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Tel Rehov

Aerial view of Tel Rehov from the northwest Aerial view of Tel Rehov from the southeast (left) Aerial View of Tel Rehov from the northwest

Areas C (left) and D (right, down the slope) are seen in the foreground and Areas B (left) and G (right) in the background

Used with permission from BibleWalks.com



(right) Aerial view of Tel Rehov from the southeast showing erosion that has taken place on this side of the Tel

Click on Image for high resolution magnifiable image

Drone photos taken by Jefferson Williams on 11 June 2023





Names
Transliterated Name Source Name
Tel Rehov Hebrew תל רחוב
Tell es-Sarem Arabic تل الصارم
Ro-ob Greek Pσωβ
Rihib
Introduction
History and Identification

Tel Rehov (Tell es-Sarem), the largest mound in the alluvial Beth-Shean Valley, is located about 6 km west of the Jordan River, 3 km east of the Gilboa Ridge, and 5 km south of Tel Beth-Shean. Rehov dominated the north–south road through the Jordan Valley. The site comprises an upper mound and a lower mound to its north, each covering about 12 a. The upper mound rises to 20 m above the surrounding plain, while the lower mound stands about 8 m above the plain; the summit of the upper mound is at an absolute elevation of 116 m below sea level. A ravine separates the two mounds; a gate may have been located in this ravine on the eastern side of the mound. The closest water source is a spring near the northeastern corner of the mound. Additional springs are found at short distances from the site.

In the early 1920s, P. Abel identified the site with Rehob mentioned in Egyptian texts. The identification is also based on the occurrence of the name in several other historical sources, on the name of the Byzantine Jewish town Rohob (Rehob) located at Ḥorvat Parva (Khirbet Farwana) northwest of the mound (see Vol. 4, pp. 1272–1274), and on the name of the Islamic tomb of Sheikh er-Rihab south of the mound. Surveys conducted by W. F. Albright, A. Bergman (Biran), and N. Zori indicated occupation at the site throughout the Bronze and Iron Ages.

Reḥov (Hebrew for “piazza” or “street”) was the name of several cities mentioned in the Hebrew Bible and other ancient Near Eastern sources. Two cities by that name in the western Galilee are referred to in the city lists of Asher (Josh. 19:28–30). An Aramean city and state of that name are mentioned in Syria, mainly in relation to David’s conquests (2 Sam. 10:6, 8). However, Rehov in the Beth-Shean Valley is never mentioned in the Hebrew Bible.

Several Egyptian sources, however, do make mention of Rehov in the Beth-Shean Valley. The earliest is probably Rahabu in letter no. 2 from Taanach (fifteenth century BCE). In the stele of Seti I found at Beth-Shean (c. 1300 BCE), Pehel, Ḥamat, and Yeno‘am are mentioned as rebelling against the Egyptian administration, while Rehov remained loyal to the Pharaoh. In Papyrus Anastasi I (22:8; thirteenth century BCE), the Egyptian scribe refers to Rehov in relation to Beth-Shean and the crossing of the Jordan. Pharaoh Shishak’s list of conquered cities (c. 925 BCE) mentions Rehov (no. 17) after “the valley” and before Beth-Shean. Several other Egyptian sources refer to a city of this name in the Beth-Shean Valley or to Rehov in western Galilee. These include the execration texts, Tuthmosis III’s topographic list (no. 87; the latter two probably refer to the western Galilee); bronze vessels from a place called Rehov mentioned in a papyrus kept in Turin, Italy, which includes accounts dated to the Twentieth Dynasty; and a notation concerning the production of chariot parts at Rehov in Papyrus Anastasi IV (17:3).

Hebrew University Excavations

The excavations at Tel Rehov were directed by A. Mazar on behalf of the Institute of Archaeology of the Hebrew University in Jerusalem and sponsored by J. Camp. The first six seasons took place between 1997 and 2003. Three excavation areas (A, B, H) were opened on the upper mound, and five (C, D, E, F, G) on the lower mound. Geophysical and geological surveys were also conducted. The number of strata varies in certain areas or sub-areas, and the correlation between them is tentative in certain cases. Yet an attempt was made to correlate local strata dating from the late Iron Age I and onwards in each of the excavation areas with seven general strata (VII–I), which also remain tentative in certain cases.

Maps, Aerial Views, and Plans
Maps, Aerial Views, and Plans

Maps

  • Fig. 1.1 Location Map for Tel Rehov from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.5)
  • Location Map for Tel Rehov from biblewalks.com

Aerial Views

  • Annotated Satellite View of Tel Rehov and environs from biblewalks.com
  • Annotated Satellite View of Tel Rehov showing excavation areas from biblewalks.com
  • Photo 3.1 Aerial Photo from 1945 showing Tel Rehov and vicinity from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.1)
  • Aerial View of Tel Rehov from biblewalks.com
  • Wide Aerial View of Tel Rehov from the northwest from Jefferson Williams
  • Photo 3.7 Aerial Photo of Tel Rehov showing eroded ravine on the eastern slope from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.1)
  • Photo 3.8 Another Aerial Photo of Tel Rehov showing eroded ravine on the eastern slope from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.1)
  • Tel Rehov in Google Earth
  • Tel Rehov on govmap.gov.il

Plans

Site Plans

Normal Size

  • Fig. 3.7 Map of the site showing grid and excavation areas from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.1)

Magnified

  • Fig. 3.7 Map of the site showing grid and excavation areas from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.1)

Area Plans

Area C

Normal Size

  • Fig. 12.7           Plan of Stratum C-2 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Fig. 12.18           Plan of Stratum C-1b from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Fig. 12.19           Plan of Stratum C-1a from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Fig. 12.23           Isometric view of Area C, Stratum C-1a, looking northwest from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)

Magnified

  • Fig. 12.7           Plan of Stratum C-2 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Fig. 12.18           Plan of Stratum C-1b from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Fig. 12.19           Plan of Stratum C-1a from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Fig. 12.23           Isometric view of Area C, Stratum C-1a, looking northwest from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)

Area D

Normal Size

Magnified

Area E

Normal Size

  • Fig. 17.1           Schematic plan of Areas E and F; Iron IIA Stratum F-1 in black from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 17)
  • Fig. 17.2a           Plan of Stratum E-3 (Square E/15) from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 17)
  • Fig. 17.2b           Plan of Stratum E-2 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 17)
  • Fig. 17.3           Plan of Stratum E-1b in Squares D–F/13–16 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 17)
  • Fig. 17.4           Schematic plan of Stratum E-1a, marked with location of sub-plans from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 17)
  • Fig. 17.5           General plan of Stratum E-1a from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 17)

Magnified

  • Fig. 17.1           Schematic plan of Areas E and F; Iron IIA Stratum F-1 in black from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 17)
  • Fig. 17.2a           Plan of Stratum E-3 (Square E/15) from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 17)
  • Fig. 17.2b           Plan of Stratum E-2 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 17)
  • Fig. 17.3           Plan of Stratum E-1b in Squares D–F/13–16 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 17)
  • Fig. 17.4           Schematic plan of Stratum E-1a, marked with location of sub-plans from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 17)
  • Fig. 17.5           General plan of Stratum E-1a from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 17)

Area G

Normal Size

Magnified

Background Information
Geology and Geophysics

  • from Chapter 2 - The Geology and Morphology of the Beth-Shean Valley and Tel Rehov ( Zilberman in Mazar et. al., 2020 v. 1)
  • If you don't want to spend time reading, go through the Figures - they tell much of the story
Figures
Figures

  • Figure 2.1 - Digital Terrain Map showing locations and faults from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.1)
  • Figure 2.5 - Drawing of geological and morphological structure of the Beth-Shean Valley from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.1)

  • Figure 2.6 - Map of the main surface and subsurface structural elements in the Beth-Shean area from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.1)

  • Figure 2.7a - Air Photo showing surface scarps (in black) and subsurface trace (in yellow) of the marginal fault along with (in red) traces of the west to east seismic lines GP-5037 (to the north) and GP-5036 (to the south)

  • Figure 2.7b - West to east seismic line GP-5037 (the northern line)

  • Figure 2.7c - West to east seismic line GP-5036 (the southern line)

    Explanation : The deep faults labeled as "Fault Zone" in the seismic sections (2.7 b and c) were used to help draw the location of the marginal fault (in yellow) on the Air photo (2.7a).

    Tel Rehov Paleoseismic Trench - The location of the Tel Rehov Paleoseismic Trench is pointed to by a yellow arrow in the Air photo (2.7a). Its extent is shown as a white double arrow (labeled Trench TR-1) on GP-5036 (2.7c). This Earthquake Encyclopedia has a webpage for the Tel Rehov Trench. Clicking on the link to the left will open it's page in a new tab.

    Figures 2.7 a-c all come from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.1)

  • Figure 2.11 - Subsurface structure of Tel Rehov interpreted from a N-S seismic line - from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.1)
  • Figure 2.12 - Seismic interpretation of the top of the lower tufa layer along with subsurface faults - from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.1)
  • Figure 2.13 - Buried Fault Scarp (exposed in a trench) which bounds the western part of the mound - from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.1)
  • Figure 2.10 - Topography of Tel, Excavation Areas, and location of seismic lines - from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.1)

Discussion
Abbreviations used

  • BSV - Beth-Shean Valley
  • CJV - Central Jordan Valley
  • DSR - Dead Sea Rift
  • DST - Dead Sea Transform
  • WMF - Western Marginal Fault

The Structural Framework of the Beth-Shean Area

The Beth-Shean Valley [BSV] is bounded by four fault systems (Fig. 2.6). Its eastern boundary is a morphotectonic escarpment 20-40 m high that marks the trace of the Western Marginal Fault (WMF) of the DSR [Dead Sea Rift] (Gardosh and Bruner 1998; Bruner et al. 2002: Zilberman et al. 2004; Meiler et al. 2008). The north-south-oriented escarpment of the marginal fault runs between Sede Trumot in the south and the Nahal Harod stream in the north.

The valley is bounded in the west and north-west by the Gilboa fault belt that runs along the foot of Mt. Gilboa (Hatzor 1991; Shaliv et al. 1991; Gardosh and Bruner 1998; Meiler et al. 2008), which is the northeastern elevated part of the Shekhem Syncline. The southwestern tilted block of the Gilboa is bounded in the northeast by a belt of normal faults that forms a series of northeastward-descending blocks (Hatzor 1991; Gardosh and Bruner 1998).

The northern boundary of the BSV is the WNW (295°)—ESE(115°)-oriented Harod Graben fault system that separates between the southwestward-tilted blocks of the Sheluhat Zev'aim block in the north and Mt. Gilboa in the south (Meiler at al. 2008). The Sheluhat Zeva'im Ridge is a southwest-tilted block, capped by the Pliocene Cover Basalt. It is the southernmost of a series of post-Cover Basalt tilted blocks that dictate the present relief of the eastern Lower Galilee.

The north—west-oriented buried Mehola fault and the younger, subparallel Bardala fault, form the southern border of the BSV. They down-fault the northeastern part of the Faria anticline, which is buried under the Neogene sequence of the valley (Shaliv et al. 1991; Gardosh and Bruner 1998; Meiler et al. 2008) (Fig. 2.6). The Faria anticline is part of the Syrian Arc Fold belt. It is crossed by a north-west oriented normal fault system with a vertical displacement of several hundred meters. This system is part of a north-west-oriented fault system detected in the subsurface of the BSV by Meiler et al. (2008). The most prominent feature of this system is the "Arched Fault" that splits from the WMF near Tel Rehov and crosses the BSV to the northwest, where it appears to merge with the fault that runs along the northeast-facing mountain front of Mt. Gilboa.

From the above data, it appears that the Beth-Shean Valley is a structural block bounded between the elevated (about 1200 m) Gilboa block in the west and the subsided (about 2800 m; Meiler et al. 2008) DSR in the east.

The Western Marginal Fault (WMF) of the Dead Sea Rift (DSR)

The WMF of the DSR forms a prominent morphological escarpment 20-40 m high that separates the BSV [Beth-Shean Valley] from the CJV [Central Jordan Valley]. This escarpment is underlain by a system of deep-seated fault belts several hundred meters wide, encountered in several seismic reflection lines (Gardosh and Bruner 1998; Bruner et al. 2002; Meiler et al. 2008) (Figs. 2.5-2.7). The faults are inclined eastward towards the deep Kinnarot-CJV basin (Meiler et al. 2008) that is bounded in the east by the DST [Dead Sea Transform].

The escarpment formed by the vertical displacement along the fault is built of a tufa sequence that also underlies the surface of the BSV, as well as the western part of the CJV, thus reflecting a post-tufa deposition (post 20 ka) vertical offset of 20-40 m.

The southern escarpment (termed here the "Rehov Fault") extends from Sde Trumot in the south to Tel Rehov in the north (Figs. 2.5, 2.7a). It is a 15-20 m-high arched escarpment, which separates a high tufa plateau in the west from a flat surface covered by soil in the east. The northern escarpment (termed here the "Beth-Shean Fault") starts north of Tel Rehov and extends northward to the CJV (Fig. 2.5). The morphological expression of this fault can be traced northward to Kibbutz 'En Hanatziv, where it forms a clear step. Several springs are located along the trace of the fault: 'En Neshev, which is located some 600 m north of Tel Rehov, and 'En Naftali and 'En Yehuda, which are located in Kibbutz 'En Hanatziv. North of 'En Hanatziv, the steps of the fault merge with the 40 m-high escarpment that runs northward towards Beth-Shean (Figs. 2.1, 2.5, 2.7a).

North of Beth-Shean, the escarpment splits into two branches: one continues northward towards the Sea of Galilee and the second runs to the northwest towards Tel Beth-Shean and seems to merge with the north-south-oriented fault system that separates between the tilted blocks of Sheluhat Zev'aim and the CJV [Central Jordan Valley].

A deep seismic line, 1800 m long, and a short (500 m), shallow high-resolution seismic reflection line, which were shot across the escarpment of the marginal fault some 300 m north of Tel Rehov (Bruner et al. 2002) detected a fault belt some 400 m wide (Fig. 2.7c). The main stem of the marginal fault exhibits a dip of 70° eastward, while a low-angle (30-40°) array of listric faults splits from the main fault to the west, forming a fault belt. All these faults seem to displace the surface and some of them are expressed as N—NW-oriented low steps or undulations in the cultivated area.

Paleoseismology of the Western Marginal Fault

A paleoseismic trench was excavated across a branch of the marginal fault of the DSR, some 300 m north of Tel Rehov (Fig 2.7a, c). In this area, a gentle slope, 40-50 m high, separates the flat tufa plateau in the west from a lower surface capped by soil in the east. The total vertical offset along this segment of the fault, following the deposition of the Late Pleistocene tufa sequence, is estimated to be 50-60 m.

The trenched fault is the western branch of a low-angle normal fault belt, which is part of the WMF belt of the DSR. It was detected in the seismic line that was shot across the escarpment. It is visible up to a depth of 0.5 sec (two-way travel time), near the top of the Miocene Hordos Formation (Fig. 2.7b, c).

The trench exposed a fault escarpment about 3.0 m high (Figs. 2.8-2.9), built of tufa. The age of the tufa in the lower block is 64±5 ka, and in the upper block 32 ±2.5 ka (determined by the U/Th method). The time period between the deposition of the upper part of the tufa and the colluvial sediments exposed in the trench (i.e., almost 30 ky) is not represented in the sequence. This sedimentary hiatus is related to the erosion of the uplifted block which is located on the upper part of the tectonic step.

The lower block is overlain by two colluvial units built of silty gray-brown sediments, consisting mainly of reworked soils and tufa fragments, with scattered pieces of pottery. The deposition of each of these units was triggered by an earthquake associated with a vertical displacement of about 1.5 m that occurred sometime in the 7th and 8th centuries BCE. These two co-seismic displacements correspond to earthquakes with a magnitude of M=6.5-6.7, which are usually accompanied by surface rupture 20-30 km long (Wells and Coppersmith 1994). However, only one strong earthquake from this period is mentioned in historic catalogues (Ben Menahem 1991).

This earthquake, which is also mentioned in the book of Amos, occurred in 759 BCE and caused great damage in the Galilee, Samaria and Judea. The magnitude of this earthquake has been estimated from historical records as ML=7.3 and it is assumed that its epicenter was located some 140 km north of Jerusalem, probably near Hazor (Ben Menahem 1991).
  • [JW: The Amos Quakes appear to have been at least two large earthquakes rather than one. This was discovered by Kagan et. al. (2011:Appendix C) who observed two seismites at three locations in the Dead Sea separated by up to a few decades of deposition.
  • Two closely timed earthquakes were also observed in Deir 'Alla
  • Destruction observed at Hazor was not extensive and may have occurred to abandoned or weakened structures. There is no good reason to place the epicenter(s) that far north
  • Ben-Menahem (1991) was unaware that there were two earthquakes when he composed his catalog and surmised that only a very large magnitude earthquake could explain all the archeoseismic evidence in the north and south of Israel.
  • The archeoseismic evidence in the north and south of Israel is explained by two (or more) earthquakes
  • Historical records do not allow us to assign a Magnitude as the description of the earthquake in the older sources is too brief. No locations for seismic destruction is mentioned in Amos. Pseudo-Zechariah mentioned that the earthquake was felt in Jerusalem and the passage suggests that the shaking was intense.
  • Ben-Menahem (1991) also assumed that the chronological synchronisms of Josephus, writing about one of the Amos Quakes ~850 years later and not citing a source, were accurate. This was not a good assumption as Josephus has a tendency to embellish his narratives. As a result, while 759 BCE is a possible date for one of the Amos earthquakes, the best the historical sources can do is to constrain the dates to between 766/765 and 751 BCE.
  • See more in the entry for the Amos Quakes
  • If you need to consult an earthquake catalog, consult this one, Ambraseys (2009), Guidoboni et. al. (1994), Guidoboni and Comastri (2005), or Zohar (2019). Other catalogs contain a number of errors.]
An additional seismic event is represented in the trench by fractures that cross the entire young sequence that covers the fault escarpment. This event is not associated with vertical displacement and it might reflect a more distant earthquake. The age of this event is not clear, but it could be related to the 743 CE earthquake that destroyed the nearby town of Beth-Shean.

[JW: That earthquake struck in January 749 CE - See the Sabbatical Year Quakes entry.]

Young Tectonic Activity in the BSV and the Modification of the Drainage Systems

The paleoseismic analyses of the tectonic activity along the WMF illustrates only part of the tectonic activity in this region, which is induced by the left lateral movement along the DST that runs in this area along the eastern margin of the DSR. The most prominent feature related to this activity is the escarpment that separates the BSV from the CJV. This fault escarpment is underlain by a deep-seated, east-dipping fault belt dominated by vertical displacement, which accommodates the subsidence of the Kinnarot-CJV basin (Meiler et al. 2008).

The deformation of the landscape by the young tectonic activity is manifested by the configuration of the stream network in the BSV and the CJV. In the BSV, the escarpment forms a barrier to the east-flowing streams that drain Mt. Gilboa and then shift northward towards Nahal Harod (Fig. 2.5). This situation is attributed to a westward tilting of the Beth-Shean block (the Beth-Shean Valley) by the tectonic phase that established the present escarpment. This change in the flow direction post-dates the tufa sequence that was deposited in eastward-flowing streams.

