over Egypt and elsewhere to Yarjukh3834 al-Turki. Yārjūkh al-Turki wrote to Ahmad b. Tūlūn al-Turki, the governor of Egypt, confirming him in his duties.

Al-Mu'tamid appointed Muhammad b. Harthama b. A'yan over Barqa. Muhammad reached al-Fustat in the month of Rabi‘ 11 in the year 257,3835 and then marched on to Barqa.

Al-Mu'tamid sent al-Husayn the Eunuch (al-Khādim), who was known as ‘Araq al-Mawt,3836 to ‘Isa b. Shaykh, who had taken control of Palestine, with an offer of safe-conduct for his person, his property, and his children and a pardon for what he had previously done, along with his appointment over Armenia. Īsā accepted the offer and departed from the province in Jumada 11 in the year 257.3837 He turned over all that was in his possession to Amajur al-Turki, but failed to return a single dirham of the revenue.3838

A great fire appeared in the sky, moving from east to west and then dispersing. It was followed by a great crash and an earthquake. This occurred at sunrise, eight nights remaining in Rajab,3839 corresponding to the non-Arab month of Hazīrān (June).

Ahmad b. Tūlūn transported the revenue collected in the treasury in Egypt to the Commander of the Faithful, al-Mu‘tamid. It amounted to 2,100,000 dirhams. He led the cavalry personally and transported the tirāz, the khaysh, and the wax.3840 He vouched for the amount of the payment himself and, having delivering it to Amājūr al-Turkī and having his receipt of it witnessed, Ibn Tūlūn departed for al-Fustāt. | Al-Mu'tamid bi-llah wrote to Ahmad b. Tūlūn, appointing him over Alexandria in place of Ishaq b. Dinar b. ‘Abdallah. Ahmad b. Tūlūn proceeded to Alexandria in the month of Ramadan in the year 257.3841
Footnotes

3830 23 Dhü l-Qa'da 256 = October 22, 870.

3831 The Banü Hilal were a tribe in Najd in the interior of the Arabian peninsula. According to al-Tabarī, Ta’rikh, 31338, they had allied themselves with the Banū Sulaym in the depredations against Medina during the reign of al-Wathiq and were pacified by Bugha al-Kabir after he had pacified the Banū Sulaym in 230/845 (cf. the notice in al-Ya‘qubi, ed. Leiden, 2:586—587, where, however, the Banü Hilal are not mentioned). For the subsequent history of the tribe, its emigration to Egypt and then to North Africa, see the article by J. Schleifer in E12, s.v. Hilal.

3832 That is, at the ceremonial “standing” in the plain before Mount ‘Arafat that marks the climax of the pilgrimage. It falls on 9 Dhū l-Hijja, which in 256 would have fallen on November 7, 870.

3833 The name is written as Ki'āb in the Mss; corrected by the Leiden editor on the basis of al-Mas‘udi, Murūj, 5:298 (8 3653), where his name is given as Kab al-Baqar Muhammad [b. Ahmad] b. ‘Isa b. Jafar Ibn al-Mansür. As the Leiden editor notes, a similar name is given in Ibn al-Athīr, a/-Kāmil, 7:1; cf. al-Tabarī, Ta’rikh, 31841, where the full name (but not the nickname) is given as Muhammad b. Ahmad b. Īsā b. AbīJa far al-Mansür, making it clear that the man was the great-grandson of the caliph al-Mansür. Ahmad b. Ismà'il b. Ya gūb and Muhammad b. Ahmad b. ‘Isa would seem to be two different people, with the name of the latter having fallen out due to a lacuna.

3834 Undotted in both Mss;the Leiden editor transcribed it as Yārjūj, but Yarjükh is the form found in al-Tabarī, Ta'rikh, 3:1707, and passim.

3835 The month began on February 26, 871.

3836 The nickname means "Sweat of Death."

3837 The month began on April 26, 871.

3838 Perhaps referring to the revenue from Egypt that he had seized; see above, ed. Leiden, 2:618.

3839 22 Rajab 257 = June 15, 871.