The situation on the eastern, down-faulted block (the Central Jordan Valley) is much more complicated; the present eastward gradient of this area is well manifested by the flow direction of the main springs and Nahal Harod. However, the geometry of the abandoned stream network indicates that a previous westward-flowing channel system drained this area. Therefore, it seems that the post-tufa tectonic activity along the marginal fault also caused a westward tilting of the eastern, down-faulted block.

The establishment of this drainage system is probably young, not older than the mid-Holocene. This conclusion is based on observations made by Neev (1976) and Koucky and Smith (1986) that in the early Holocene, the CJV was still covered by swamps and ponds. The development of the present drainage systems was induced by the establishment of the Jordan River and desiccation of the ponds and swamps that covered the CJV.

It is not clear when the westward-descending terrain of the western part of the CJV was inverted to the present eastward gradient. However, if we accept the observations of Neev (1976), we must assume that post-Chalcolithic period tectonic activity was responsible for this gradient inversion, which was also associated with the first incision of the Jordan River in the CJV. The preservation of this channel system in spite of a thousand years of intensive cultivation, suggests that the inversion of the drainage direction occurred in historic times.

Tel Rehov

Tel Rehov is located 4 km south of Beth-Shean on the tectonic and morphological boundary between the Beth-Shean and the Central Jordan Valleys (Figs. 2.1, 2.5, 2.7a). The tell is separated from the tufa plateau of Moshav Rehov in the south by a narrow valley occupied today by an artificial drainage canal and from the northern tufa plateau by a valley, probably a route of an ancient spring, occupied today by dense vegetation indicating a high ground-water level. To the east, the tell rises above a flat east-descending surface underlain by tufa near the marginal fault and by lacustrine sediments of the Lisan Formation further eastward (Rozenbaum 2009).

The mound of Tel Rehov is located in a tectonic depression that developed between two segments of the Western Marginal Fault of the DSR (Figs. 2.5-2.6): the Rehov Fault in the south and the Beth-Shean Fault in the north. The WMF that runs east of the mound is expressed in this area as a fault array several hundred meters wide, which forms a series of low morphologic steps descending to the east, associated with east-flowing springs that create narrow gorges in the uplifted blocks.

The mound of Tel Rehov is composed of two levels separated by a steep step (Fig. 2.10). The height of the southern mound is 20-25 m above its surroundings, whereas the northern low mound is only 8-10 m high. The base of the step that separates the two parts of the tell is drained eastward by a channel, which, together with the base of the escarpment, forms a morphologic lineament. A tufa bank, which is exposed at the western foot of the mound, indicates that the first settlement was built on a small hill built of tufa sequence.

The Subsurface Relief

The subsurface relief of Tel Rehov is hidden at present under the anthropogenic sediments of the mound. In order to evaluate the relief of the underlying terrain and to examine the relations between its morphology and the fault system in this area, several high resolution seismic lines were shot by the GII across the mound (Fig. 2.10), applying a combination of reflection and refraction wave methods (for details, see Zilberman et al. 2002). Mapping of seismic reflectors and velocity estimation along them based on refraction waves is carried out in three stages (Fig. 2.11):
  1. refraction stack
  2. inversion
  3. tomography
Results

A three-dimensonal map of the contact plane between the two seismic units identified in the area of Tel Rehov (Fig. 2.12) indicates that human settlement on the tell began on an apparently uplifted tectonic block approximately 10 meters above its surroundings. The western border of the block is steep and relatively straight, whereas its eastern part slopes moderately eastward. In the northeast, there is a subsurface step along which the seismic contact plane drops about 6.0 m to the north. This step coincides roughly with the northern slope of the low mound. The morphological step that separates the two parts of the tell is also manifested, albeit indistinctly, in the buried relief below the anthropogenic section. The map indicates that beneath the morphologic step there is a low tectonic step, 3.0-4.0 m high, which is underlain by a fault.

A steep slope also characterizes the southern margin of the uplifted block, were the seismic contact surface between the anthropogenic section and the tufa is some 15-20 m lower than the tufa sequence exposed in the slope of the Rehov tufa plateau, just south of the tell. This suggests that a NW—SE trending fault separates the tufa plateau in the south from the tectonic depression of Tel Rehov in the north. This is evidently the tip of a fault that runs southward and separates the elevated Rehov tufa plateau from the lower eastern block on which Kibbutz Sde Eliyyahu is located.

Faults were also identified along the northern (seismic lines 133, 137), southern (seismic lines 135, 136) and western (seismic line 134) margins of the tell. The west-facing escarpment of the western fault was exposed in an E—W-oriented deep trench excavated across its subsurface trace (Fig. 2.13). On the other hand, no fault was identified along the moderate eastern margins of the uplifted block (seismic lines 135, 137).

Therefore, the overall view of Tel Rehov is of a tectonic block which is tilted to the east and bounded on three sides (west, north and south) by faults or sets of faults. The seismic sections also indicate the presence of several faults that cross the uplifted block of the tell.

Mound Morphology and Site-formation processes

Figures and Photos
Figures and Photos

  • Photo 3.7 - Aerial Photo of Tel Rehov showing eroded ravine on the eastern slope from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.1)
  • Photo 3.8 - Another Aerial Photo of Tel Rehov showing eroded ravine on the eastern slope from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.1)
  • Figure 3.4 - Plan View and Section Views through the Tel from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.5)

Discussion

... THE MOUND: LOCATION, MORPHOLOGY AND SITE-FORMATION PROCESSES

... The morphology of the mound as seen today is probably the result of site-formation processes which occurred during its history due to both tectonic and human activities. A geophysical survey of the mound enabled reconstruction of the natural topography and the depth of the anthropogenic deposits (Chapter 2; Zilberman et al. 2002). The results indicate the existence of an elongated ridge stretching along the western side of the mound from its top until the northwestern corner of the lower mound, with its top level at ca. 140–143 m below sea level (corresponding to ca. 74–77 m in terms of the expedition heights; see explanation below). Thus, the uppermost point of the upper mound in the south should be ca. 24 m above bed-rock, and the topsoil in Area C (in the northwestern part of the lower mound in the north) would be ca. 12 m above the tufa bedrock in that part of the mound (Chapter 2, Figs. 2.10–2.11). A small hill, evidently of tectonic origin, was defined below the top of the upper mound; perhaps this would become the core of the fortified Early Bronze Age settlement defined in Area H (Chapter 5). A series of geological faults were mapped along the survey lines, as follows:
  • along the northern edge of the lower mound
  • in the south of the upper mound
  • three faults in the area of the mound itself, the largest one at the eastern side of the lower mound, including the ravine between the upper and lower mounds south of Area E (Chapter 2, Figs. 2.10,2.12); see Fig. 3.4 for schematic sections of the present topography of the tell.
A prominent feature of the mound is that while its northern, western and southern slopes are steep and homogeneous along their entire length, the eastern side is gutted and uneven, due to two elements. The first is an east–west ravine that drains towards the east and separates most of the lower mound from the upper mound; the two parts are joined only at their western edge. This ravine was probably created as a result of a subsidiary geological fault, perpendicular to a north–south fault which runs just east of the mound and is itself a subsidiary of the Dead Sea Rift (Chapter 2). It is assumed that the ravine was filled with eroded material from both the upper and lower parts of the mound, although we did not examine this issue during the excavations. Such severe erosion may explain the fact that mudbrick walls of Stratum IV(9th century BCE) in Areas C, E and F in the lower mound were found just below topsoil, with almost no accumulation of brick debris above their extant remains. The second feature is a deep, wide depression in the eastern slope of the upper mound which caused wide-scale damage to this part of the mound (Figs. 3.3; 3.7; Photos 3.2–3.3, 3.7–3.8, 3.12). This feature appears to have been man-made, most probably the result of quarrying earth from the tell for fertilizing fields during the last hundreds of years(see the report on Area A3, Chapter 6). Such an operation, known in Arabic as sabbakhin, is a well-known phenomenon at ancient sites in the Levant, yet here it is on a particularly large scale. An alternative explanation of this damage is that it was created by a combination of tectonic changes, erosion and human activity.

The lower mound, ca. 315 m along the east–west axis and 135 m along the north–south axis, rises to 8–9 m above the plain on the west and north, while the upper mound (275 m on the east–west axis and 237 m on the north–south axis) rises to ca. 20 m above the plain on the west and ca. 25 m above the ravine that traverses the tell from west to east at the juncture between the upper and lower mounds. The surface of both the upper and lower mounds slopes down to the east; thus, the triangulation point on the western end of the upper mound (-116.26 m, our 100 m datum line) is 15 m higher than the topsoil at the eastern edge of Area A2, 125m to the east, where Iron IIB remains were found just below topsoil. The western end of the lower city at the top of the mound’s slopes in Area C is ca. 16 m higher than the eastern end of that part of the city, near Area E, ca. 300 m away (Fig. 3.4).

The downslope of the topsoil surface to the east and the ravine between the lower and upper mounds may have been created by tectonic activity during historical times. This suggestion is supported by the fact that the mound is located between two segments of the Rehov–Beth-Shean geological fault, and that a minor fault was detected between the upper and lower mounds, as noted above. These subsidiary faults of the Dead Sea Rift are still active and could have affected the shape of the mound during historical times (Chapter 2). Evidence of the slope down from west to east was also detected inside the excavation areas and comprises a prominent site-formation feature. For example, in AreaD, Late Bronze and Iron I layers and floor surfaces were found tilted from west to east, although they are on the western slope of the mound, which would infer an opposite tilt direction. In Area C, elevations of floors in the eastern side of the area are ca. 0.6–1 m lower than floors of the same stratum in the western side of the area, ca. 20 m away; such differences may indicate that by the- 10th and 9th centuries BCE, the slope down from west to east already existed.

Evidence for recent tectonic movements was also found at the bottom of the step-trench in Area D on the western slope of the lower mound, in the form of a 1.3 m-high step in the tufa bedrock in Square K/5, which was interpreted by Zilberman as the outcome of young tectonic activity (see Chapter 2, Figs. 2.8-2.9). This down-faulted block (level 74.70 m) was not reached in the deep backhoe trench that was dug in the field west of the mound (base level of 73.85 m), implying that this is possibly only one step in a graduated fault zone, which resulted in a considerable subsidence of the area west of the mound prior to the accumulation of thick colluvial sediments to its west (see further below). This fault was initially detected in the geo-seismic study of the mound (Zilberman et al. 2002). The dating of the faulting activity is unclear; however, it could, at least in part, be later than the earliest occupation of the lower mound in the 15th century BCE.

The lowest part of the western slope of the mound was buried under layers of colluvium accumulated over the last 3000 years. This became evident in Area D, where Stratum D-11, the lowest Late Bronze Age occupation layer, was exposed 2.15 m lower than the current level of the plain to the west of the mound (Chapter 15; Fig. 15.2). This indicates a substantial rise of the field level in historical times, as well as significant changes in the topography and visible prominence of the mound, at least on the western side. A backhoe trench dug into the field ca. 8 m to the west of the edge of the mound opposite Area D, revealed an accumulation of brown colluvial soils at least 4.3 m deep (as much as the backhoe could reach); this layer contained only Roman/Byzantine sherds, probably eroded from Khirbet Farwana, ca. 0.7 km northwest of the mound, the location of the Roman-Byzantine town Rohob. The accumulation of such thick deposits during the last 3000 years (or less) is probably the result of massive erosion from the Gilboa ridge, located ca. 3 km west of the mound, possibly through ancient channels not clearly visible in the present topography of the valley, but that can be detected through geophysical inquiries (Zilberman et al. 2002; Zilberman, Amit and Bruner 2004; Chapter 2, this volume). Similar phenomena were observed near other mounds in the Southern Levant, e.g., Lachish and Megiddo (Rosen 2006, with previous literature).

Erosion along the slopes of the mound is another site-formation feature. In Area D, all eleven strata revealed in the step-trench were found cut along their western margins, so that the western portions of all the structures were missing. The extent of the erosion is unknown, but it may be assumed that it caused the elimination of ca. 1-2 m of each stratum. No fortifications were found along the slope in Area D, but it seems that an entire fortification system could not just disappear due to erosion and we thus concluded that such fortifications did not exist during the entire LB IB-Iron Age IIA occupation sequence represented in Area D (Chapter 15).

On the north and south, the mound is bounded by east-west brooks. An unnamed spring is located at the bottom of the northern slope of the lower mound; today, a substantial part of this area is covered by dense reeds and vegetation typical of an area adjoining a water source (see Photo 3.3, top). Three additional springs ('En Neshev, 'En Merljav and 'En Rehov) are found 350-450 m to the north and east of the mound; these must have been the main water sources of the ancient city. Five additional springs are located at a distance of up to 2 km to the north and east; two of them are in the area of Kibbutz 'En Hanatziv, 1.5-2 km north of the mound (known today as 'En Zvi and 'En Yehudah, which are probably the springs marked as Ain Nusrah and Ain Nuseirah on the SWP map; see Fig. 3.1 and Chapter 1, Fig. 1.3).

The SWP map marks a "Roman Road" 500 m due west of the mound, just below or parallel to the modern Route 90, the main road through the Jordan Valley to Beth-Shean (Fig. 3.1; Photo 3.1, upper left). It may be assumed that a similar road was in use during the Bronze and Iron Ages, and that an east-west road led to Transjordan, as alluded to in Papyrus Anastasi I.

Gates to the lower city may have been located at the eastern end of the outlet of the ravine between the upper and lower mounds and, perhaps, also near the western join between the lower and upper mounds, where there is a topographic depression with a modern dirt road that ascends the mound from the west. A ramp visible on the northern slope of the lower mound could be evidence for an ancient road that climbed the slope to a possible entrance located between Areas C and E, although this may have been a modern feature (Photo 3.11).

Detailed Table of Contents from Final Report (2020)

Volume 1 - Chapters 1-11
Volume 2 - Chapters 12-14
Volume 3 - Chapters 15-21
Volume 4 - Chapters 22-35


Volume 5 - Chapters 36-55

Chronology
Stratigraphy and Time Periods

Site Wide Stratigraphy from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.1)

Stratigraphic Table

Mazar et. al. (2020 v.5)

Area C Stratigraphy from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)

Table 12.1

Correlation of local Area C and general tell strata

Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)


Stratigraphy and chronology in Area D, with correlation to Area C from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.3)

Table 15.1

Stratigraphy and chronology in Area D, with correlation to Area C

Mazar et. al. (2020 v.3)


Correlation of the Iron Age stratigraphic sequence in Areas C, D, E, and F from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.3)

Table 17.2

Correlation of the Iron Age stratigraphic sequence in Areas C, D, E, and F

Mazar et. al. (2020 v.3)


Correlation of Strata - Areas G and C from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.3)

Table 20.1

Correlation of strata – Areas G and C

Mazar et. al. (2020 v.3)


Dates of ceramic phases in the Levant from Finkelstein (2013)

Table 1

Dates of ceramic phases in the Levant and the transition between them according to recent radiocarbon results (based on a Bayesian model, 63 percent agreement between the model and the data)

Finkelstein (2013:7)

Site Wide Stratigraphy from Stern et al (2008)

Stratigraphy of Tel Rehov

Amihai Mazar in Stern et. al. (2008)

Time periods from Stern et al (1993)

Age Dates Comments
Early Bronze IA-B 3300-3000 BCE
Early Bronze II 3000-2700 BCE
Early Bronze III 2700-2200 BCE
Middle Bronze I 2200-2000 BCE ‎EB IV - Intermediate Bronze
Middle Bronze IIA 2000-1750 BCE
Middle Bronze IIB 1750-1550 BCE
Late Bronze I 1550-1400 BCE
Late Bronze IIA 1400-1300 BCE
Late Bronze IIB 1300-1200 BCE
Iron IA 1200-1150 BCE
Iron IB 1150-1100 BCE
Iron IIA 1000-900 BCE
Iron IIB 900-700 BCE
Iron IIC 700-586 BCE
Babylonian & Persian 586-332 BCE
Early Hellenistic 332-167 BCE
Late Hellenistic 167-37 BCE
Early Roman 37 BCE - 132 CE
Herodian 37 BCE - 70 CE
Late Roman 132-324 CE
Byzantine 324-638 CE
Early Arab 638-1099 CE Umayyad & Abbasid‎
Crusader & Ayyubid 1099-1291 CE
Late Arab 1291-1516 CE Fatimid & Mameluke‎
Ottoman 1516-1917 CE

Time periods from Meyers et al (1997)

Phase Dates Variants
Early Bronze IA-B 3400-3100 BCE
Early Bronze II 3100-2650 BCE
Early Bronze III 2650-2300 BCE
Early Bronze IVA-C 2300-2000 BCE Intermediate Early-Middle Bronze, Middle Bronze I‎
Middle Bronze I 2000-1800 BCE ‎Middle Bronze IIA
Middle Bronze II 1800-1650 BCE ‎Middle Bronze IIB‎
Middle Bronze III 1650-1500 BCE ‎‎Middle Bronze IIC
Late Bronze IA 1500-1450 BCE
Late Bronze IIB 1450-1400 BCE
Late Bronze IIA 1400-1300 BCE
Late Bronze IIB 1300-1200 BCE
Iron IA 1200-1125 BCE
Iron IB 1125-1000 BCE
Iron IC 1000-925 BCE Iron IIA‎
Iron IIA 925-722 BCE Iron IIB‎
Iron IIB 722-586 BCE ‎Iron IIC
Iron III 586-520 BCE Neo-Babylonian‎
Early Persian 520-450 BCE
Late Persian 450-332 BCE
Early Hellenistic 332-200 BCE
Late Hellenistic 200-63 BCE
Early Roman 63 BCE - 135 CE
Middle Roman 135-250 CE
Late Roman 250-363 CE
Early Byzantine 363-460 CE
Late Byzantine 460-638 CE
Early Arab 638-1099 CE
Crusader & Ayyubid 1099-1291 CE
Late Arab 1291-1516 CE
Ottoman 1516-1917 CE

The Iron Age in the Southern Levant

Potential archaeoseismic evidence in Area D

Although Mazar in Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 15:1) noted that continuous occupation was detected in Area D from Late Bronze I to Iron IIA, a time span of some 600 years and that no major destruction events were identified between the strata, there are a number of descriptions of potentially seismically induced structural damage in their report on Area D. It may be the case that in some parts of Mazar et. al. (2020)'s Final Report, destruction is defined solely as destruction due to military conquest. Rotem, Sumaka'i Fink, and Mazar in Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3 Ch.15:57) report that Iron IIA strata in Area D (D-2 and younger) were very damaged, apparently due to erosion.

Stratum D-10

Plans

Plans

Discussion

Davidovich, Sumaka'i Fink, and Mazar in Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 15:16-19) report brick debris related to collapse of Building DA in Stratum D-10 while noting that it remains unclear whether a human or natural agent initiated the collapse of the building. Davidovich, Sumaka'i Fink, and Mazar in Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 15:20) later noted that
There is no clear evidence for a sudden or violent destruction of this building, although very little of its interior was excavated. It is possible that the building went out of use due to deterioration, damage by earthquakes or other natural causes. It is also possible that the building was abandoned as part of socio-political changes in the city during the transition between the 14th and 13th centuries BCE.
Stratum D-10 was dated to LB IIA in the 14th century BCE

Stratum D-9

Plans and Photos

Plans and Photos

  • Figure 15.7            Plan of Stratum D-9b from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 15)
  • Figure 15.8            Plan of Stratum D-9a from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 15)
  • Photo 15.28            Squares M–N/4–5 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 15)
  • Photo 15.29            Squares M–N/4–5, from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 15)
  • Photo 15.30            Squares N/4–5 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 15)
  • Photo 15.31            Squares N/5 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 15)

Discussion

Davidovich, Sumaka'i Fink, and Mazar in Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 15:22-26) report that two units, either rooms or courtyards in D-9b Building DB were delineated by three walls (8943, 9923, 1904) (Photos 15.28–15.31) while noting that Wall 9923 sloped considerably to the east, with a difference of up to 0.4 m in elevation of the lower level over its length. They noted the presence of other tilted features in this area which possibly resulted from young [er?] tectonic activity. They also noted that the wall ended abruptly on the east, without a clear edge, and with a slight protrusion to the south, the nature of which remained unclear.

Davidovich, Sumaka'i Fink, and Mazar in Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 15:22-26) noted that the foundations of oven 9924 near to Wall 9923 were slightly tilted to the east, in accordance with Floor 9925 and Wall 9923.

Strata D-9a and D-9b were dated to LB IIA/IIB in the late 14th-13th centuries BCE.

Stratum D-8'

Figures and Tables
Figures and Tables

  • Table 15.1            Stratigraphy and chronology in Area D, with correlation to Area C from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 17)
  • Table 15.2            Locus and basket numbers from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 17)
  • Figure 15.1            Location of section drawings on superimposed plan of Strata D-11–D-2 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 17)
  • Figure 15.2            Schematic section of Area D from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 17)
  • Figure 15.10            Plan of Stratum D-8' from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 15)

  • Plans: Figs. 15.10
Discussion

The Stratum D-8 floor to the west of Wall 8932 was covered with a 0.3–0.4 m-thick layer of brick debris, containing compacted whitish brick fragments, which most probably originated from Wall 8932. In Square M/5, this debris layer was superimposed by a 0.01–0.02 m-thick pinkish clay layer (7938; Figs. 15.10, 15.17), which was covered by a thick (0.05–0.1 m) layer of dark gray ash. This layer sloped from west (80.40 m) to east (80.26 m); it extended into the northern section of the square, but faded away in its southern part, as well as in Square N/5 (9908; Fig. 15.10). On 7938 was a 0.15–0.2 m-thick accumulation, rich in sherds and animal bones, which may be explained as some kind of a localized ephemeral activity, post-dating Stratum D-8 and pre-dating Stratum D-7b; this phase was denoted D-8'. No evidence for this activity was found in Squares M–N/4.

Pottery from loci attributed to this layer is presented together with that of Stratum D-8 (Figs. 16.16–16.22), and is dated to LB IIB [13th century BCE].

Layer between Strata D-8 and D-7b (Post D-8)

Figures and Tables
Figures and Tables

  • Table 15.1            Stratigraphy and chronology in Area D, with correlation to Area C from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 17)
  • Table 15.2            Locus and basket numbers from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 17)
  • Figure 15.1            Location of section drawings on superimposed plan of Strata D-11–D-2 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 17)
  • Figure 15.2            Schematic section of Area D from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 17)
  • Figure 15.10            Plan of Stratum D-8' from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 15)

  • Plans: Figs. 15.10
Discussion

Covering the brick debris and walls related to Stratum D-8, a 0.35–0.6 m-thick layered accumulation was found all over the excavated area (2826 in Square M/4, 7915 and 7937 in M/5, 8927 and 8929 in N/4, 9904 in N/5) (Fig. 15.11). It was characterized by a soft brown layered matrix containing a few brick fragments, very rich in charred material (charcoal and grain), as well as sherds, bones, and fine plaster fragments of unknown origin. The layering of this accumulation was more pronounced in the eastern part, where the layers sloped down into the eastern section of Squares N/4–5. Several thin layers consisted of grayish material, possibly the remains of ash or decayed organics.

No architectural elements were noted in association with this thick accumulation. It clearly sealed the remains of Stratum D-8 and was superimposed by Stratum D-7b elements, most of which were pits dug into the aforementioned accumulation (see below). Therefore, it seems to belong to a post-D-8 and pre-D-7 phase. Nevertheless, it is difficult to suggest any clear explanation for such a thick accumulation, unless a gap in occupation enabled natural forces of sedimentation to operate undisrupted for an unknown time span. Another option is that this layer was a constructional fill related to the building of Stratum D-7b. Although no substantial architecture was found in the latter, the small size of the excavated area does not allow us to reach secure conclusions, and this option remains viable.

Pottery from loci attributed to this layer is presented together with that of Stratum D-8 in Figs. 16.16–16.23.

Stratum D-7a

Figures and Tables

Figures and Tables

  • Table 15.1            Stratigraphy and chronology in Area D, with correlation to Area C from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 17)
  • Table 15.2            Locus and basket numbers from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 17)
  • Figure 15.1            Location of section drawings on superimposed plan of Strata D-11–D-2 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 17)
  • Figure 15.2            Schematic section of Area D from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 17)
  • Figure 15.12            Plan of Stratum D-7b from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 15)
  • Figure 15.13            Plan of Stratum D-7a (encircled numbers denote foundation deposits as listed in the text) from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 15)
  • Figure 15.14            Plan of Stratum D-7a' from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 15)
  • Figure 15.17a            Section 1a from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 15)
  • Figure 15.17b            Section 1b from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 15)
  • Figure 15.19            Section 3 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 15)
  • Figure 15.20            Section 4 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 15)
  • Figure 15.21            Section 5 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 15)
  • Photo 15.40            Squares M–N/4–5 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 15)
  • Photo 15.41            Squares N/4–5 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 15)
  • Photo 15.42            Squares L–N/4 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 15)
  • Photo 15.45            Squares N–M/4–5 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 15)
  • Photo 15.46            Northeast corner of Square M/5 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 15)
  • Photo 15.47            Square M/5 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 15)
  • Photo 15.48            Square N/4 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 15)
  • Photo 15.49            Square M/5 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 15)
  • Photo 15.50            Square N/5 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 15)
  • Photo 15.51            Square N/5 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 15)
  • Photo 15.52            Square N/4 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 15)
  • Photo 15.53            Square N/4 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 15)
  • Photo 15.54a            Square M/4 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 15)
  • Photo 15.54b            Square M/4 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 15)
  • Photo 15.55            Square N/5 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 15)
  • Photo 15.56            Squares N/4–5 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 15)
  • Photo 15.57            Squares N/4–5 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 15)

Discussion

Davidovich, Sumaka'i Fink, and Mazar in Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 15:40-41) reported three lamp-and-bowl foundation deposits associated with Wall 7906, each comprised of one lamp and one bowl, the latter usually placed above the former. A deposit labeled as the second deposit (No. 6, Photo 15.46; Fig. 16.24:13–14) was found immediately to the south of the stone foundation of Wall 7906 in the eastern portion of Square M/5. It is possible that this foundation deposit had shifted slightly from its original position, as the lamp and bowl were found at an angle and not horizontally laid.

Davidovich, Sumaka'i Fink, and Mazar in Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 15:40-41) also noted

  • the foundation of Wall 8917 (Photo 15.50), parallel to Wall 7906, was tilted to the east (80.84–81.05 m along the 2.3 m exposed part of the wall).
  • Floor 9906, made of basalt and limestone fieldstones, cobbles and pebbles, with occasional basalt grinding stone fragments, sloped to the east (80.92–81.07 m), in accordance with the foundations of Walls 7906 (eastern part) and 8917, possibly due to post-depositional processes, such as young tectonic activities.
  • difficult to interpret stratigraphy in the southwestern unit of Stratum D-7a which included brick debris layers and a floor tilted to the west


Strata D-7a and D-7b were dated to Iron IA [12th century BCE until ca. 1130 BCE(?)].

Stratum D-7a'

Figures and Tables

Figures and Tables

  • Table 15.1            Stratigraphy and chronology in Area D, with correlation to Area C from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 17)
  • Table 15.2            Locus and basket numbers from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 17)
  • Figure 15.1            Location of section drawings on superimposed plan of Strata D-11–D-2 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 17)
  • Figure 15.2            Schematic section of Area D from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 17)
  • Figure 15.12            Plan of Stratum D-7b from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 15)
  • Figure 15.13            Plan of Stratum D-7a (encircled numbers denote foundation deposits as listed in the text) from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 15)
  • Figure 15.14            Plan of Stratum D-7a' from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 15)
  • Figure 15.17a            Section 1a from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 15)
  • Figure 15.17b            Section 1b from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 15)
  • Figure 15.19            Section 3 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 15)
  • Figure 15.20            Section 4 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 15)
  • Figure 15.21            Section 5 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 15)
  • Photo 15.40            Squares M–N/4–5 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 15)
  • Photo 15.41            Squares N/4–5 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 15)
  • Photo 15.42            Squares L–N/4 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 15)
  • Photo 15.45            Squares N–M/4–5 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 15)
  • Photo 15.46            Northeast corner of Square M/5 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 15)
  • Photo 15.47            Square M/5 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 15)
  • Photo 15.48            Square N/4 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 15)
  • Photo 15.49            Square M/5 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 15)
  • Photo 15.50            Square N/5 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 15)
  • Photo 15.51            Square N/5 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 15)
  • Photo 15.52            Square N/4 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 15)
  • Photo 15.53            Square N/4 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 15)
  • Photo 15.54a            Square M/4 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 15)
  • Photo 15.54b            Square M/4 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 15)
  • Photo 15.55            Square N/5 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 15)
  • Photo 15.56            Squares N/4–5 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 15)
  • Photo 15.57            Squares N/4–5 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 15)

Discussion

Davidovich, Sumaka'i Fink, and Mazar in Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 15:45-46) report the following:
Building DC of Stratum D-7a collapsed and the occupation layers were covered by brick debris, although no evidence for a violent destruction and fire was found. The collapse layer, ranging in depth from 0.3 m to 1.2 m, was excavated as different loci in the various parts of the building: 2843 in the southwestern unit, 7945 in the southeastern unit, 7935/8903 in the southern and western parts of Square N/5, and 4847/4817/4812 in the northwestern part. The collapse contained brick fragments of both the typical yellowish bricks of the initial phase of Stratum D-7a and other types of bricks (white, gray, brown, reddish) used in this stratum and its later phase. These collapse layers were found immediately below topsoil in Squares M–N/4 and below floor levels related to Stratum D-6b in Squares M–N/5. In the main part of Square N/5, installations of Stratum D-6b penetrated considerably into the earlier deposits (Figs. 15.20– 15.21), removing much of the brick debris of Stratum D-7.4

The pottery assemblage of Stratum D-7a–b is similar to that of Strata S-4 and S-3 at Beth-Shean (TBS III: Chapter 5) and should be dated to the 12th century BCE (Iron IA).
Footnotes

4 In the locus index, these debris layers are marked as either D-7a or D-7a'.

Strata D-7a and D-7b were dated to Iron IA [12th century BCE until ca. 1130 BCE(?)].

Stratum D-5

Figures and Tables
Figures and Tables

  • Table 15.1            Stratigraphy and chronology in Area D, with correlation to Area C from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 17)
  • Table 15.2            Locus and basket numbers from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 17)
  • Figure 15.1            Location of section drawings on superimposed plan of Strata D-11–D-2 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 17)
  • Figure 15.2            Schematic section of Area D from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 17)
  • Figure 15.19            Section 3 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 15)
  • Figure 15.20            Section 4 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 15)
  • Figure 15.21            Section 5 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 15)
  • Figure 15.22            Plan of Stratum D-5 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 15)
  • Figure 15.32            Section 6 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 15)
  • Figure 15.33            Section 7 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 15)
  • Figure 15.34            Section 8 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 15)
  • Figure 15.35            Section 9 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 15)
  • Photo 15.45            Squares N–M/4–5 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 15)
  • Photo 15.56            Squares N/4–5 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 15)
  • Photo 15.57            Squares N/4–5 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 15)
  • Photo 15.61            Square N/4 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 15)
  • Photo 15.63            Squares N–Q/4–5 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 15)
  • Photo 15.64            Square N–P/4 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 15)
  • Photo 15.65            Probe in street, Square P/4 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 15)
  • Photo 15.66            Squares P/4–5 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 15)
  • Photo 15.67            Squares P/4–5; fallen bricks (7847) along eastern face of Wall 1883 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 15)
  • Photo 15.68            Square P-5, looking west at Wall 1883; foreground: brick collapse in street from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 15)
  • Photo 15.69            Squares P–Q/4–5 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 15)
  • Photo 15.70            Squares Q/4–5, looking north at D-5 Room 8867 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 15)
  • Photo 15.71            Square Q/5, looking west at D-4 Building DG; lower right: brick collapse 8865 in D-5 Building DE from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 15)
  • Photo 15.72            Square Q/5 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 15)
  • Photo 15.73            Square P/5 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 15)
  • Photo 15.74            Squares Q/4–5 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 15)
  • Photo 15.75            Square Q/4 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 15)
  • Photo 15.76            Square P/4 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 15)
  • Photo 15.77            Squares P–Q/4 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 15)
  • Photo 15.88            Square Q/5 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 15)

  • Plan: Fig. 15.22
  • Sections: Figs. 15.19–15.21; 15.32–15.35
  • Photos 15.45, 15.56–15.57, 15.61, 15.63–15.77, 15.88
  • Pottery: Buildings: Figs. 16.38–16.40; Street: Figs. 16.41–16.47)
Discussions
Wall 2882 and Features to Its West

Several features in Squares P–N/4–5 were assigned to Stratum D-5, including Wall 2882 and a layer of brick debris to its west.

Wall 2882, running slightly northeast to southwest, was exposed over 9.5 m, crossing the entire excavation area and continuing into the northern and southern balks (Figs. 15.21–15.22, 15.33– 15.34; Photos 15.56–15.57, 15.64). It was preserved to a height of five brick courses with no stone foundation and was superimposed by Wall 1883 of Stratum D-4 Building DF. A difference of 0.6 m along a distance of 8.0 m was found in the foundation level of the wall from north to south, perhaps due to tectonic activity. One possible explanation of Wall 2882 is that it was a sub-structure and functioned as a terrace wall against which a presently non-preserved western unit was built in Stratum D-5, while the fill to its east supported the earliest phase of the street that would continue to exist in Stratum D-4.

Close to the erosion line west of Wall 2882, thick layers of compact brick debris were detected at levels 82.90–83.80 m, abutting the western face of the wall (1855, 2836 in Square N/4 and 7904, 7907, 7908, 7912–7914 in Square N/5). This layer was sealed by Building DF of Stratum D-4. This brick debris layer can be explained as either the collapse of Wall 2882 or as a deliberate fill below the floors of D-4 Building DF.

The Eastern Unit: Buildings DD and DE

Building DE (Squares P–Q/5)

Room 8865

East of Wall 8861 was a partially excavated room that contained massive brick debris, including large complete fallen bricks (8865) (Photos 15.71– 15.72); no floor was reached. The rest of the walls surrounding this room were not exposed, due to D-4 walls that superimposed them.

Room 8874

West of Wall 8861 was a room, 2.8 m long and at least 2.0 m wide (Photo 15.73), whose northern part was covered by a Stratum D-4 wall. The room was bounded by Wall 8878 on the west and Wall 8884 on the south, which was, in fact, the lower part of D-4 Wall 8821. Wall 8878, built of dark gray bricks, made a corner with Wall 8884. The beatenearth floor of this room (8874, 83.59 m) was covered by brick debris and collapse (8872); it was higher near the southern wall (8884, 83.70 m). Two brick steps (8879) built above the floor were attached to Wall 8878 on the western end of the room; two complete bricks were laid on both sides of the steps (Photo 15.73). Five complete bowls were found in the layer of fallen bricks above the floor (Fig. 16.38:4–5, 9–10, 20) and a complete goblet (Fig. 16.38:26) was found on the top step. These finds point to this area as having had some cultic function.

Building DD (Squares P–Q/4–5)

Room 8867

This was a long narrow room (inner measurements 1.7×4.5 m) separated into two sections by a brick installation (9805) in its northern half (Photos 15.63, 15.69–15.70, 15.74–15.75). Wall 8848, the eastern wall of the room, was composed of two rows of compacted whitish bricks with gray mortar lines. Its southern part was eroded, but presumably had cornered with Wall 8852. An entrance to the room might have existed here, but this area was poorly preserved and partly damaged by Pit 8883. The western wall of the room was Wall 8854, revealed directly below D-4 Wall 4878. This wall was preserved to five courses, the upper two made of pinkish-orange bricks and the three lower of compacted whitish bricks. Such a mixture of different brick materials in the same wall was already observed in Walls 8861 and 8884. The northern wall of the room was Wall 8853, a number given to the southern face of this wall in Square Q/5, although probably it was the same wall as 8884, whose northern face was exposed in Square P/5. This wall, as well as the northern parts of Walls 8848 and 8854, were partially exposed due to superimposed D-4 walls which were not dismantled.

Room 8867 was paved with a well-preserved brick floor (8867, level 83.42 m), composed of three clear lines of bricks and possibly a fourth one in the eastern part of the room. The floor abutted Walls 8852, 8848 and 8854, but did not continue into the northern section of the room, where another brick floor was exposed on a lower level (see below). In the northern part of the room, a square installation (9805), bounded by three brick walls, was laid directly on top of Floor 8867. The walls (0.14 m wide), composed of bricks placed on their narrow side and preserved to two courses, were 1.0 m long, creating an inner space of 0.85 sq m. As in some of the walls of this building, the installation was built of different types of bricks: the southern and western walls of black friable bricks and the northern wall of whitish bricks; traces of plaster were found on both faces. This appears to have been a storage bin. A ca. 0.55 m wide passage west of Installation 9805 led to the northern part of the room, where brick Floor 8867 terminated on line with the northern wall of the installation. In the northern part of the room (1.05×1.6 m), a less-well-constructed brick floor (9804) was laid, lower by more than 0.4 m than Floor 8867 and Installation 9805. This floor abutted Walls 8848 and 8853, but did not reach Wall 8854 on the west. It was difficult to determine whether this difference in levels between the two parts of the room was due to function or whether the lower northern floor belonged to an earlier phase of D-5 (see below). A thick layer of debris (8839) rested on Floor 9804; two complete bricks fallen on top of each other were found in this debris at 83.71 m and on top of them were several complete vessels, including seven small bowls, perhaps votive (Fig. 16.38:6, 11–12, 14–15, 18–19), a chalice (Fig. 16.38:24), a juglet (Fig. 16.39:19) and a lamp (Fig. 16.39:21). It seems like the bricks and the vessels had fallen from a higher spot, perhaps a shelf.

In the southeastern corner of the room was a large bell-shaped pit (8883; Photos 15.69–15.70); its eastern part adjoined the western face of Wall 8848, whose foundation level could be seen in the pit. It was apparently dug sometime during the course of use of this room, as it was sealed by the D-4b occupation above. The pit contained ash and brick debris, sherds and one complete juglet (Fig. 16.39:20). South of Wall 8852, a small segment of a floor (8882) was found at level 83.86 m, perhaps belonging to an adjacent room of the same building.