3840 Tirāz were the linen bands embroidered with the name of the caliph or his representative and worn as insignia of office (see the article by Sanders et al. in E12, s.v). Khaysh was a coarse, loose linen made with flax of poor quality and used in the manufacture of sacks, wrappings, and rudimentary tents (Ch. Pellat in EI2, s.v). For the last item, M clearly reads al-sham‘ (wax)—the word is undotted in C. The mention of wax as a special product of Egypt is strange. A copyist's error may have substituted al-sham' for al-samgh, the term for gum arabic, which was brought to Egypt from the Sudan.

3841 The month began on July 23, 871.

Chronology
Year Reference Corrections Notes
15 June 871 CE sunrise, eight nights remaining in Rajab (i.e. 22 Rajab) A.H. 257 none Calculated using CHRONOS
15 June 871 CE sunrise, eight nights remaining in Rajab (i.e. 22 Rajab) A.H. 257 none Date provided by Gordon et al (2018:1289 n. 3839 Vol. 3)
June 871 CE This occurred at sunrise, eight nights remaining in Rajab, corresponding to the non-Arab month of Hazīrān (June). A.H. 257 none refers to the additional specification of the month of Haziran - a Syriac month equivalent to June
Online Versions and Further Reading

Gordon, M. S., et al. (2018). The Works of Ibn Wāḍiḥ al-Yaʿqūbī (3 vols): An English Translation, Brill. - online version from archive.org

Archeoseismic Evidence

Tsunamogenic Evidence

Paleoseismic Evidence

Location (with hotlink) Status Intensity Notes
Jordan Valley - Dir Hagla Trench possible to unlikely ≥ 7 Reches and Hoexter (1981) dated Event B to 700-900 CE.
Dead Sea - Seismite Types n/a n/a n/a
Dead Sea - En Feshka probable 5.8 - 7.5 (104 cm.)
5.7 - 7.1 (110.5 cm.)
8.0 - 8.8 (113 cm.)
Kagan et. al. (2011) identified several seismites from around this time.
Depth (cm.) Thickness (cm.) Seismite Type Modeled Age (± 1σ) Modeled Age (± 2σ) Quake Assignment (Kagan) Quake Assignment (Williams)
104 6 1 912 CE ± 27 894 CE ± 61 873 A.D., Local Source not assigned
110.5 l.5 Questionable 887 CE ± 28 864 CE ± 63 873 A.D., Local Source not assigned
113 3 4 877 CE ± 28 852 CE ± 64 873 A.D., Local Source not assigned
Dead Sea - En Gedi possible 5.6 - 7.0 Migowski et. al. (2004) assigned a 859 CE date to a 0.8 cm. thick linear wave (Type 1) seismite at a depth of 169.8 cm. (1.698 m).
Dead Sea - Nahal Ze 'elim unlikely At site ZA-2, Kagan et. al. (2011) did not find any seismites whose time window encompassed the 873 CE Crash Quake.
Araba - Introduction n/a n/a n/a
Araba - Qasr Tilah possible ≥ 7 Haynes et al. (2006) dated Events II and III to between the 7th and 12th centuries CE.
Araba - Taybeh Trench unlikely LeFevre et al. (2018) did not find any seismic events whose time window encompassed the 873 CE Crash Quake.
Araba - Qatar Trench possible ≥ 7 Klinger et. al. (2015) dated Event Esupp1 to 925 CE ± 119 (806-1044 CE).
Location (with hotlink) Status Intensity Notes
Dir Hagla Trenches

Reches and Hoexter (1981) dated Event B to 700-900 CE.



Dead Sea - Seismite Types



Dead Sea - En Feshka

Kagan et. al. (2011) identified several seismites from around this time.