Summary of Stratum D-5

... No evidence for a violent destruction at the end of Stratum D-5 was detected. It seems that the buildings went out of use due to either deterioration or earthquake damage and were rebuilt in the following Stratum D-4. The pottery and artifacts from Stratum D-5 point to their date in Iron IB, perhaps the early part of the 11th century BCE.

Stratum D-4

from Rotem, Sumaka'i Fink, and Mazar in Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3 Ch.15) report collapse debris at various locations in Area D within Stratum D-4. Consult the Final Report (2020) for details. Relevant sections of this report is reproduced in the References section for the Stratum VI and V earthquakes and the Stratum IV Destruction Layer.

Stratum VI Earthquake - Early Iron IIA - 10th century BCE

Figures

Figures

  • Stratigraphic Table from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.1:XVII)
  • Fig. 3.7 Map of the site showing grid and excavation areas from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.1)
  • Deformation Map of Stratum C-2 by Jefferson Williams
  • Deformation Map of Stratum G2 by Jefferson Williams
  • Fig. 2.11 Subsurface structure of Tel Rehov interpreted from seismic - from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.1)
  • Fig. 2.12 Seismic interpretation of the top of the lower tufa layer along with subsurface faults - from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.1)
  • Fig. 12.7 - Plan of Stratum C-2 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Fig. 12.54 - Superimposed plan of Strata C-3–C-1a from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)

Chronology
Chronology of Iron Age Strata VII-IV (C-4 to C-1a)

  • from Mazar in Mazar and Panitz-Cohen ed.s, (2020 v. 1:119)
  • Area C stratigraphy correlated to the rest of the site
  • Dating of Iron IIA strata was based on a combination of the following:
    • Relative dating based on comparative study of pottery assemblages in well-stratified regional contexts
    • Absolute dating based on radiometric data
    • Historical considerations
Table 12.1

Correlation of local Area C and general tell strata

Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)


Discussion

Panitz-Cohen and Mazar in Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2:186) report that there were some indications for severe damage to Stratum C-2 buildings by an earthquake, including layers of complete fallen bricks, but this was not a sudden collapse of the buildings which would have buried vessels, and perhaps human bodies, below a massive layer of debris. Rather, they state, it could have been an earthquake that was strong enough to cause severe damage to the houses, resulting in their abandonment, with the inhabitants able to evacuate their possessions and return shortly afterwards to rebuild the new city of Stratum C-1b. Complete fallen bricks were found in most of the rooms ( Panitz-Cohen and Mazar in Mazar et. al., 2020 v.2:23).

Deformation Maps made from photos and descriptions of damage indicate that parts of Area C and G experienced vertical shaking during this event which, in turn, suggests that one or more of the active faults1 underneath the Tel slipped during this earthquake and/or that the Tel was within the hypocentral region of the earthquake. In either case, this suggests that that some part of the northern part of the Jordan Valley Fault broke and, despite Panitz-Cohen and Mazar in Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2:186)'s observation that this earthquake did not leave a legacy of total destruction and abandonment, local intensity was probably quite high - i.e. VIII (8) or higher.

Dating was based on ceramic evidence and radiocarbon. Area C contains a complete Iron Age II stratigraphy which improves confidence in the date, although Iron Age II chronology is still actively debated and as of yet not fully resolved. The damaged structures were made entirely of mudbricks with wood beam foundations so there is likely a construction related site affect for all the Iron Age II structures.
Footnotes

1 Active Faults under Tel Rehov were identified and mapped based on seismic surveys (and presumably some aerial photos). This is discussed in The Geology and Geophysics section of this web page which, in turn, comes from the Chapter 2 of the Final Excavation Report (The Geology and Morphology of the Beth-Shean Valley and Tel Rehov by Zilberman in Mazar et. al., 2020 v. 1). The possibility that these active faults slipped during one of the Iron Age earthquakes is discussed sporadically in the Final Report and Panitz-Cohen and Mazar in Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2:187) observed a tilt from west to east/southeast in all strata at Tel Rehov which may have been the result of both the natural topography and seismic or tectonic activity during historical periods, causing tilts even inside structures.

References
Final Report (2020)

Chapter 2 - The Geology and Morphology of the Beth-Shean Valley and Tel Rehov

  • see the Geology and Geophysics collapsible panel in the Background Information section

Chapter 3 - Introduction to the Site and the Excavations

  • see the Mound Morphology and Site-formation processes collapsible panel in the Background Information section for that section of Chapter 3

Chapter 4 - The Tel Rehov Excavations: Overview and Synthesis

Figures, Tables, and Photos

Figures and Tables

  • Figure 4.1          Map of major archaeological and historical sites in central and northern Israel and Jordan from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.1)
  • Figure 4.2          Map of Tel ReHov showing the excavation areas and architecture of Stratum IV from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.1)
  • Table 4.1          Stratigraphic Table from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.1:XVII)

Photos

  • Photo 4.2          Fragments of roofing material from Stratum IV from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.1)

Discussions
Iron Age IIA

Terminology and Stratigraphy

The term Iron IIA has been employed in different ways in the archaeology of Israel. G.E. Wright (1961: 97-99) used it to describe the period between 900-730/700 BCE, while he termed the 10th century BCE "Iron IC". Initially, Israeli archaeologists used the term to denote the 10th century BCE, equaling the time of the United Monarchy (e.g., Aharoni 1979 [first published in Hebrew in 1963] and in subsequent editions; NEAEHL: 1529; Mazar 1990: 30) and this terminology was widely accepted (e.g., King and Stager 2001: XXIII). According to this system, the 9th century BCE was included in the Iron IIB, together with the 8th century. Finkelstein (1996) and Sharon et al. (2007) suggested to lower the transition from Iron I/Iron IIA to the late 10th century BCE (see above) and dated the Iron IIA to the 9th century BCE. I suggested a Modified Conventional Chronology, which broadly accepted the extension of Iron IIA into the 9th century, based on the finds from Jezreel and Tel Rehov, yet I claimed that the period began well in the 10th century (Coldstream and Mazar 2003: 40-45; Mazar 2005). Herzog and Singer-Avitz (2004; 2006; 2011) accepted this chronological framework, but went one step further by suggesting a division of the Iron IIA into two sub-periods: Early Iron IIA and Late Iron IIA, the former dated to the 10th century and the latter to the 9th. This suggestion is now accepted by many archaeologists in Israel, although the details of absolute dating of each phase remain unresolved. In this publication, we refer to Iron Age IIA as a period starting sometime during the first half of the 10th century BCE (ca. 980 BCE?) and ending during the second half of the 9th century, probably following severe destructions caused by Aramean conquests led by Hazael (see below for a detailed chronological and historical discussion).

Local stratum numbers were assigned in each of the excavation areas. It so happened that in the four main areas in the lower city (Areas C, D, E and G), the uppermost stratum was attributed to Late Iron IIA and was numbered 1 (C-1, D-1, etc.), while an earlier stratum denoted Stratum 2 was attributed to Early Iron IIA (C-2, D-2, etc.). Yet, as the excavation progressed, we found it necessary to divide Stratum 1 in Areas C, D, E and G into two sub-phases denoted la and lb, while in Area F, three sub-phases equaling these two phases were deter¬mined (Table 4.1). When the decision was made to assign final strata numbers (in Roman numerals), and considering the later Iron IIB Strata II-III and Islamic period Strata IA and IB on the upper mound, it was decided to allocate a separate general Roman numeral — IV and V — to each of the sub-phases la and lb, while local Stratum 2 in all these areas was called general Stratum VI. This terminology has its deficiencies, since it became clear during later excavation seasons and subsequent research that, in fact, Strata IV and V are two phases of the same city. In certain places, major rebuilding took place during the transition between the two (as in the southeastern part of Area C, where the apiary of Stratum V went out of use in Stratum IV), while in Areas B, E, G and parts of C, there was great a deal of continuity between these two strata and, in fact, they could be merged into one general stratum with local sub-phases. This is also substantiated by the pottery assemblage, which is almost identical in Strata V and IV, while that of Stratum VI is somewhat different. In retrospect, it might have been preferable to retain the single general stratum number with sub-phases (as was done in the local strata numbers) instead of using the terms Strata V and IV. In this publication, we use both the local and the general stratum numbers. In summary, we may define two major cities: that of Stratum VI, attributed to Early Iron IIA, and that of Strata V and IV, attributed to Late Iron IIA.

Building Materials and Techniques

The Iron IIA strata at Tel Rehov are characterized by several architectural features which are unknown elsewhere in Israel (see discussion at the end of Chapter 12). The first is the virtually exclusive use of mudbricks as building material. Stones were used only in exceptional places for constructing cobblestone floors and installations (as in Area F: Fig. 19.4, Photo 19.6), pillar bases (rarely; e.g., Area C, Building CX) and working surfaces.

The avoidance of stone foundations for brick walls in Strata VI-IV is astonishing, since their use was common at Tel Rehov in LB II (although they were missing in the earlier LB Strata D-11 and D-10) and Iron I strata, as they are in the architecture of the Southern Levant since the Protohistoric periods. Such stone sockles are essential to protect mudbrick walls from water damage and humidity and their absence must indicate a cultural choice which is difficult to explain. In the Jordan Valley, mudbrick walls with no stone foundations can be found in the Iron IIA/B Stratum VIII buildings at Tell Deir 'Alla (van der Kooij 1993: 341) and at Tell es-Sa'idiyeh Stratum XII (Tubb and Dorrell 1993: 58), which should be dated to Late Iron IIA (see below). Brick walls without stone foundations are known in Egypt, and appear in selected New Kingdom Egyptian-inspired structures in Canaan, such as at Deir el-Balah and, in a few cases, at Beth-Shean (Stratum Q-2; TBS I: 83-89), although other Egyptian structures at Beth-Shean, such as Building 1500, did have stone sockles. However, there is no justification to assume Egyptian architectural influence in Iron IIA at Tel Rehov, and there is no evidence for any foreign architectural tradition of this kind that could be a source of inspiration. Therefore, the introduction of this building technique and its persistence throughout all three Iron IIA strata remains unexplained.

Another exceptional and surprising feature was the use of wood foundations for walls and floors, a feature introduced in Stratum V and found in almost every building in Areas B, C and G. Narrow, round beams or branches were laid perpendicular to the brick walls at their foundation level (e.g., Area C: Figs. 12.29; 12.72; 12.74; 12.77; Photos 12.59-12.60; 12.77-12.78; 12.125; 12.128-12.129; 12.172). Sometimes, thicker beams were found incorporated in the wall foundation; in several cases, there was a gap of more than 20 cm between the lowest brick and the preserved beam, filled with charred material that appears to have been wood or some other organic material. In other places, the lowest brick course was laid directly above the wood. Often, these beams or branches were also placed below the beaten-earth floors (e.g., Area C: Figs. 12.30; 12.32; 12.37; 12.41-12.43; 12.45-12.46; Photos 12.33; 12.130; 12.141; 12.144; 12.146; Area G: Fig. 20.3; Photos 20.23; 20.26). Many of the wood samples were identified by N. Liphschitz (Chapter 52, Table 52.1); ca. 50% were identified as olive trees, while other species included Ficus sycomorus, Ulmus, Tamarix, Pistacia atlantica and a few others. Only few oaks were represented and pines and cypress were lacking. Most of the walls with wood foundations continued to be used in Stratum IV, but no wood was found in walls that were first built in that stratum, so that this unusual building technique was limited to Stratum V. No parallels are known in the Southern Levant and it seems to be a local invention, perhaps intended to provide flexibility to the walls during seismic events, creating a kind of shock absorber. This was perhaps a reaction to an earthquake which appears to be the reason for the severe damage causing the abandonment of the previous Stratum VI buildings.8

Bricks were made of local clays taken from the fields around the mound. In most cases, they were light brown-yellowish or, less frequently, they were composed of dark brown colluvial soil. Their sizes range from 45-60 cm in length (most common, 50 cm), 30-40 cm in width (most common, 35 cm) and 10-17 cm in height (Tables 12.28-12.30; Photo 4.1). An exceptional feature limited to certain structures of Stratum V (in particular, Buildings CF and CE in Area C) are bricks with two vertical flattened protrusions close to their ends on their broad external face, created by special depressions in the brick molds (Figs. 12.29, 12.63). They were perhaps intended to better adhere the plaster coating.

Most of the walls were one brick wide (ca. 50 cm); yet, double walls often appear, in particular when two buildings were adjoined, each with its own exterior wall (see plans of Strata V-IV in Areas B, C, E and G; Chapters 8, 12, 17 and 20 respectively). In several cases, a ca. 2 cm-thick plaster made of brown clay was preserved (e.g., in Building CF in Area C). It may be assumed that such plaster covered all the brick walls. In the exceptional Building CP in Area C, a whitish plaster was found on some of the walls, in particular near the entrance to the southern wing. In several places, roofing material comprising large lumps of clay with reed and wooden beam impressions was found, mainly in the destruction debris of Stratum IV (Photo 4.2).
Footnotes

8 During a visit to the site by Prof. D. Yankelevsky and other experts from the National Building Research Institute of the Technion, Haifa, this explanation was accepted as the most reasonable. They mentioned the current use of steel rolls in foundations of highly sensitive structures, such as nuclear reactors, as a device providing flexibility in the event of an earthquake.

Chronology

Introduction

The dates of the Iron IIA strata at Tel Rehov, as well as the other sites, depend upon a combination of relative dating based on comparative study of pottery assemblages in well-stratified regional contexts, and absolute dating based on radiometric data combined with historical considerations. In this section, the first two issues are discussed, while historical considerations will be surveyed in the following section.

Relative Chronology

Introduction

As explained above, there are two Iron IIA ceramic horizons at Tel Rehov:
  • Early Iron IIA (Stratum VI)
  • Late Iron IIA (Strata V-IV)
This formal division of the period was suggested by Herzog and Singer-Avitz (2004; 2006) and is followed here, although it raises some serious difficulties, as discussed above and below. As shown in Chapter 24, there is a great deal of continuity in many pottery forms between the three horizons:
  • Iron IB
  • Early Iron IIA
  • Late Iron IIA
Nevertheless, there are sufficient criteria to distinguish between these three assemblages, which are substantiated by a clear stratigraphic division (Table 4.2).

Early Iron IIA

Figures
Figures

  • Figure 4.1 - Map of major archaeological and historical sites in central and northern Israel and Jordan from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.1)

Discussion

Stratum VI is attributed to Early Iron IIA, since it is preceded by Stratum VII of Iron IB and succeeded by Strata V-IV of Late Iron IIA. It yielded a relatively substantial pottery assemblage which, on the one hand, demonstrates many similarities with the preceding and subsequent assemblages but, on the other hand, has its own characteristics. The latter include the first appearance, mostly on serving vessels, of a relatively large amount of red slip, often hand burnished. Painted decoration is mainly limited to horizontal straight and wavy red bands in the style known at Tel Rehov in the Iron IB; most of the Canaanite-like motifs appear on small sherds, so it is difficult to say to what extent these are residual. Hippo jars appear for the first time, but are still rare. Imported Phoenician pottery includes several Bichrome sherds, and a small amount of imported Cypriot pottery includes White Painted and Bichrome sherds, but no Black-on-Red, aside from one small and ambivalent sherd in Stratum C-2.

The northern ceramic assemblages assigned by Herzog and Singer-Avitz (2004; 2006) to their Early Iron IIA horizon are (references updated):
  • Beth-Shean Stratum S-lb (TBS I: Pls. 6—8)
  • Megiddo Stratum VB (Arie 2013)
  • Jezreel pre-enclosure fills (Zimhoni 1997: 29-56)
  • Taanach Period IIA (Rast 1978: Figs.18-29)
  • Yoqne'am Strata XVI-XV (Ben Tor, Zarzecki-Peleg and Cohen-Anidjar 2005: 108-112, Figs. I.36-I.38)
  • Horbat Rosh Zayit Stratum III (Gal and Alexandre 2000: 30-33)
  • Tell el-Farah North Stratum VIIa (Chambon 1984: Pls. 45-60)
  • Dor Phase Ir1|2A (Phases 7a-b, 6b-c in Area G) (Gilboa and Sharon 2003: 21-22, Figs. 10-11; Gilboa 2018: Pls. 20:49, 20.56-20.64)
To these contexts, I would add
  • Hazor X-IX (?)
  • Tell el-Hammah, lower phase (attributed to Iron Age I, yet the few published pottery items [Cahill 2006: 436, Fig. 4] can fit Tel Rehov VI)
Tell Abu al-Kharaz Phase X in Trench XI, Area 3 may fit this period (Fischer 2013: 104-108, Figs. 99-101), yet the pottery attributed to Phase X in Area 9 East appears to be late Iron Age I (Fischer 2013: 354-362, Figs. 361-368). The small amount of published pottery from the Tell el-Mazar "sanctuary" may belong to this period as well (Yassine 1984).

Several caveats to this list must be noted. The first is that all the contexts mentioned above (except Dor and, to some extent, Tell Abu al-Kharaz) yielded very small quantities of pottery, mainly sherds, and most of them are not sufficiently distinctive to be compared to our Stratum VI assemblage. In addition, the great degree of continuity between these assemblages and the following Late Iron IIA renders it difficult to distinguish between these two sub-periods. For example, at Jezreel, the pottery from the pre-enclosure fills cannot be distinguished from that found in the enclosure's destruction layer (Zimhoni 1997). At Megiddo, the pottery from Stratum VB is very similar to that of VA-IVB (Zimhoni 1997; Arie 2013) and the same may be said concerning Taanach IIA and IIB. Regional differences should also be taken into account. For example, the correlation between the pottery from Hazor Strata X-IX (Ben-Tor and Ben-Ami 1998; 2012) and our Stratum VI cannot be established with confidence, perhaps due to such regional differences and the strong Canaanite traditions which are present at Tel Rehov, but missing at Hazor. To conclude, Tel Rehov VI provides the largest pottery assemblage that can be attributed to the Early Iron IIA in northern Israel, along with Dor for the northern coastal plain. Yet, even at Tel Rehov, the continuity of many forms from Iron IB to Early Iron IIA, and from the latter to Late Iron IIA, make precise divisions difficult in many cases.

Late Iron IIA

Figures
Figures

  • Figure 4.1 - Map of major archaeological and historical sites in central and northern Israel and Jordan from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.1)

Discussion

The large amount of pottery from Strata V-IV (with very little distinction between the two), discussed in Chapter 24, can be attributed to Late Iron IIA, as defined by Herzog and Avitz-Singer (2006; see also surveys in TBS I: 320-323; APIN-IH: 135-188). The following contexts can be assigned to this phase:
  • Tel Beth-Shean Strata S-la and P-10-P-9 (TBS I: 313-384; Plates 6-16)
  • Tell el-Hammah two upper phases (Cahill 2006: Figs. 6-11)
  • Tel 'Amal Strata III-IV (Levi and Edelstein 1972)
  • the Jezreel 7enclosure (Zimhoni 1997: 13-28, 39-53, Figs. 1.2-1.10; 2.5-2.12)
  • Megiddo VA-IVB (Finkelstein, Zimhoni and Kafri 2000; Arie 2013)
  • Yoqne'am XIV (Ben Tor, Zarzecki-Peleg and Cohen-Anidjar 2005: Figs. I.50-I.52)
  • Taanach Period IIB (Rast 1978: Figs. 30-69)
  • Tell el-Far'ah North Stratum VIIb (Chambon 1984: 53-72, Pls. 45-62)
  • Hazor X—IX(?), VIII (although see comments above and below)
  • Horbat Rosh Zayit Strata IIa-Ilb (Gal and Alexandre 2000: 34-122)
  • Dor Phase Ir2a (Phase 6a in Area G; Gilboa and Sharon 2003: 23-24, Figs. 12-13; Gilboa 2018: Pls. 20.6-20.67)
  • Tell Abu Hawam Stratum III (Hamilton 1935)
  • Tell Keisan Strata 8?-6 (Briend and Humbert 1980: Pls. 48-56)
  • Tell Abu al-Kharaz Phases XI-XII (Fischer 2013)20
Most of these contexts yielded rich pottery assemblages which can be compared to the Tel Rehov Strata V-IV assemblage, yet it should be stressed that the more distant the site, the more disparate the assemblages tend to be. Thus, coastal sites like Dor, Tell Abu Hawam and Tell Keisan show strong Phoenician influence; Hazor X—VIII and Samaria are less similar to Tel Rehov than sites in the Beth-Shean and Jezreel Valleys (including Taanach IIB). The close similarity of our assemblages to Horbat Rosh Zayit, mentioned earlier, is exceptional and must be explained in light of special relations between these two sites
Footnotes

20 Finkelstein (2013: 7-8, Table 1; 2017: 186) suggested to further divide the Late Iron IIA into two sub-phases - Late Iron IIA1 and Late Iron IIA2 (the latter called also "terminal Iron IIA"). I cannot see any stratigraphic or ceramic proof either for this subdivision or for the late date (ca. 760 BCE) suggested by him for the end of this period. It seems that the motivation behind this suggestion is to justify the idea that Hazor Stratum VIII was an Aramean city built by Hazael, yet I see no reason to refute the excavators' attribution of Stratum VIII to the days of Ahab.

Absolute Chronology and the Radiometric Evidence

The absolute chronology of the Iron IIA strata is a subject of ongoing debate, based on radiometric dates and historical considerations, although it seems that by now, agreement has been reached on some major issues. The original Low Chronology date of the beginning of Iron IIA strata to ca. 900 BCE proved to be wrong, based on radiocarbon dating. On the other hand, the extension of Iron IIA into the 9th century is certainly correct, as it is anchored in the evidence from Jezreel, where the royal enclosure cannot predate Ahab [r. c. 871 - c. 852 BCE]. According to the modified chronology which I have suggested since 2003, Iron IIA started during the first half of the 10th century BCE and continued until sometime in the second half of the 9th century (Table 4.3). This approach was basically backed up by numerous radiocarbon dates, although there are different views concerning the precise time span and absolute dates of each of the two Iron IIA phases (for summaries and earlier literature, see Finkelstein and Piasetzky 2011; Mazar 2011b).

Table 4.3

Three chronological systems for Iron IB-IIB

Mazar et. al. (2020 v.1)


The radiocarbon data from the Iron IIA strata at Tel Rehov is based on 27 short-lived samples, most of them measured several times, so that a total of 110 dates are available (Chapter 48, Table 48.4; partly published earlier in Mazar et al. 2005). This is the largest number of dates from a single site in this period. Several difficulties should be noted (see discussion in Chapter 48):
  1. The stratigraphic affiliation of several samples to specific phase of the Iron IIA is questionable: in particular, Samples R21—R23 from Area D and Samples R31—R34 from Area C, which could be either Stratum V or IV
  2. There are a few outliers (all Sample 27 and one determination in R36)
  3. Occasionally, samples from the same context or stratum yielded considerably different dates, which would provide too wide a range for our required resolution of less than half a century.
A Bayesian model was first presented in 2005, based on the data available at that time (Bruins et al. 2005) and new models (one for Areas C and D and another for Area B) are presented in Chapter 48. The main results of these models are presented here in Table 4.4.

Table 4.4

Results of a Bayesian model for secure dates from Areas C+D and B in lσ and 2σ CalBC showing dates for Strata VI-IV (not including unmodeled dates from Area E) - for details see Chapter 48

Mazar et. al. (2020 v.1)


The model for Areas C and D (in which most of the samples are included) resulted in the condensation of Strata VI, V and IV into a time frame of maximum 73 years between 936 (uppermost possible date) and 863 (lowest possible date) and minimum seven years (911-904 CalBC) in 1σ, while the 2σ, dates provide a longer maximal range of 145 years for this time span (and minimal -4 years!). The results in the 1σ range are much too short a time slot for three strata with several sub-phases and clear changes in the pottery assemblage between Stratum VI and Strata V-IV. The Bayesian model from Area B (from the end of Stratum VI to the end of Stratum IV) provided a wider range. It should also be recalled that the models provide considerable time spans for each of the transitions between strata, much wider than we would expect for the close dating of less than half a century that we seek for this period. Furthermore, one sample measured several times from Area E provided unmodeled calibrated dates in the late 9th century BCE which are much lower compared to both the unmodeled and modeled dates from the other areas. It appears that the more samples are measured, the problems involved in their interpretation become more complex.

Since the subject is discussed in detail in Chapter 48, I emphasize here only a few notable points. At the outset it should be noted that in the discussion of Iron Age chronology, where we expect restricted resolutions of less than half a century, it became common to cite only or mainly the 1σ CalBC dates (68% probability), and so I did as well in most cases. Yet, it should be recalled that the 2σ dates (95% probability) provide wider ranges and should be taken into consideration as well. Indeed, quite a few discussions of radiocarbon dates in archaeology refer only to the 2σ dates. In such narrow time slots as those involved in the Iron Age chronological debate, the possibilities provided by the 2σ range are sometimes crucial.

Another problem is the relationship between unmodeled and modeled dates. Unmodeled dates from Stratum VI cover most of the 10th century BCE, while the Bayesian model for Areas C+D provide, in my opinion, too short a time span for this stratum, which has in several locations two stratigraphic phases and yielded a pottery assemblage that differs somewhat from the previous and later strata. This result may have been caused by the constraint resulting from the over 100-years span provided by the Bayesian model for Stratum D-3 (see above in the discussion of Iron IB dates). I therefore suggest a much shorter time span for Stratum D-3 and a longer one for Stratum VI, supported by the unmodeled calibrated dates, and conclude that the beginning of Stratum VI could occur during the first half of the 10th century. Taking into consideration the dates of the following Stratum V, the end of Stratum VI should be dated to somewhere in the last quarter of the 10th century.

The date of Stratum V is based on five samples from secure contexts in Area C and one from Area B (a total of 24 repetitions).21 It appears that the last two decades of the 10th century and the beginning of the 9th century BCE are the most reasonable dates for this stratum.

The destruction of Stratum IV is dated by three samples from Area C and two from Area B (a total of 17 repetitions) (Samples R35-R41). The dates are partly in the 10th century and mostly in the 9th century; some reach the second half of the 9th century BCE. The Bayesian model for Areas C+D would end this stratum no later than 863 (1σ) and 817 (2σ) CalBC, while the model for Area B provides lower dates: 833 (161σ) and 822 (1σ) CalBC. In Area E, one of two samples from loci attributed to the early phase of the courtyard (E-lb, probably corresponding with Stratum V), measured several times, provided the exceptionally low date of 832-810 (unmodeled).

My suggested date of 840/830 BCE for the destruction of Stratum IV is based on attribution of this destruction to Hazael (see below). As can be seen in Table 4.4, this date is lower by 23-33 years than the lowest date in the 1σ model for the end of Stratum IV in Area C (863 CalBC), but can fit the lowest as date from Area C (812 BCE), the lowest 2σ and as dates from Area B (838, 822 BCE) and many of the unmodeled lowest dates from Areas B, C and E in the 1σ and 2σ ranges.

Radiocarbon dates from Iron IIA strata at other sites in northern Israel were widely discussed in recent years (e.g., Sharon et al. 2007; Mazar and Bronk Ramsey 2008; Finkelstein and Piasetzky 2009; 2010; 2011; Lee, Mazar and Bronk Ramsey 2013). However, in many cases, the number of measurements from a single site is insufficient, and often they provide a wide range of dates in the 10th to 9th centuries. An example is Megiddo, where only eight samples with eleven repetitions were measured from Iron IIA strata: one from Stratum H-7 (a middle phase of Stratum VB) with a CalBC 1σ date of 1000-920, three from Stratum H-5 which corresponds to general Stratum VA-IVB, two of them (RTT3948 and RTK 6429) provided dates that cover the entire 9th century BCE and the third (RTT 3949) provided a date in the 10th century (1005-930 CaIBC) (Toffolo et al. 2014: 235).22 Four additional dates were published from Stratum Q-5, a Late Iron IIA context which is phased by the excavators between Stratum VB and VA-IVB; the calibrated dates are 1050-940, 980-895, 1000-920 and 895-830 BCE (1σ) and a (yet unpublished) Bayesian model is cited as providing a date of ca. 900 BCE (Kleiman et al. 2019: 547 and Table 7). This is just one example of the potential inconsistencies in the results of 14C dating, in particular when only a few dates are available. Bayesian models are used in order to limit these wide ranges; yet, the unmodeled dates should be taken into account when weighing the results of Bayesian models, specially in cases when the models include data from many sites. The radiometric evidence is certainly important, but has its limitations when it comes down to subtle dating at a resolution of less than 50 years.

I end this section with the words of Walter Kutchera, the former director of the radiometric laboratory in the University of Vienna:
I am convinced that 14C is the most wonderful tool for archaeology, when its inherent uncertainty is properly respected. Unfortunately, pushing its use beyond these limitations puts "oil into the fire" of those who mistrust the 14C method altogether .....23
These words are very true when we deal with Iron Age chronology, particularly in the 10th-9th centuries BCE.
Footnotes

21 As mentioned above, Samples R31-R34 from Locus 2425 in Building CG are excluded from this discussion, although it seems more viable that this context should be attributed to Stratum V. See discussion in Chapter 48.

22 Note that Tofollo et al. 2014 omit sample 3949 in their tables. It does appear, however in Gilboa, Sharon and Boaretto 2013.

23 Sent to me via an e-mail correspondence in 2008.

Historical Considerations

Introduction

In the following, I will survey some of the historical questions related to the 10th-9th centuries BCE that are relevant for the results of the Tel Rehov excavations (see also Mazar 2016a). It should be recalled that the city is mentioned in only one written source from these centuries: the Sheshonq I list (see Chapter 3). In this section, I will use the assumed ancient name Rehob.

Ethnic Identity and Geo-Political Status

Who were the people who inhabited the large and opulent city of Rehob and what was its geo-political status in Iron Age IIA?

A longue durée perspective shows that the Canaanite city Rehob continued to survive without a major gap or devastating event throughout the Late Bronze and Iron Age I, for about 500 years. During the ca. 150 year-long duration of the Iron IIA, the same city continued to develop with changes in the material culture, but with no actual crisis between Iron I and Iron IIA, and with a significant continuity of the material culture throughout the three Iron IIA strata. Canaanite cultural continuity during Iron IIA is demonstrated in a number of features: continuity in selected architectural plans (in the case of Buildings CQ1, CQ2 and CQ3, see above), the lack of "four room houses" or pillared buildings which are a hallmark of Israelite sites, continuity of certain ceramic traditions (forms and occasional painted decoration), cult objects, figurines and seals that are rooted in Canaanite/Phoenician traditions, the limited consumption of pig bones (mainly hunted boars) which indicates a departure from strict Israelite religious practices (if indeed they were practiced elsewhere in Israel in this period). The few private names known from the Tel Rehov inscriptions include the Canaanite theophoric component El, but not a Yahwistic component. The name Nimshi could be from a local Canaanite root. However, Jehu is certainly a Yahwistic name, and if indeed he came from this city as I suggest, it would mean that he was born with or adopted an Israelite theophoric name. It should also be emphasized that paleographic studies of the inscriptions show that those of Stratum IV can be defined as written in Hebrew script.

It thus may be assumed that many of the Iron IIA inhabitants were descendants of indigenous local Canaanite families who lived in this city for generations (Mazar 2016a; 2016b; Arie 2017). Their self-identity must have revolved around the city and its local families and traditions. There is no doubt that during this period (either Stratum VI or V), the city became part of the geo-political entity of Israel (see below). However, we must differentiate between geo-political status and ethnic identity; even when the city became part of the northern Kingdom of Israel, it may be conjectured that the main bulk of the population continued to be the descendants of indigenous Canaanite families (cf., Judg 1:27). It may be assumed that once the city became part of the Israelite kingdom, certain Israelite families from the hill country settled in the city alongside the locals and that Israelite religious beliefs and ideology were slowly accepted by the local population, probably encouraged by the central political institutions of the kingdom. This dichotomy between the indigenous Canaanite population in the northern valleys and the Israelite hill-country population was addressed in the past by a number of studies and is fundamental for the understanding the social makeup of the northern Kingdom of Israel. Faust (2000; 2012: Chapter 8) addressed this issue manly in relation to the rural sector, but his conclusions are also appropriate for an urban society like that of Rehob.

Rehob in the 10th Century BCE: An Independent City or Part of the Assumed United Monarchy?

What was the geo-political status of Rehob and its vicinity (including Beth-Shean) in the 10th century BCE? The question of the historicity of the biblical concept of a United Monarchy during the 10th century BCE is one of the most debated issues regarding biblical history during the last generation, and this is not the place for a detailed discussion of this issue. Some scholars maintain the biblical concept as valid (e.g., Millard and Dever in Handy 1997; Ben-Tor 2000; Stager 2003; Dietrich 2007; Blum 2010; Faust 2010; Lemaire 2010), while many others either negate the historicity of such a kingdom altogether or diminish its territory to Jerusalem and its close vicinity (e.g., Finkelstein 1996,2010 and many other publications; Na'aman, Knauf, Niemann, Lemche in Handy 1997; Grabbe 2007: 111-115; Frevel 2016: 108-148; Garfinkel, Kreimerman and Zilberg 2016: 225-232; Sergi 2017; for a recent survey and earlier literature, see Na'aman 2019). Still others attempt to find middle ground (e.g., Miller in Handy 1997).

In several past articles (Mazar 2007a: 164-166; 2010: 51-52; 2014), I claimed that the biblical concept of a "United Monarchy", although ensconced in a deep literary, theological and ideological wrapping, may very well reflect a historical-political construct that emerged from the political vacuum created in large parts of the Land of Israel with the destruction at ca. 1000 BCE of the few Iron Age I Canaanite cities which survived the collapse at the end of the Late Bronze Age (such as Megiddo, Yoqnecam, Tell Keisan). During the 10th century BCE, the coastal plain and the lower Shephelah were under the domination of Philistine and Phoenician city states, while other parts of the country may have undergone severe political changes. At such a time of instability and social change, a charismatic local leader like David, even if emerging from a peripheral hilly region like Bethlehem, may have possessed political abilities that could have led to tribal alliances and economic treaties and may have succeeded in uniting the inner parts of the country under his control. The monumental architecture in Jerusalem may support such a concept. His kingdom should perhaps be understood as a short-lived tribal alliance, lacking a centralized administration and hierarchical society, yet having an impact on extensive territories. The historical Solomon is even more vague due to the literary/legendary nature of the biblical narrative, and only a few verses may have retained some historical information, perhaps those referring to his building operations (I Kgs 9:17-18). Ultimately, there are extremely contradictory views on this subject and it remains debated.

If such a concept of a "United Monarchy" is accepted as having some historical validity, it would mean that the large and densely built 10th century BCE city of Rehob was subordinate in some way to Jerusalem. If, however, there was no United Monarchy that ruled the northern part of the country, it would mean that Rehob Stratum VI continued to be an independent Canaanite city state, unrelated to any other known political unit of the time. If the latter possibility is correct, Rehob would be the only inland independent city with a highly developed urban culture in the 10th century BCE (not including the Philistine and Phoenician cities along the coast and in the lower Shephelah). The recently excavated intense Iron I and Iron IIA occupation sequence at Tel Abel Beth Maacah in the upper Galilee might be another example of an inland site with such urban continuity, although in a more northern region (Yahalom-Mack, Panitz-Cohen and Mullins 2018).

The Impact of Sheshonq's (Shishak) Invasion

Rehob, in Sheshonq I's list mentioned aside Beth-Shean, can safely be identified with Tel Rehov (Chapter 3). The precise date of the raid is unknown and depends on two debated factors: the accession year of Sheshonq I and the time of the raid within his 21-year reign. The accession year is calculated by most scholars to ca. 945/940 BCE (e.g., Kitchen 2000: 50; Shortland 2005); a lower date ca. 934/929 was suggested by Ben-Dor Evian (2011), who also suggested that the raid occurred early in his reign, while most other scholars attribute it to the last years of his reign. All in all, the raid probably occurred between ca. 930 and 915 BCE.24 Assessments of the impact of Sheshonq's raid vary (Helck 1971: 240; Na'aman 1998; 2007: 404-405; Rainey and Notley 2006: 186; Finkelstein 2013: 41-48). Traditionally, scholars tended to attribute destruction layers to this raid, assuming that the Egyptian army destroyed the places mentioned in the Karnak list. However, as first suggested by Na'aman, this assumption should not be taken for granted and it must be taken into account that toponyms are mentioned in the list just because they surrendered to the Egyptian army during the raid or since the Egyptian army passed through them or ruled them for a while without causing destruction. The inclusion of a toponym in this list means only that the place existed during Sheshonq's raid and was known to the Egyptians.

In earlier papers (Bruins, van der Plicht and Mazar 2003a; 2003b), we attributed the destruction of Stratum V to Sheshonq I. But later excavation seasons have shown that the heavy destruction referred to in these papers was a local feature limited to the central part of Area C (the apiary, Buildings CH, CG, CF and CE), while buildings to the east and west, as well as Stratum V structures in other excavation areas, did not suffer a destruction and continued to be in use in Stratum IV. A paleomagnetic study pointed to the possibility that the local destruction and burning in Area C was result of an earthquake. As we have seen, there is no evidence for a violent destruction at the end of Stratum VI. Thus, we are left with no destruction level that can be attributed to Sheshonq. I thus conclude that the mentioning of the city in his topographic list means only that he passed through it or overtook it for a while on his way from the Central Jordan Valley towards the Jezreel Valley. Based on the 14C dates from Stratum VI and some of those from Stratum V it appears that the raid may be correlated with the late years of Stratum VI or the beginning of Stratum V.
Footnotes

24 The date ca. 915 BCE would fit the accession date as suggested by Ben-Dor Evian and the attribution of the raid to the late years of Sheshonq as suggested by most scholars; however, the precise date of the raid remains unknown.

When Did Rehob Become Part of the Northern Kingdom of Israel?