Depth (cm.) Thickness (cm.) Seismite Type Modeled Age (± 1σ) Modeled Age (± 2σ) Quake Assignment (Kagan) Quake Assignment (Williams)
104 6 1 912 CE ± 27 894 CE ± 61 873 A.D., Local Source not assigned
110.5 l.5 Questionable 887 CE ± 28 864 CE ± 63 873 A.D., Local Source not assigned
113 3 4 877 CE ± 28 852 CE ± 64 873 A.D., Local Source not assigned


Dead Sea - En Gedi

Migowski et. al. (2004) assigned a 859 CE date to a 0.8 cm. thick linear wave (Type 1) seismite at a depth of 169.8 cm. (1.698 m).



Dead Sea - Nahal Ze 'elim

At site ZA-2, Kagan et. al. (2011) did not find any seismites whose time window encompassed the 873 CE Crash Quake.



Araba - Introduction



Araba - Qasr Tilah

Haynes et al. (2006) dated Events II and III to between the 7th and 12th centuries CE.



Araba - Taybeh Trench

LeFevre et al. (2018) did not find any seismic events whose time window encompassed the 873 CE Crash Quake.



Araba - Qatar Trench

Klinger et. al. (2015) dated Event Esupp1 to 925 CE ± 119 (806-1044 CE).



Notes

Ambraseys (2009)

AD 871 Jun 15 Not Identified

A strong earthquake shock following the appearance of fire in the sky, moving from east to west, occurred at about dawn on 22 Rajab 257 a.H. (al-Ya’qubi, ii. 621). The details associated with this event suggest the appearance of a comet, or the fall of a meteorite. An earthquake may not have caused the shock.

Ambraseys et al (1994)

873 September? late 259 H Hejaz

An earthquake occurred in the Arabian desert, which caused the bedouin to flee to the protection of the Prophet's tomb in Medina and of the Ka`ba in Mecca. They brought in goods belonging to the pilgrims whom they had intercepted on the route (north of Mecca). The tribes particularly affected were the Banu Hilal and Banu Sulaim and other sub-tribes of Qais, from the region round Medina; they reported that a great number of bedouin had been killed in the desert.1

The association of this earthquake with the pilgrimage and the reference to the plundering of the pilgrims on their way south suggests the shock occurred in the month before Dhu'l-Hijja 259 (began 28 September 873) and that news of the event was provided by the returning pilgrims. It can be inferred that Mecca and Medina were not themselves damaged by the shock, which probably chiefly affected the region between Taima and Medina, to the east of the main pilgrim route.2

Footnotes

1 Al-Ya'qubi, II, 624; Taher (1979), pp. 32-3/I49-50. Poirier and Taher (1980), p. 2189, have to Sha`ban 259 (11 June 873), which is the date of an earthquake the previous year in Iran. The account of the earthquake by Ambraseys and Melville (1989) needs refining, although we retain our views on its general location.

2 For the tribe of Sulaim b. Mansur (Qais b. 'Allan), with stations around Khaibar, and at Harrat Sulaim, Harrat al-Narain ('the Two Fires'), Wadi al-Qura and Taima, see Kahhala (1968), II, 543-4; and III, 1221, for the Hilal b. 'Amir (also of Qais b. 'Ailan), further to the south, round Mecca. See also al-Biladi, II, 213. It is difficult to be precise about the territories of these tribes. For the pilgrim routes, see Brice (198x), map 22, Cornu (1985), map VII, and the account of these places in al-Wohaibi (1973), esp. pp. 293-4 re. NVadi al-Qura.

Poirier and Taher (1980b)

Poirier and Taher (1980b), citing al-Yaquti as a source, report an earthquake was felt in Arabia on 10 Shaban A.H. 259 which they date to 874 CE. CHRONOS using fourmilab converts 10 Shaban A.H. 259 to 11 June 873 CE. Poirier and Taher (1980b), citing al-Jawzi, also report an earthquake on 10 Shaban A.H. 258 which was felt in Basra.

Catalog (Google Sheet)



Catalog from paper

*References of Sources


(1) Al Biruni Abu al Rayhan Mohamet
·	"Al Athar al Baqiya 'An alqoron al Khaliya", edited by Sachau, Leipzig, 1923.
·	"Tandid Nihayat al Amain li-tashili masaffit al-masain", edited by B. Bolgakof, 
	review of the Arabic league for Arabic manuscripts, May-Nov. 1962.
	