The question when did Rehob become part of the northern Kingdom of Israel is somewhat controversial (Mazar 2016a: 98-100). Arie (2017: 14-15) emphasized the unique components at Tel Rehov and its dissimilarity to what he termed "regular" Israelite traits, and suggested that Rehob was a local Canaanite city-state until the end of Stratum V and was annexed to Israel only in Stratum IV, during the Omride era [~876-~842 BCE] and after the foundation of Jezreel.25 Finkelstein went even further and suggested that both Strata V and IV were non-Israelite, Rehob being a local "late-Canaanean city state at the southwestern edge of the Aramean culture sphere of influence" (2017: 181; for an earlier version, see 2013: 120-122). Based on a Bayesian model of 14C dates published before 2005, he dated the destruction of Stratum IV between 875-849 CalBC and suggested that both Strata V and IV were destroyed by Omride assaults. In my view, both these suggestions are unacceptable. Arie's distinction between Strata V and IV as pre-Israelite versus Israelite contradicts the identical material culture in both these strata. As said, the destruction at the end of Stratum V is limited to part of Area C, while in all the other excavated areas, no such destruction was observed and the city of Stratum V appears to have been continuously developed with some architectural changes in the following Stratum IV. In fact, these two strata comprise two phases in the life of the same city. Finkelstein's statement that "the material culture of Tel Rehov differs from that of the Israelite centers in the Jezreel Valley - for instance Megiddo - in almost every respect" (2017: 180) cannot be accepted. Although there are exceptional traits in the local material culture of Tel Rehov compared to other Israelite sites (such as the building techniques and house plans) there are also many similarities, for example, in the pottery assemblage (cf., Tell el-Far'ah North, Jezreel, Megiddo and Horbat Rosh Zayit), clay figurines, seals, pottery altars ("cult stands"), and other material-culture components. In addition, similarity to Megiddo can be found in the fact that both cities lacked a city wall in Iron IIA and in the resemblance between Building CF at Tel Rehov and Building 2081 at Megiddo, as explained above. In contrast to Finkelstein, I cannot discern any Aramean components at Tel Rehov. The claim that such components exist in the inscriptions is unfounded, except perhaps in the case of the component sqy in inscription No. 5 (Chapter 29A). In my view, both Strata V and IV represent a city that was under the hegemony of the northern Kingdom of Israel right from its inception.

Although being part of the Israelite kingdom, it seems that Rehob retained its independent nature and indigenous population throughout this period, until the destruction of Stratum IV. The city is probably not mentioned in the bible, in spite of suggestions to the contrary, referring to 2 Sam. 10:6-8 (Finkelstein) and 2 Sam 21:12 (Kadary) (see Chapter 3). Since Rehob was certainly one of the largest and most prosperous cities of the kingdom, this is an example of the lacunae and selectivity in the biblical narrative as it has come down to us (cf., the fact that Ahab's participation in the battle of Qarqar [853 BCE] is not mentioned in the biblical narrative).

The radiometric dates indicate that Stratum V was founded in the early years of the northern Kingdom of Israel. If we accept as historical the biblical reference to Tirzah (Tell el-Far'ah North) as the capital of the kingdom before the foundation of Samaria, the most reasonable archaeological level that would fit this status is Stratum VIIb (see above in the section on northern Samaria). Indeed, the pottery assemblage and other finds from that stratum resemble the material culture of Tel Rehov Strata V-IV. The outstanding apiary in Stratum V must have been operating in these early days of the kingdom, probably before the rise of the Omride dynasty [~876-~842 BCE].

Nimshi and Elisha

The appearance of the name nms (Nimshi) in two inscriptions from Tel Rehov, in both Strata V and IV, as well as on a jar from Tel 'Amal, led me to suggest that the prosperous Iron Age IIA city Rehob was the hometown of the Nimshi family (Mazar 2016a: 110). This was perhaps a strong and powerful family or clan who might have owned a large portion of the city's resources, including the apiary of Stratum V, in which one of the jars with this family name was found. Perhaps this was one of the indigenous families, rooted in the local Canaanite population, as described above. Nimshi is mentioned in the Bible as the father or grandfather of Jehu [r. c. 841-814 BCE], whose rise to power brought about the fall of the Omride dynasty in 842 BCE (1 Kgs 19:16; 2 Kgs 9:2, 14, 20). Thus Jehu must have belonged to the Nimshi family, and perhaps he was born and raised at Rehob. His coup and the establishment of a new dynasty which ruled northern Israel for almost 100 years may be understood as a shift of power in the kingdom from the Omride dynasty which originated in the Samaria hills to the local descendants of Canaanite families in the northern valleys.

The reading of [']lys' as the biblical name Elisha, written in large letters with red ink on a well worked pottery sherd found in the northwestern chamber of Building CP in Stratum IV, although a reconstruction, is intriguing (see details in Chapter 29A, No 9). However, although this reading is not conclusive, we cannot suggest an alternative.26 Although the name Elisha is known from several 8th-7th centuries BCE inscriptions and seals, this is the only example in a 9th century context, and one has to ask whether there might be a relationship between this ostracon and the "man of God" who stands in the center of the Elisha cycle (2 Kgs 2-13) (Mazar 2016a: 112-114; Ahituv and Mazar 2016: 223-225)? A straightforward identification of the name on the ostracon with the biblical figure may sound unlikely and naïve, but we have to consider the exceptional context and date. Building CP in which the ostracon was found is outstanding by all means, as explained above in this chapter. The ostracon was found in a small chamber with benches and two entrances, with an elaborate pottery altar set at the exterior of each entrance. Several additional cult objects were found in nearby rooms, including a ceremonial stand, a fragment of a third pottery altar, a complete incense burner with a lid, and a mold for producing figurines of naked females, identical to those found on the facades of a pottery altar in a nearby building (CF). Bone astragali and the unusual predominance of the right limbs of animals also point to religious activity in this building. The unique plan of the building, with two major wings connected through the small northwestern chamber, enabled mobility from one wing to the other through this chamber. An unusually large number of pottery vessels found in the building, including many bowls and cooking pots, as well as benches along the walls and two unique pottery silos, are evidence for public meals, perhaps banquets intended to feed a considerable number of people. This exceptional planning and activity in Building CP would be in keeping with exceptional activity such as that related to Elisha: a "man of God" — a seer and healer, whom people would wish to approach and consult, while conducting rituals and participating in public feasts.

Although the Elisha stories are thought by biblical scholars to be literary creations (legenda) of the late Monarchic to post-Exilic eras (Rofe 1974; Ghantous 2013: 128-156; Oeming 2016, with previous literature), they nevertheless could preserve kernels of historical reality, rooted in the activity of an actual seer and healer with that name who was active during the second half of the 9th century BCE in this region (Na'aman 2000: 100-104; Lemaire 2014).27 The stories include many geographical and historical details which may be considered as rooted in genuine historical memory. The biblical narrative locates the birth town of Elisha at Abel Mehola, identified ca. 15 km southeast of Tel Rehov (Zertal 2005: 100-102; 175-179; Rainey and Notley 2006: 176) and thus, at the outset, he is related to the Beth-Shean Valley. According to this narrative, he was active during the reign of Ahab [r. c. 871 c. 852 BCE], Joram [r. c. 850 c. 840 BCE], Jehu [r. c. 841-814 BCE], Jehoahaz [r. c. 814 - c. 798 BCE] and Joash [r. c. 798 - c. 782 BCE]. However, this appears to be much too long a time range and therefore, scholars have suggested to limit this activity to a shorter span.28 The early years of his career would be contemporary with his relationship to Jehu and involvement in his anointment, perhaps shortly before the city was put to the torch by Hazael sometime between 840-830 BCE (see below).

Seers, healers, and "men of God" are known in many ancient and modern traditional societies. Historical Elisha may have been such a figure, whose outstanding personality and activity left an indelible impression, generating memories that later served as the basis for the "Elisha cycle" in the Book of Kings. Although a straightforward identification of a biblical figure in the archaeological record is always dubious, the data provided above allow us, at the very least, to raise the possibility, with all due reservation, of a possible connection between the name on the ostracon and the biblical figure of Elisha. If this hypothesis is correct, Building CP would have been the seat of Elisha for a period of time during his early career, when he was involved in the ascent to kingship of Jehu. This suggestion remains, of course, in the realm of speculation.
Footnotes

26 In addition to the views expressed in Chapter 29A, I should note the Ph.D. dissertation by H.D.D. Parker (2018) which reached me after the completion of Chapter 29A. She rejects our reading and reads the second letter as cayin rather than lamed (p. 191). However, this letter is open on its upper part, unlike the cayin at the end of the name, and probably had an extension beyond the fragment line, as explained in Chapter 29A. The reading cayin would make no sense.

27 See for example Ghantous (2013) who views the redaction of the Elisha-Elijah stories as having taken place in the 4th century BCE, but, unlike the Elijah stories that he considers late (i.e., 5th century BCE), "the Elisha tradition... originated in the eighth century and continued to evolve independently until the fifth century BCE" (p. 128).

28 Miller and Hayes (1986: 290) suggested that the stories relating to the early years of Elisha (2 Kg 2, 4:1-8:15) should be attributed to Jehu's reign rather than to that of Ahab and Jehoram, as the Bible puts it.

When and How Did the Destruction of Stratum IV Occur?

The destruction of Stratum IV marks a dramatic point in the history of the city. Evidence for fierce fire and severe devastation was found in all the excavation areas. People left their belongings in the houses and probably fled, or were deported, or slaughtered. In one case, a human skeleton may be attributed to this destruction layer in Area C (Chapter 46B). Following the destruction, the lower city was abandoned and only the upper mound was resettled in the following Iron IIB. It appears that this destruction resulted from a military conquest rather than an earthquake, though no direct evidence such as multiple arrowheads or sling stones were detected. The date of the destruction and the identity of the conqueror can be suggested on the basis of three parameters: pottery typology, historical considerations and radiocarbon dates.

The pottery assemblage from the destruction layer is typical Late Iron IIA, which may be dated to a time range from the late 10th century until somewhere in the last third of the 9th century BCE (see Chapter 24 and the chronological discussion above).

A number of historical events should be taken into consideration as possible causes for this event. Finkelstein's suggestion that Rehov Stratum IV was destroyed by Ahab was rejected in the discussion above. Aramean attacks during the first half of the 9th century BCE can hardly be accounted for; the Ben Hadad I raid on the northern part of the kingdom, if it really occurred, is too early for the end of Stratum IV and, in any event, did not have an impact on the Beth-Shean Valley (Younger 2016: 571-580, with a review of earlier views). Wars between Ahab and Ben-Hadad (II?) (1 Kgs 20, 22) should be taken into account, since the Arameans are said to have arrived from the Jordan Valley (Succoth) probably through Wadi el-Far'ah, and laid siege to Samaria (1 Kgs 20). However, the historical reality behind these narratives is highly debated. M. Miller was the first to claim that since Ahab was a member of the anti-Assyrian coalition alongside Hadadezer (Assyrian Adad-Idri) of Damascus in the battle of Qarqar against Shalmaneser III (853 BCE), followed by three additional Assyrian raids to Syria, it makes no sense that the king of Damascus would fight Israel during the same time when they were allies (Miller and Hayes 1986: 262-264; 290, 300-302). He therefore suggested to date these biblical descriptions of clashes between Aram and Israel to the time of Jehu's successors. This view became popular in recent research, although a few historians believe that an Aramean attack on Israel could have occurred a few years prior to the battle of Qarqar (Aharoni 1979: 334-335; Rainey and Notely 2006: 199). Yamada and Na'aman claimed that there was one Aramean raid during the time of Ahab, although each of them accepted a different tradition in 1 Kgs (survey and references in Younger 2016: 580-591 and, in particular, 582, notes 124-126). I tend to accept the view that no Aramean attacks on Israel occurred during the reign of Ahab.

Another possibility is the Shalmaneser III raid on southern Syria in 841 BCE, described in several Assyrian sources, including the Marble Slab and the Black Obelisk (Younger 2016: 6 13-618, with references to earlier literature). This attack occurred close to Jehu's coup, which is dated by most scholars to 842 BCE and Jehu "of Bit Humri" is mentioned in both these Assyrian sources as surrendering to Shalmaneser. Since the inscriptions mention both the Hauran and the coast, scholars conjectured that the Assyrian army reached northern Israel, and some identified the geographical name Ba'li-Rasi mentioned in the text as Mt. Carmel (Aharoni 1979: 341; Miller and Hayes 1986: 287; Rainey and Notley 2006: 208; others suggested Ras en-Naqura or the vicinity of Nahr el-Kalb in Lebanon: Younger 2016: 616). In any event, the possibility that this hypothetical Assyrian invasion caused the destruction of Rehov Stratum IV remains very doubtful.

The most reasonable explanation for the destruction is, in my view, an Aramean attack during the time of Hazael. "Resilience, perseverance, drive, military prowess, ruthlessness — these are some of the traits no doubt possessed by Hazael that led to Damascene hegemony" (Younger 2016: 630). His bloody attacks on Israel are echoed in the bible (1 Kgs 19:17; 2 Kgs 8:12; Amos 1: 3-4). The Tel Dan inscription is commonly interpreted as relating that Hazael killed Joram son of Ahab and Ahaziah son of Jehoram king of Judah, in contrast to the biblical story of the assassination of these two kings by Jehu. In both cases, the events must be dated to ca. 842/841 BCE, following the battle of Ramot Gilead, after which Jehu of the Nimshi family came to power (Na'aman 2000: 100-104; Younger 2016: 606-620, with vast earlier literature). Between 841-837 BCE, Hazael was occupied with Assyrian attacks by Shalmaneser III. Yet, following 837 BCE, the Assyrians withdrew from Syria for a good number of years, and Hazael was able to build up his power and establish a regional empire (Younger 2016: 620-632). He ruled large parts of northern Transjordan and central and southern Syria, attacked Israel, conquered Gath, threatened Jerusalem and forced Jehoash of Judah to pay him tribute (2 Kgs 12:18-19). His domination continued until the time of Jehoahaz son of Jehu (2 Kgs 13:3-7). As mentioned above, several scholars have suggested that the Aramean wars attributed in I Kgs 20,22 to Ben Hadad during the time of Ahab were led, in fact, by Hazael during Jehu's reign or during the time of his successor Jehoahaz. The biblical stories regarding the conflicts with the Arameans are intertwined in the Elisha cycle, including the siege of Samaria (2 Kgs 5-7), the story of Elisha at the deathbed of Ben-Hadad, the rise of Hazael, and the prophecy of Elisha to Hazael concerning the devastation of Israel (2 Kgs 8: 7-15).

The suggested role of Tel Rehov as the home-town of the Nimshi family and of Jehu may explain the choice of this city as a target of a severe Aramean attack. Other reasons could be the status of the city as one of the largest and richest in the northern Kingdom of Israel, as well as its proximity to the Gilead, which was now dominated by the Arameans. Thus, the destruction may be explained as personal revenge and a threat against Jehu by Hazael. The total destruction by fire resembles the fierce destruction of Gath (Tell es-Safi) by Hazael, which probably occurred somewhat later (Maeir 2009; 2016).

When may Hazael have destroyed Rehob? One possibility is that the conquest occurred in the very beginning of his and Jehu's kingships, ca. 841-840 BCE, just after the battle of Ramoth Gilead. Another possibility is that it occurred during the years following 837 BCE, perhaps between 837¬830 BCE. These dates would fit the lowest range of the 14C dates presented earlier in this chapter (see the section on absolute chronology) and in Chapter 48.

The extent of the 9th century BCE destruction at Tel Rehov is unparalleled elsewhere in northern Israel; nowhere was such a violent and total destruction found, although less severe destructions which may be attributed to Hazael were found at Jezreel, parts of Megiddo Stratum VA-IVB, and perhaps Beth-Shean Stratum Upper V (=S-la, see above) (Kleiman 2016). Finkelstein (2016; followed by Kleiman 2016) suggested that Hazael caused the destruction of Hazor IX and Dan IVA; yet, in none of these places was evidence for a heavy destruction found. It should be noted that the excavators of both sites suggested higher dates in the 9th century BCE for the same strata and this issue remains unresolved, as does the question of Aramean presence at these sites (as well as at Abel Beth Maacah) during the reign of Hazael (Younger 2016: 624). As to Hazael's conquests in southern and perhaps central Israel, see recent surveys and suggestions by Maeir (2016), Kleiman (2016) and Younger (2016: 624-627); the latter dates the conquest of Gath and the tribute payed to Hazael by Jehoash king of Judah to ca. 810 BCE.

Chapter 12 - Area C: Stratigraphy and Architecture

Introduction

Plans and Photos
Figures and Photos

  • Figure 12.1 - Site Plan with grid and excavation areas from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.1 - Aerial Photo showing Area C from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Stratigraphic Table from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.1:XVII)

Discussion

Area C was located at the northwestern end of the lower city of Tel Rehov, which is the highest point of this part of the mound (Fig. 12.1; Photo 12.1). It was excavated with the purpose of clarifying the stratigraphic sequence and defining the nature of settlement in this part of the tell. ...

Stratigraphy

Four main strata were detected in Area C, termed from earliest to latest (Table 12.1):
  • C-3
  • C-2
  • C-1b
  • C-1a
Stratum C-4 was reached only in a very limited probe in Square Y/1 (Fig. 12.3). Stratum C-3 had two phases in one building and in a few cases, Strata C-2 and C-1b had more than one phase, detected mainly in open areas with multiple occupation layers. See Table 12.1 for the correlation between the local phases of Area C and the general tell strata, and suggested periodization; see further discussion in Chapter 4. See also the stratigraphic table at the beginning of this volume for the correlation with local strata in all other areas.

Table 12.1

Correlation of local Area C and general tell strata

Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)


The amount of continuity between the major strata (C-3–C-1) differed. Some walls of Stratum C-2 were built directly on those of C-3, while others were constructed according to a different plan altogether. Some buildings of Stratum C-2 were rebuilt in C-1b, while others went out of use. The greatest continuity took place between Strata C-1b and C-1a, which should be viewed, in fact, as two phases of the same occupation, although there were also several marked changes, mostly in the southeastern part of the area. Strata C-3 and C-2 each had a distinct brick type, while the bricks of Strata C-1b and C-1a were similar, although of varied materials (Tables 12.27–12.30).

The correlation between the destruction/construction events in a city that was constructed entirely of bricks turned out to be complicated task. Our stratigraphic division was based on the attempt to integrate local sequences in the various parts of the area into one comprehensive scheme. Although in each context we were able to establish clear stratigraphy, there remained open questions concerning the correlation between them, in particular due to a violent event at the end of Stratum C-1b, mostly in the southeastern part of the field (Squares Y–Z, A– B/20, 1–3). However, other parts of Area C with remains attributed to Stratum C-1b did not suffer such massive destruction. Following the violent destruction at the end of Stratum C-1a, Area C, like the entire lower city, was entirely abandoned, and the architecture of this stratum was revealed just under modern topsoil.

Stratum C-2

Introduction

Plans
Plans

  • Fig. 12.7 - Plan of Stratum C-2 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)

Discussion

Stratum C-2 was dated to Early Iron Age IIA, the 10th century BCE (for more specific dating, see below and Chapters 4, 48). It marked the initial appearance of red-slipped and hand-burnished wares; Cypriot Black-on-Red ware that appeared in subsequent strata was lacking (Chapter 27). The Hippo storage jar made its first appearance in this stratum, although in small amounts and partially ambiguous from a typological point of view, made of the same type of clay common in subsequent strata (Chapter 24). Most of the pottery was fragmentary, aside from several complete vessels, including an assemblage from Locus 1555b in Square R/4 (Figs. 13.10–13.11; Photo 13.1) whose typological attributes and decoration recall Iron IB pottery, as discussed below.

One of the most distinct characteristics of this occupation phase was that almost all the walls were constructed with hard-packed yellow bricks, very different from the crumbly gray bricks of Stratum C-3 (Table 12.28). Most of the rooms were found full of complete fallen bricks of this type. This, and traces of damage in the walls, such as cracks and slippage, allude to seismic activity at some point, possibly the reason for the end of this stratum. Despite this damage, the walls of Stratum C-2 were, in most cases, well preserved, for example in Building CB, where they stood up to 18 courses, with two intact entrances.

Square R/4 — Room 1555

Plans, Sections, and Photos
Plans, Sections, and Photos

  • Figure 12.9 - Plan of Stratum C-2 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.97 - Section 43 (Square R/4, looking north) from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.23 - Room 1555 at the beginning of excavation from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.24 - Damaged eastern face of Wall 1563 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.25 - Smashed vessels in Room 1555 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)

Discussion
  • Plan: Fig. 12.9
  • Section: Fig. 12.97
  • Photos 12.23–12.25
  • Pottery: Figs. 13.10–13.11
Room 1555 in Square R/4 was ca. 2.6 m wide and at least 2.9 m long, bordered by Walls 1562 on the east, 4458 on the south and 1563 on the west; the northern wall was beyond the excavation limits (Photo 12.23). The southern wall (4458) was the western continuation of Wall 4438, the northern wall of Building CA (see below). The western wall (1563) was preserved to ten courses (Photo 12.24), although its eastern face was very damaged. All the walls, and particularly Wall 4458 on the south, were found tilted, apparently the result of seismic activity. The bottom of the western wall (1563) was reached on its western side at level 85.61 m, which is somewhat lower than the upper level of some of the Stratum D-3 pits in the adjacent Square Q/4 (see Chapter 15, Table 15.3). The bottom level of the southern wall (4458) was reached at 85.66 m; this wall continued to the west, where it was designated 1572. It was not clear whether the eastern wall (1562) continued down, as its lowest courses were very poorly preserved. Inside the room there were two layers. The upper one (1555a), sealed by Floor 4488 of Stratum C-1b, was a debris layer between levels 86.62– 85.92 m. The lower one (1555b) included a concentration of restorable pottery at levels 85.92–85.60 m (Fig. 12.97; Photo 12.25), although one large storage jar fragment was found 0.20 m lower than the rest of the pottery in the assemblage. No clear floor matrix could be defined here. The lowest level of this layer, with the single storage jar sherd, was resting just above a 0.10 m debris layer (11428) which covered Floor 11436 (level 85.30 m) and Pits 11439 and 11438, all assigned to Stratum C-3 (see above).

The 18 restored vessels from Locus 1555b (Figs. 13.10–13.11; photo on p. 270) were attributed to Room 1555 of Stratum C-2, based on the relation of the debris layer (1555a) and the top of the pottery layer (1555b) to the surrounding walls. As such, this would be the only case where an assemblage of restorable vessels could be attributed to Stratum C-2 and the only evidence for a sudden destruction at the end of this occupation level, although no traces of fire were found; the cause might have been an earthquake. Yet, there is a certain dilemma concerning this pottery group. Unlike much of the other pottery from Stratum C-2, the vessels lacked red slip and burnish, and several were painted in a style typical of the Iron IB pottery at Tel Rehov. Typologically as well, the vessels suit an Iron IB date, although most forms also continued into Early Iron IIA. These factors, as well as the fact that the main bulk of the pottery was found at level 85.60 m, which is somewhat lower than the uppermost pits of Stratum D-3 (general Stratum VII) in the adjacent Square Q/4, raised initial doubts as to the attribution of this locus. If this pottery was on a layer relating to the debris of Locus 1555a and abutting the bottom of the room’s walls, it must belong to Stratum C-2. However, the possibility remains that this pottery concentration should be attributed to Stratum C-3a, the last Iron IB phase, in which case the thin debris layer 11428 might have been the surface on which the assemblage rested. In that case, Floor 11436 and Pits 11438 and 11439 would be attributed to an earlier phase, denoted Stratum C-3b, corresponding to the lower pits of Stratum D-3; if so, then the pottery concentration preceded the walls of the room as defined above. This is not entirely impossible when considering the location of this pottery concentration in relation to the bottom of these walls (see section, Fig. 12.97). However, in that case, Room 1555 would remain without a floor, despite the good preservation of its walls. Another problem with this explanation is that floors attributed to Stratum C-2 east of Room 1555 (in Square S/4) are almost at the same level or even lower than the pottery in Locus 1555b. Ultimately, this unique assemblage was assigned to Stratum C-2, while acknowledging that the pottery types could be either Iron IB or Early Iron IIA, demonstrating the continuity between these two periods, as discussed in Chapter 24.

West of Square R/4, where the steep western slope of the mound started, was the border between Areas C and D. In Squares R–Q/4–5 of Area D, architectural elements attributed to Stratum D-2 continued until the erosion line down the slope, with no evidence for a defense line of any sort. These remains were contemporary with Stratum C-2 and thus, we concluded that the city had not been fortified at that time.

Building CA

Plans, Sections, and Photos
Plans, Sections, and Photos

  • Figure 12.9 - Plan of Stratum C-2 (west) from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.10 - Plan of Buildings CA and CB in Stratum C-2 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.65 - Section 11 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.66 - Section 12 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.67 - Section 13 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.68 - Section 14 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.27 - Looking south at Buildings CA and CB in Stratum C-2 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.28 - Looking south at Building CA in Stratum C-2 with a bulge in Wall 4439 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.29 - Room 4426 in Building CA in Stratum C-2 with burnt grain on the floor from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.30 - Buildings CA and CB in Stratum C-2 looking south from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)

Discussion
  • Plans: Figs. 12.9–12.10
  • Sections: Figs. 12.65–12.68
  • Photos 12.4–12.5, 12.27–12.30
  • Pottery: Figs. 13.13–13.14
Building CA

This was a rectangular building in Squares S–T/3–4 (external measurements 5.2×6.2 m). All of its walls were composed of hard yellow bricks and were very well preserved to a height of more than 1.0 m. No entrance to this building was located, suggesting that it had been entered from above. Its plan consisted of two small rooms on the west and two somewhat larger rooms on the east, and it might have served a storage function. It was constructed above a thin layer of fill (8408) that served to level the remains of Stratum C-3a Building CS below it.

The northern wall (4438) was preserved nine courses high on the west, but much less on the east, so much so that it was not clear whether there had been an entranceway here or whether the bricks were missing due to damage. Stratum C-1b Walls 1464 and 1524 superimposed it, but there was no C-3 wall below it; Wall 8503 adjoined it on the north. The western wall (4440), constructed right on top of Wall 8418 of Stratum C-3a (Photos 12.12– 12.13), was preserved 11–12 courses high; its width was unknown, since C-1b Wall 1523 covered its western face. The southern wall (4439) was preserved ten courses high; its exact width was not known, since C-1b Wall 1448 covered it (Photo 12.28). The eastern wall (4434) stood nine courses high and was poorly preserved, especially on the northeast (Figs. 12.66–12.67). This suggests that the main damage to the building, whatever the cause, was focused in the east and particularly, the northeast. The original width of Wall 4434 was 0.6 m, although a thickening identified in its lower courses on the south reached a width of 0.85 m. There was obviously a need to reinforce this eastern wall, perhaps after a seismic tremor, and it seems that Wall 1506, built adjoining the southern part of the eastern face of Wall 4434, played such a role during the lifetime of this building (see further discussion below).

The two eastern rooms were similar to each other in size, as were the two western rooms. Their internal measurements were: Room 4429 in the northeast (2.0×2.4 m; 4.8 sq m), Room 4420 in the southeast (1.9×2.0 m; 3.8 sq m), Room 4426 in the southwest (1.3×2.0 m; 2.6 sq m) (Photo 12.29), and Room 4409 in the northwest (1.1×2.0 m; 2.2 sq m); the total floor space of this building was only 13.4 sq m. Two intersecting inner partition walls separated these rooms: east–west Wall 2509 and north– south Wall 2493, with its northern continuation, 4407. An entranceway in the eastern end of Wall 2509 joined the two eastern rooms, while an opening in Wall 2509, just to the west of its corner with Wall 2493, joined the two western rooms. However, it seems that at some point, this latter opening was blocked, as a brick course spanned its top. No entrance was found in Walls 2493 or 4407, leaving the eastern and western chambers inaccessible from each other; it is possible that the rooms were entered from above. Their small size, and the fact that some grain was found in the southwestern room, indicate the possibility that they were used for grain storage.

The rooms were found full of complete fallen yellow bricks, chunks of brick debris, some ash, and brown soil. There were relatively few finds, mainly red-slipped and red-painted sherds (Figs. 13.13–13.14), as well as bones and flint. An intact bowl (Fig. 13.13:7) with a small amount of burnt grain nearby was found on the floor in Room 4426 (Photo 12.29); this grain was submitted for 14C analysis (Chapter 48, Table 48.4, Sample R18), yielding average calibrated dates 968–898 (1σ) CalBC, 974–848 (2σ) CalBC. A seal was found in Room 4429 (Chapter 30A, No. 14). The floors were made of beaten earth and for the most part, their level was determined by the bottom of the surrounding walls and not by any distinct discernible makeup.

The nature and function of this building remained unclear. There was no evidence for domestic activity or storage, such as cooking facilities, installations or storage jars. Perhaps it was related to grain storage, possibly with some administrative function. To some extent, this building recalls the eastern part of Building 200 in Hazor Strata X–IX (Hazor III–IV: Plans VIII–X), which was also comprised of a series of small chambers.

Wall 1506

A north–south wall (1506) in Square T/3, adjoining the southern part of the eastern wall of Building CA, was rather enigmatic. It stood to a height of 1.3 m and was composed of the same hard yellow bricks as the other walls in this building, although here they were only 0.4 m wide, since they were laid so that their width, rather than length, composed the width of the wall. The wall was preserved on a rather precarious slant, with the lower courses of its eastern face protruding; this might have been the result of seismic activity (Fig. 12.68).

The stratigraphic attribution of this wall was not certain; it abutted the southern half of the poorly preserved eastern wall of Building CA (4434) (Photos 12.27, 12.30) and terminated abruptly in the balk between Squares S–T/4, where it was abutted by an open area in which cooking and food preparation took place in Strata C-2 and C-1b (see below). This wall may be understood as a retainer built to buttress the southern part of the eastern wall of Building CA, which might have suffered damage during the course of its use in Stratum C-2. On the other hand, it should be noted that the southern end of Wall 1506 blocked most of the northern entranceway leading into C-2 Building CB. Wall 2495, the eastern wall of Stratum C-1b Building CD, terminated just at the point where the northern end of Wall 1506 was located, suggesting that Wall 1506 was used, or reused, as the eastern closing wall of this building during Stratum C-1b (Fig. 12.24). Two explanations may be suggested:

  1. Wall 1506 was built as a retaining wall to support the damaged southern end of the eastern wall of Building CA during some later phase of Stratum C-2, and was subsequently reused in Stratum C-1b, when the building was rebuilt
  2. Wall 1506 was constructed in Stratum C-1b as part of the renovation of Building CA as Building CD
It seems that the first option is preferable for the following reasons
  1. layers attributed to C-2 in the open area to the north and east of the wall abutted its lowest exposed courses
  2. there was an alternative entrance into Building CB, so the blockage of the northern entrance did not cancel this building
  3. it was built of yellow bricks typical only of Stratum C-2.
The end of Building CA was perhaps the result of an earthquake, as evidenced by the damaged and cracked state of the walls and the large amount of complete fallen bricks above the floors. Preservation was especially poor on the eastern side of the building. It is possible that earlier seismic damage ravaged the building during the course of its use and there was some evidence of attempts to repair and continue to use it, such as Wall 1506. However, the final event put the building out of use, to be leveled, deliberately filled-in, and rebuilt in Stratum C-1b (Building CD). The fact that the floors of the building were relatively empty of finds may suggest that it was abandoned before its final devastation.

Building CB

Plans, Sections, and Photos
Plans, Sections, and Photos

  • Figure 12.9 - Plan of Stratum C-2 (west) from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.10 - Plan of Buildings CA and CB in Stratum C-2 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.65 - Section 11 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.69 - Section 15 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.77 - Section 23 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.79 - Section 25 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.30 - Buildings CA and CB in Stratum C-2 looking south from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.31 - Wall 2505 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.32 - Wall 2505 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.33 - Wall 2505 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.34 - Central Hall from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.35 - Split between northern walls 1442 and 1483 of Building CB - possibly due to an earthquake - from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.36 - Lamp in niche of Wall 1483 - from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.37 - Large Tumbled Stone in Building CB from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.38 - Wall 2481 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.39 - Tilted Stratum C-1 Wall 2411 overlying Stratum C-2 Wall 5476 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)

Discussion
  • Plans: Figs. 12.9–12.10
  • Sections: Figs.12.65, 12.69, 12.77, 12.79
  • Photos 12.3–12.5, 12.8, 12.15–12.16, 12.30–12.39
  • Pottery: Figs. 13.15–13.18
Building CB in Squares S–Y/2–3 adjoined Building CA on the south, with the northern wall of the former built flush against the southern wall of the latter, creating a double wall. No connection was found between the two back-to-back units and they represented separate, contemporary buildings.
Room 1520 — The Central Hall

The major component of Building CB was a large, roughly rectangular space which underwent minor changes during the course of its existence (Figs. 12.9–12.10; Photo 12.30). This large room (1520) was perhaps a major living room or reception hall in a larger architectural complex, which continued to the east and perhaps, south.

The external measurements of this hall were 5.0×7.5 m (floor space, 22.2 sq m). Three of its walls (the southern, western, and at least part of the northern wall) were constructed directly on top of the gray-brick walls in the southern part of C-3 Building CS (Photos 12.15–12.16); the eastern wall was superimposed by Stratum C-1 Building CG (Fig. 12.69; Photos 12.31–12.33). The walls were: 1470 on the south (preserved to 14 courses; Photos 12.16, 12.34), 1463 on the west (preserved to 12 courses; Photo 12.15) and 2505 on the east (preserved to 13 courses); an entrance was located at the southern end of this latter wall, at its juncture with Wall 1470, leading to the eastern part of this building (Photos 12.31–12.34). The northern wall, preserved to 12–18 courses, was given two separate numbers due to a clear split in the middle, which was possibly the result of seismic activity (Photo 12.35); the western half was designated 1442 and the eastern half, 1483. An entrance in Wall 1483 was located 1.0 m to the west of its corner with Wall 2505. An intact oil lamp with soot on its nozzle was found in a niche in the eastern door jamb, one course below the top (Photo 12.36). This entrance led to the north, where an open area with cooking facilities was found in Squares T/3-4, although note that this opening was partially blocked on the north by Wall 1506, probably during a later phase of Stratum C-2, as described above. Wall 1483 continued to the east past its corner with Wall 2505 into Squares T–Y/3, where it was designated Wall 2481 (Photo 12.38). All four walls of Room 1520 were composed of hard yellow bricks, although note the gray bricks of the earlier C-3 wall incorporated into the lower courses of Wall 1470, as described above; several dark brown bricks joined these gray bricks in what might be a repair in the center of this wall (Photo 12.34).

The two entrances that accessed this hall from the east and the north were used concurrently. Both were 0.9 m wide and preserved ca. 1.6 m high. It is clear that the top of the northern entrance was intact (Photos 12.35–12.36). However, it appears that the top of the eastern entranceway in Wall 2505 was subjected to some damage, particularly on its western face, when Stratum C-1b Wall 1416 was built above it (Photos 12.31–12.34).

The interior of the room contained a ca. 0.9 m deep accumulation of striated red-clay and gray-ash layers, interspersed with decayed brick debris, from 84.80–85.69 m (1520, 2456, 2457, 2466, 2474, 2482; Figs. 12.65, 12.69).2 We assumed that these striations represented the accumulation of floors in this hall, although it was difficult to separate these thin layers and possibly, at least the lower levels might have been a fill. Some layers contained large patches of phytolith, often with distinct shapes, such as one long, rope-like configuration found lying near three stones laid in a diagonal row, just above the top of Stratum C-3 Wall 2462. A moderate amount of pottery was found in these layers, most of which were sherds or fragments of small vessels, representing bowls, chalices, cooking pots, kraters, jugs and juglets, but no storage jars (Figs. 13.15–13.17); many were red slipped and hand burnished and some were painted in red. No cooking facilities were found here.

A large, roughly squared mizi limestone (0.25×0.65×0.7 m), was found 1.0 m to the south of the entranceway in Wall 1483 (Photos 12.35, 12.37), its bottom face polished smooth, apparently from use. It was found tilted, with its northern end higher by 0.45 m than its southern end, and we assume that the smooth bottom side had originally been on top. The red-clay and gray-ash striations in this room (2456, 2466) abutted the stone, supporting the idea that at least some of these layers were not living floors, but rather a fill. The position of this large stone in front of the entranceway in Wall 1483 was baffling. It is quite certain that this was not its original position and that it had tumbled over from either the west or the south. It could possibly have stood in the center of the room and served as a pillar base or some work surface; it perhaps flipped over, reaching its present location during the assumed earthquake that terminated this occupation phase.

Above the striated layers in the room was a 1.5 m-deep layer of complete fallen yellow bricks (1469, 1478, 1497). No traces of burning were identified nor were there the tell-tale signs of a sudden destruction, such as complete vessels and other finds, suggesting that these fallen bricks represented the collapse of the surrounding walls at the end of Stratum C-2, probably due to an earthquake, either during the time it was still in use or some time after the building was abandoned.

Although it was considered that this room could have been a basement, this possibility was ruled out since there was no constructed element above it and its eastern continuation clearly ran beneath the later Building CG

East of the Central Hall

Excavation to the east of Wall 2505 exposed its eastern face with the entranceway. The top of the wall had been damaged and leveled when the wooden foundation of Stratum C-1b Wall 1416 was built (Photos 12.32–12.33), protruding 0.45 m to the east of the face of Wall 2505. The top of a yellow brick wall (4503) that cornered with Wall 2505 was revealed 1.0 m to the north of the entranceway; its eastern continuation was cut by the foundations of Building CG and only its southern face could be seen, as Wall 2429 of Stratum C-1b was built above it. This wall was preserved much lower than Wall 2505 due to the damage caused when the deep and massive wooden and brick foundations of Building CG were laid (see below). Thus, the only possible Stratum C-2 debris that could be isolated here was Locus 4500 to the south of Wall 4503.

Some 1.4 m to the north of Wall 4503 was Wall 2481, the eastern continuation of Wall 1442/1483, which was revealed in a small probe under the floor of Building CG (Fig. 12.77; Photo 12.38). The eastern part of a north–south wall (5476) was exposed 2.5 m to the east of Wall 2505, directly under the wooden foundation of Stratum C-1b Wall 2411 (Photo 12.39), which had cut the top of Wall 5476 in a step-like manner, descending from north to south, so that it was preserved five courses high on the north and only two on the south. This appears to have been the eastern closing wall of a room bordered by Walls 2481 on the north, 2505 on the west, and 4503 on the south. A small area was excavated in this room (2469), although a floor was not reached (Figs. 12.77, 12.79). Still another north–south wall (5491) abutted Wall 5476 on the east, on the level of its lowest course (85.25 m); only one brick course of this wall was preserved, with an offset that protruded 0.35 m to the east, located just about on the same line as Wall 2481 to its west (Photo 12.39). Wall 5491 might have been a bench attached to Wall 5476 or a poorly preserved part of the unit uncovered in Squares Y/3–4 (see below).