(2) Ibn Al Djawzi 'Abd-ar-Rahman
·	"Shudhur al'oqod fi Ather al'ohod" Egyptian library manuscript 994 Tarikh.
·	Al modehish fi al Mohadrat" Egyptian library manuscript B 23054.
·	"Al montazam", Hyderabad ad Dakan, 1357 H.

(3) Ibn Al Qasim Yihya
·	"Anba'al zaman fi Tarikh Abna' al-yaman" Egyptian library manuscript 17075 H.
·	"Ghayat al amany fi akhbar al-qotr al yamani", edited by Said Ashor dar al Katib Cairo, 1968.

(4),(5) Al Ispahani Hamza
·	"Tarikh sini mulak al-ard", Leipzig, 1944.

(6) Al Dhahabi Abu 'Abdalah Mohamet
·	"Tarikh al Islam" vol. 1-5 published by al Qodsi, 1369 H and Egyptian library manuscript 1452 Tarikh.
·	"Dowal al Islam", Hyderabad ad Dakan, 1233 H.
·	"Al eber fi khabar man ghabar", edited by Salah al Menagid, Kuwait, 1966.

(7) Ibn Al Athir Abu Hassan 'Ali
·	"Al Kamil fi at Tarikh", edited by Tornberg, Leyden, 1851-1876.
·	"al Tarikh al Bahir fi ad Dawla al Atabikya", edited by Tolymat, Cairo, 1963.

(8) At Tabari Abii Djafar Mohamet
·	"Tarikh at Tabary", edited by De Golfe, Leyden, 1879-1901.

(9)	Ibn Aybak Ad Dawadary Abil Bakr
·	"Kanz ad Durar wa Djami' al Ghurar" Egyptian library manuscript 2578,4643 Tarikh.

(10) Ibn Al'imad Al Hanbali Abu al Falah
·	"Shadharat adh Dhahab fi Akhbar man Dhahab", published by al Qodsi, 1351 H.

(11)	Al Ya'qobi Ahmed
·	"Tarikh al Ya'qobi", Beirut, 1960.

12),(13) Ibn Abi Zar' Abil Hassan 'Ali
·	"Al'Anis al Motrib bi Rawd al Qortas if akhbar molouk fas", edited by Mohamet al Hashimi al
	filali, Rabat, Morocco.
	
(14) Ibn 'Adhari Ahmed
·	"Al Bayan al Moghrib fi Akhbar al Andolas wa al Maghrib", Beirut, 1967.

(15) Ibn Batriq Said
·	"At Tarikh al magmou'ala at Taliqiq wa tasdiq", Beirut, 1909.

(16) An Niweyri Ahmed
·	"Nihayat al Arab if funun al Asab' Egyptian library manuscript 549 Ma'ref "Ama.

(17) Ibn Taghri Bardi Youssof
·	"An Nogoum az Zahira fi Molouk misr wal Qahira", Cairo, 1939-1960.

(18) Al Mass'oudi Abu Hassan 'Ali
·	"At Tanbih wal'eshraf', edited by Abdo'lah as Sawy, Cairo, 1938.
·	"Morildj adh dhahab wa Ma'adin al djawhar", edited by Mohamet Mohyaddin abd Hamid, Baghdad.

(19) Ibn Sa'id Al Antaki Yihya
·	Edited by L. Shikho, Beirut, 1909.

(20) Al Maqrizi Ahmed Ibn'Ali
·	"Itti 'ad al Hunafa bi-akhbar al A'ima al fatimyin al Khalafa", edited by ash Shayal, Cairo.
·	"as soliik bi-ma'rifat dowal al Molouk", edited by Ziyada, Cairo, 1934-1958 and Ashor, Cairo, 1970.
·	"al Khitat", Cairo, 1953.

(21) 'Azra Hadad
·	"Rihlat Binyamin at Tutili" (561-569 H), Baghdad, 1949.

(22) Al Fariqi Ahmed Ibn Yussof
·	"Tarikh Mayafarqin", edited by Badawi'Abd al latif, Cairo, 1959.

(23) Ibn Butlan Abu al Hassan al Mukhtar
·	Cited in "Modjam al Boldan" by Yoqot al Hamidi, edited by Wiistenfeld, Leipzig, 1866-1873.

(24) Al Qalanisi Abu Ya'la Hamza
·	"Dhayl Tarikh Dimashq", edited by Amedroz, Leyden, 1908.

(25) Ar Raf i Abu al Qasim' Adb al Karim
·	"At Tadwin fi Akhbar Qaswin" Egyptian library manuscript 4276 Tarikh.

(26) Ibn Kathir Isma'il
·	Al Bidaya wa an Nihaya, Beirut, 1966.

(27) Abu Makhrma AbE Mohamet Abdo alah 
·	"Tarikh Taghr'Aden" Leyden, 1936.

(28) Ibn Rushd al Walid
·	"Talkhis Kutub Aristotalis if al Hikama" Egyptian library manuscript 5 Hikma wa Falsafa.

(29) Abii Shama Abd-ur-Rahman
·	"Adh-Dhayl 'ala arRawdatin" published under the title "Taradjim al Qarnun as Sadis wa as Sabi' al Hidjeriyn" by 'Eyzat al'Atar al Hassani, 1947.
·	"ar Rawdatin fi akbar ad Dawlatin an Norya wa as Salahiya", Cairo, 1288 H.

(30) Al Baghdadi Ibn Al Labad Abd al Latif
·	"al 'ifada wa "ftbar" published under the title "Mokhtassr Tarikh Misr" by White, London,
	1800. Reprinted with english translation, London, 1960.
	
(31) See (29).

(32) Al Fowati 'Abd ar-Raziq
·	"al tlawadith al djami'a wa at Tadjarob an Nafi'a fi al Mi'a as Sabi'a" edited by Mustafa
	Djawad, Baghdad, 1351 H.
	
(33) As Samhodi Nur ad Din 'Ali
·	"Wafa' al Wafa bi Akhbar dar al Mustafa", edited by Mohamed Mohy ad Din, Cairo, 1955.

(34) Al Kharzradji Ali ibn al Hassan
·	"al `oqod al-lo 'Lolya fi Tarikh ad Dawla ar Rasolya", Cairo, 1911.

(35) Al Qalqashandi Ahmed Ibn'Ali
·	"Sobh al A'sha fi Sina'at al "Insha"", Cairo, Ministry of Culture.
·	"Ma'ther al Inafa fi Ma'lim al Khilafa", edited by Abd as Satar faradj, Kuwait, 1964.

(36) Al Malti Abu al faradj
·	"Tarikh ad Dowal as Siryani" written by Armala as Siryani, published in the review of id
	Mashriq, March-April 1956.
	
(37) Al Yonini
·	"Dhayl Mirat az Zaman", Hyderabad ad Dakan.

(38) Ad Dimashqi Shaykh ar Rabwa
·	Nukhbat ad Dhar fi "Adj'ab al Bar wa al Bahr", edited by Mehren, 1966.

(39) Ibn Al Wardi 'Omar
·	"Tatimat al Mokhtaser fi Akhbar al Bashar", Cairo.

(40) Ibn Hadjar Ahmed Ibn'Ali
·	'"Ubba' al Ghomr bi Abna' al 'Omr", edited by Hassan Habashi, Cairo, 1972.

(41) See (20).

(42) Ibn 'Ivas Mohamen Ibn Ahmed
·	"Bada'i' az Zohour fi Waqa'i' ad Dohour", Cairo, 1898, edited by M. M. Ziyada, Cairo, 1960

(43) See (33).

(44) Al'Aydarous Abdal Qadir
·	"An Nour as Sof-lion Akhbar al Qarn al' Ashar", edited by M. As Safir, Baghdad, 1934.

(45) As Suyuti Djalal ad Din
·	"Hosn al Mohadra fi Tarildi Misr wa al Qahira" edited by Mohmet abii al fadl Ibrahim. Cairo, 1967.
·	"Kashf as Salsala'an Wasf az Zalzala". Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris, 
	manuscrits Arabeii 4658; translated in french by Said Nejjar, Cahiers du Centre Universitaire de la Recherche Scientifique, Rabat, 1973.
	
(46) Al Qadri Al Hassani Mohamet
·	"Nashr al Mathani ii Ahl al Qarn al Hadi Asher wa aththani", Fez, 1315 H.

(47) Al Djazzar 'Ali
·	"Tahsin al-Mandzal min Hawl al Zalazil", edited by Mustafa Taher, Annales Islamologiques,
	Cairo, 1974.
	
(48) APIsbaqi Mohamet ibn abd Mo'ti 
·	"Tarikh a1 'isbaqi' Cairo, 1300 H.

(49) See (46).

(50) To (54) M. A. Taher, Textes d'histoire damascene sur les tremblements de terre du XIIe siecle de 1'Hegire. 
	Bulletin d'Etudes Orientales, Damascus, 1975.
	
(55) AI Yafi'i Abdo allah
·	"Mir'at al Djinan wa i'Brat al Yaizan", Hyderabad ad Dakan, 1338 H.

(56) Ibn Al Fasi Mohamet ibn Ahmed
·	"Shifa 'al gharam bi Akhbar al Balad al Harram", Gottingen, 18,57.


† From As Suyuti's Paris manuscript.
‡ From Ambrasey (1961).
§ (a)-(k), see Appendix.

References

Poirier, J. P. and M. A. Taher (1980b). "Historical seismicity in the near and Middle East, North Africa, and Spain from Arabic documents (VIIth-XVIIIth century)." Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America 70(6): 2185-2201.

Paleoclimate - Droughts

References

References

Ambraseys, N. N., et al. (1994). The seismicity of Egypt, Arabia, and the Red Sea : a historical review. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

http://ebooks.cambridge.org/ebook.jsf?bid=CBO9780511524912

Haynes, J., et al. (2006). "Evidence for ground-rupturing earthquakes on the Northern Wadi Araba fault at the archaeological site of Qasr Tilah, Dead Sea Transform fault system, Jordan." Journal of Seismology 10(4): 415-430.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10950-006-9028-9
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/226271202_Evidence_for_ground-rupturing_earthquakes_on_the_Northern_Wadi_Araba_fault_at_the_archaeological_site_of_Qasr_Tilah_Dead_Sea_Transform_fault_system_Jordan

Kagan, E., et al. (2011). "Intrabasin paleoearthquake and quiescence correlation of the late Holocene Dead Sea." Journal of Geophysical Research 116(B4): B04311.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2010JB007452
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2010JB007452/abstract
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2011JB008870/abstract

Zohar, M., et al. (2016). "Reappraised list of historical earthquakes that affected Israel and its close surroundings." Journal of Seismology: 1-15.

http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10950-016-9575-7

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/301343783_Reappraised_list_of_historical_earthquakes_that_affected_Israel_and_its_close_surroundings?pli=1&loginT=urltxczWWoX6n_aBjGyszn786eq5JQFBM9okIU32OHjnZBx-NaI_fA&uid=re14wRVtMWC39pb9ULNbe0fJcWeqa46VnGb7&cp=re370_fw_sl3_nosum_p1001&ch=reg

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/301553164_Supplement_material_to_reappraised_list_of_historical_earthquakes_that_affected_Israel_and_its_close_surroundings?_sg=qXJ_C0IAOtcwLtqhmymGB1wtBFm8wR7_6GpkH2XrWOfg8t3NtcLb4_Ze7f2BMtS5FSHxYrGgOQZtjmyVBP5nvw.7HOG5LVbdteSFACB2Pak3ZAcVKIGkuxVtKD-16cTsWudxEFNwzJBkpg5xwSePdPvRBNhhkoyfJXfrXGiw9iaRw




Arabic Texts


al-Ya'qubi, Tarikh, ed. T. Houtsma, 2 volumes, Leiden, 1883.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tarikh_al-Yaqubi