Abutting the eastern face of Wall 5491 was a beaten-earth floor (5494; Fig. 12.79) that was bordered on the south by an east–west row of four flattopped stones, which may have been pillar bases (Photo 12.21). The floor and the stones were laid directly above Stratum C-3 Room 9441. All other remains of Stratum C-2 to the south of these stones were obliterated when Building CH and the apiary were constructed in Stratum C-1b. The northern border of this activity remained unknown, since it was covered by later Stratum C-2 architecture, described below.

Building CE

Plans, Sections, and Photos
Plans, Sections, and Photos

  • Figure 12.12 - Plan of Stratum C-2 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.62 - Section 8 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.63 - Section 9 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.64 - Section 10 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.40 - Tilted C1-b Wall 2454 on top of C-2 Wall 6441 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.41 - Building CE from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.42 - fallen bricks and debris in Room 6464 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.43 - from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)

Discussion
  • Plan: Fig. 12.12
  • Section: Figs. 12.62–12.64
  • Photos 12.40–12.43
  • Pottery: Fig. 13.22
Building CE

Building CE in Squares T–Y/4–6 was founded in Stratum C-2 and continued to be in use, with some changes, in Strata C-1b and C-1a. This is one of the few instances where more or less the same building continued in all three main strata. The unit was composed of a broad room on the south and rooms or open spaces, to its north (Fig. 12.12); the relationship between the two components was not clear, due to the partial exposure.

Room 6464

Three walls of this room, preserved to a height of 0.7–1.25 m and built of the typical hard yellow bricks of Stratum C-2, were revealed in Squares T– Y/4, directly below the later walls: 6441 on the east, 6460 on the south, and 6504 on the north (Photos 12.40–12.41). The western part of the room remained unexcavated and it seems that the entrance to the room had been on this side. An interesting feature of the eastern wall (6441) was the damage wrought by the builders of C-1b when they set the wooden foundations for their wall (2454) above it; they cut back the western face and the top of the earlier wall, whose original face protruded some 0.2 m to the west, three courses below the cut (Photo 12.40). In the corner of the southern and eastern walls was an offset that protruded 0.3 m into the room (Photo 12.42).

A layer of collapsed bricks and debris (6443) that rested on a reddish floor interspersed with gray ash (6464) abutted the eastern and southern walls (Fig. 12.64); this debris was sealed by Stratum C-1b Floor 2489. Curiously, the northern wall (6504) was floating above this floor, although a protruding course of bricks found just about on level with Floor 6464 might represent the lower part of this wall, or the top of an even earlier wall. Excavation of a probe (6503) 0.35 m below Floor 6464 yielded a layer of sandy material with some brick debris (6503) that penetrated below Wall 6460.

Spaces to the North of Room 6464

Three spaces were attributed to this building in Squares Y/5–6, although no connection between them was found, due to overlying elements that remained unexcavated (Fig. 12.12; Photo 12.43). Only the eastern part of these rooms was excavated.

The western part of Wall 6524 in Square Y/5 was revealed below the wooden foundation of C-1 Wall 2454, protruding 0.25 m to the west. An east– west wall (6521) comprised of large bricks and preserved to only one course, abutted Wall 6524. The area enclosed by these walls contained a layer of debris (6495, 6519) (Fig. 12.63).

The space to the north of Wall 6521 in Square Y/6 had two phases. In the earlier phase, it contained layers of thin red and gray striations (7433) and was bordered on the east by Wall 7513 (south) and 7478 (north); this line continued that of Wall 6524 to the south. Pit 6498 cut the relationship between these walls. At some later stage, east–west Wall 7485, preserved two courses high, was added, dividing the space into two; in the north were the upper layers of 7473 and to the south of the wall was a layer of brick debris (7455). It was not clear whether Wall 7513 continued in use in this later phase (Photos 12.43, 12.87).

Building CY

Plans, Sections, and Photos
Plans, Sections, and Photos

  • Figure 12.12 - Plan of Stratum C-2 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.14 - Plan of Building CY, Stratum C-2 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.55 - Section 1 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.56 - Section 2 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.58 - Building CY in Stratum C-2 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.59 - Wall 7511 in Stratum C-2 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.60 - Closeup on Wall 7511 in Stratum C-2 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.61 - brick collapse 10412 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.62 - Building CY from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.63 - Building CY from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)

Discussion
  • Plan: Figs. 12.12, 12.14
  • Section: Figs. 12.55–12.56
  • Photos 12.58–12.63
  • Pottery: Figs. 13.34–13.37
Building CY

Part of a finely constructed building was excavated in the northeastern corner of Area C, in Squares A– C/5–6. It continued to the north, beyond the limit of the excavation area. Building CY covered a Stratum C-3 stone floor and installation (Fig. 12.6) and was sealed by Strata C-1a–b Building CW.

The external measurements of the building were 10.2 m from east to west and at least 6.3 m from north to south. It contained a central space, most probably a courtyard (7512), flanked on the west and east by rooms; the two southern rooms were exactly symmetric, but the northernmost room on the east differed from its equivalent on the west. The main entrance to the building was probably in the unexcavated area to the north and perhaps led directly into the central space.

The western wall (8457), preserved 1.0 m high, was superimposed by Wall 6408 of Strata C-1a–b. Its entire eastern face was exposed, and also the northern part of its western face, which served as the border of the assumed entrance corridor leading to Building CU; its southern part ran parallel to Wall 6520, the eastern wall of that building. The southern wall (7511), preserved 0.7 m high, was known only on its northern face, since it was covered by Wall 6444 of Building CW in Strata C-1a–b (Figs. 12.34, 12.56) which was not dismantled. The wooden beams in the foundation of Wall 6444 were laid directly on top of Wall 7511 (Photos 12.22, 12.59–12.61). Wall 7511 was preserved at a tilt, especially visible on its western end, possibly the result of seismic activity. The eastern part of this wall was built of segments, with two vertical seams visible in its northern face (Photo 12.59), a mode of construction which might have been aimed at ensuring stability in the event of an earthquake. Wall 7511 made a corner with Wall 10461, which closed the building on the east.

Courtyard 7512

The central courtyard was 3.1 m wide and at least 5.4 m long. It contained a layer of fallen bricks (Fig. 12.55) above a layer of occupation debris (7505) resting on a yellow-earth floor (7512) at level 85.15–85.25 m. In the debris was a relatively large amount of red-slipped and hand-burnished, as well as red-painted pottery (Figs. 13.34–13.37) and sherds of a Late Philistine Decorated Ware (Ashdod Ware) vessel (Fig. 13.37:8). Two clay figurine fragments, one a human head and the other a horse head (Chapter 34, Nos. 22, 35), were found together in the eastern part of the space, to the north of Oven 8461. Near the figurines were two sherds with letters, one with an ayin and a yod in ink, and the other with an incised lamed (Fig. 13.37:2–3; Ahituv and Mazar 2014: 40–42; Chapter 29A, Nos. 1, 3). Elements on Floor 7512 included:

  1. Oven 8461, just north of the entrance into Room 8488, coated with sherds on the exterior

  2. a brick bin just north of the oven (unnumbered)

  3. a semi-circular clay bin (7514) attached to Wall 7506

  4. a large (1.0 m diameter, 0.86 m deep) round pit or silo (8452) dug from the floor, close to the center of the northern balk of Square B/6. It was lined with hard mud plaster and found full of small stones and eroded brick debris, but empty, other than a few small sherds.
An additional feature of Floor 7512 was a series of flat-topped stones (basalt and limestone) of different sizes placed along the walls surrounding the central space. Six nicely worked stones were found along the northern face of Wall 7511, four in its center, along with a complete brick just before the westernmost stone (Photo 12.61), and two in Room 8488 on the east. Three stones were found along the western wall (7506) of the central space, two of them flanking the entrance to Room 8470. Three stones were placed along the eastern side of the central space, two flanking the entrance to Space 8479 (Photo 12.62), and a third, smaller stone near the blocked entrance into Room 8487. Thus, the stones on the west and east flanked the entrances into the side rooms and were more or less antithetic. A similar line of three stones was found in Room 8470 in the western wing of this building. The position of these flattopped stones flush against the walls is curious and precludes their functionality as structural pillar bases. They could have been supports for jars or other objects, or perhaps served a ceremonial or decorative purpose. In the courtyard, they might have supported a wooden construction of some sort, perhaps a kind of temporary awning.

Under the courtyard floor was a shallow subfloor fill (10404) that abutted the floating level of the abovementioned stones. Below this was a layer of complete bricks (10412) of the same hard consistency and yellow color as those of the building itself, but that was clearly below the building’s floor (Photo 12.61).

The Western Wing — Rooms 6506 and 8470

Room 6506, the southern room, was bordered by Walls 8457 on the west, 6505 on the north and 7506 on the east, all preserved 0.65–1.0 m above the floor level. A 1.0 m-wide entrance in the southern end of Wall 7506 accessed this room from the central courtyard (Fig. 12.56). The room was square (2.3×2.3 m, 5.3 sq m.) and had a smooth yellowearth floor (6506) at 85.10 m, covered by a layer of fallen whole bricks which contained a large amount of pottery. A pile of dark organic material was concentrated in the northern part of the room. This room was sealed by Room 6451 of Stratum C-1 Building CW.

Room 8470, the northern room, was bordered on the south by Wall 6505, on the west by the northern part of Wall 8457 and on the east by the northern part of Wall 7505; its northern part was beyond the border of the excavation area. Exactly like Room 6506, this room was 2.3 m wide and had a 1.0 m wide entrance at its southeastern corner, leading from the central courtyard. A smooth yellow-earth floor (8470) was found at level 85.16 m, covered by a layer of fallen whole bricks. Three nicely worked limestones were set in a row along Wall 8457 on the floor level, recalling the stones along the walls in the central courtyard. A pile of dark organic material, similar to that in the southern room, was found here as well. This room was covered by Room 6462 of Stratum C-1 Building CW (Fig. 12.55).

The Eastern Wing — Rooms 8488, 8479 and 8487

Room 8488 was exactly symmetric with Room 6506 of the western wing. The room was bordered by Walls 7511 on the south, 8467 on the north, 8458 on the west, and 10461 on the east (internal measurements 2.5×2.5 m; 6.25 sq m). The 1.0 m-wide entrance was exactly on line with the entranceway into Room 6506. The floor (8488), at level 85.15 m, was composed of smooth yellow earth, in which the tops of large yellow bricks were visible (Fig. 12.14; Photos 12.58, 12.63). Although excavation did not proceed down below the floor, it seems that this was a layer of complete fallen bricks, just like that under Floor 7512 in the central space. The layer above the floor (8466) included complete fallen yellow bricks and ashy debris that contained much pottery, some of it partially restorable (Figs. 13.34– 13.37), as well as a very large amount of bones, including horns.

North of Room 8488 was a narrow space (8479), 1.0 m wide and 2.4 m long, between Walls 8467 and 8475. A 0.8 m-wide entrance in the eastern end of Wall 8467 was partially blocked by bricks, leaving only a narrow gap (ca. 0.4 m) that made passage from Room 8488 to Room 8479 impossible. It seems that this blockage was secondary. This entrance was sealed on top by C-1b Wall 8426. A curious feature of this narrow space was what looked like an intentional blockage on its western end that was composed of three parts (Photos 12.62–12.63). The westernmost component was a row of narrow bricks (0.15 m wide), spanning the entrance from the central space, and preserved up to 0.7 m above the floor. The second component (8486) was ca. 0.1 m to its east, preserved some 0.2 m lower and ca. 0.3 m wide; it was not clear whether this was yet another row of bricks laid to span the corridor or fallen bricks. Just 0.1 m to their east was yet another apparent blockage (8485), although it was more typical of a regularly built wall in width, preserved five to six courses high (its base was not reached) and 0.5 m wide. None of these rows of bricks bonded with either Wall 8475 on the north or with Wall 8467 on the south. No clear floor level was identified in this narrow space, although it was excavated down to the same level (85.10 m) as the floors in the rest of the building. A large patch of soft pinkish material (phytolith?) was concentrated against the eastern face of Blockage 8485. It is possible that this narrow space was a staircase leading to a second story, with Walls 8485 and 8486 serving as the foundations for wooden stairs. If this interpretation is correct, it would be the only case in which a staircase was identified at Tel Rehov.

To the north of Space 8479 was a corner of two walls (8475, 8481) enclosing a room that continued to the north; it measured 2.0 m from east to west. The entrance to this room was blocked by a narrow row of bricks, identical to the westernmost blockage in Room 8479. The blockage was preserved up to 0.6 m above a yellow-earth floor (8487), which was reached at level 85.23 m. Several smooth pink mizi limestones were found just inside the entrance on the south. Only a few sherds and flints were found in the debris (8468) above the floor (Fig. 12.55). The eastern wall (8481) was located only 0.5 m to the west of Wall 10461, the outer wall of the building. This narrow area joined Room 8479 at a right angle. If the latter was a staircase, as mentioned above, the narrow corridor (10503) could have been a foundation for the continuation of this staircase, leading to an upper story.

Summary of Building CY

We have no way of knowing to what extent Building CY continued to the north. One possibility is that the northern outer wall was close to the excavation limit; in that case, the building had a central courtyard flanked by two rooms on the west and two rooms on the east. Another possibility is that the building was much larger and included additional rooms on each side of the courtyard. In any event, the entrance would have been from the north directly into the central courtyard. The flat stones along the walls of the courtyard and the narrow corridor or staircase (8479) are exceptional features in the Iron IIA architecture at Tel Rehov.

Building CY is one of the few examples in Iron Age IIA Tel Rehov of a courtyard house. The plan is somewhat similar to that of Building CZ in Squares A–C/2–3, 10 m to the south, assigned to Stratum C-1b (Fig. 12.48). It recalls, to some extent, Iron Age II houses known from Hazor Area B (next to the citadel), Samaria and Megiddo. Such structures were explained by Yeivin, followed by Herzog, as representing officials’ houses, and were dubbed “scribes’ chambers” (Herzog 1992: 229– 230, with references)

Summary of Stratum C-2

Plans
Plans

  • Figure 12.9 - Plan of Stratum C-2 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)

Discussion

The plan of Stratum C-2 included densely built units of varying architectural plans, most of which were adjoined and all built of the same type of hard yellow bricks. Notable were the absence of stone foundations for the brick walls and the architectural plans which, although fragmentary in most cases, appear to differ from most known Iron Age II buildings in northern Israel. Moreover, they differ from each other, so that each structure was unique.

The finds included red-slipped and hand-burnished, as well as red-painted pottery, mostly sherds, aside from sporadic complete vessels. The single locus that yielded restorable pottery (Locus 1555b with 18 vessels) is stratigraphically attributed to Stratum C-2, while the pottery types recall late Iron IB forms that continued into Iron IIA (see Chapter 24). Additional finds included several clay figurines, seals, three inscriptions (one on an almost-complete storage jar), and iron and bronze objects.

Stratum C-2 appears to have lasted a long time, as evidenced by the thick accumulation of striations in the open areas and inside several of the buildings. Only in three places was there clear evidence of two phases (Buildings CT, CE, and perhaps, the partial unit in Squares Y/3–4) and it is possible that most of the well-built units simply continued to be used, with very minor renovations, during the entire occupation phase.

The lack of Stratum C-2 remains in the area of the apiary of Stratum C-1b (Squares Y–Z/1–2) must be explained as resulting from their intentional removal by the builders of the apiary when they established it on a lower level than the surrounding buildings. This was evidenced by the existence of Stratum C-2 building remains west, north and northeast of the apiary area. It should be noted that the Stratum C-2 floor west of the apiary in Square T/1 was ca. 1.0 m higher than the apiary floor, while in Square B/3 (northeast of the apiary), it was almost at the same level as that of the apiary floor. This comprises additional evidence for the tilt towards the east or southeast, observed in other cases at Tel Rehov as well.

The termination of Stratum C-2 appears to have been brought about by an earthquake, based on the fact that many of the walls showed signs of damage, such as cracks, tilts and sinkage, as well as the large amount of fallen bricks consistently found on the floors in each unit. A possibility is that some of this damage was gradual and not cataclysmic, generating local renovations and internal changes during the course of this stratum. Aside from the layer in Room 1555 (Square R/4) with its 18 complete smashed vessels, the relative lack of whole vessels and other finds in situ on the floors suggests that the final termination of this occupation did not take the inhabitants by surprise and that they had enough time to evacuate. We may think of a series of earthquakes that caused the abandonment and demolition of the houses, some taking place after the abandonment of the town.

Strata C-1b and C-1a

Introduction

Plans
Plans

  • Fig. 12.18 - Plan of Stratum C-1b from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Fig. 12.19 - Plan of Stratum C-1a from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Fig. 12.23 - Isometric view of Area C, Stratum C-1a, looking northwest from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)

Discussion
  • Plans: Figs. 12.16–12.53
The transition from Stratum C-2 to C-1b marked a large-scale renovation of the area, although the general orientation of the architecture remained the same, and brick was still the only building material used. New buildings were erected, with a number of walls constructed directly on top of the Stratum C-2 walls, while in other instances, the new walls followed entirely different lines (Fig. 12.16). The type of brick changed from the hard yellow clay typical of C-2 to a mixture of light and dark gray, brown, and beige bricks, although the average size of the bricks remained the same (Table 12.29). The densely built nature of the town continued in both strata (Figs. 12.18–12.21). A feature that was introduced in Stratum C-1b was the incorporation of wooden beams in both wall foundations and floors. This was one of the hallmarks of Stratum C-1b. This technique was employed only in isolated new cases in Stratum C-1a, in which many of the C-1b walls continued to be in use. In a few units, two sub-phases were discerned in Stratum C-1b, with the earlier one denoted Early C-1b. Stratum C-1a contained only one phase that was violently destroyed, following which the area was abandoned, aside from a possible pit in its northwestern part.

In the western and northern parts of Area C, the continuity between Strata C-1b and C-1a was marked and, in fact, both should be considered phases of one city, with most of the changes being floor raisings and minor adjustments of walls (Fig. 12.17). However, in the southeastern quarter of the area, the apiary, Building CM and buildings to their east went of use and were replaced by entirely new buildings in Stratum C-1a. Due to this situation, the following description is organized by units, detailing the phases within them that are attributed to C-1b and C-1a. The units of Strata C-1b and C-1a in the southeast of the area are described at the end in separate sections.

Altogether, 23 architectural units were defined; they are presented below according to four main parts.
The Western Part

  • Plans: Figs. 12.24–12.25
  • Remains in Square R/4 (C-1b, C-1a)
  • Building CD and the area to its north in SquaresS–T/3–4 (C-1b)
  • The cooking area in Square T/4 (Early C-1b, C-1b, C-1a)
  • The courtyard south of Building CD in Squares S–T/2–3 (C-1b)
  • Piazza CK in Squares S–T/2–3 (C-1a)
  • Building CJ in Squares S–T/1 (C-1b, C-1a)
  • Remains to the west of Building CJ (C-1a)
The western part of Area C was occupied by a series of buildings and courtyards covering a total excavated area of some 225 sq m (Figs. 12.24– 12.25). The eastern border of these units adjoined the buildings attributed to the northeastern and central blocks and they were interconnected by shared walls and sometimes, by double adjoining walls. One long north–south backbone wall ran along the western border of the entire area, uniting all the units in this part of the area. The area between this wall and the edge of the mound was excavated in Squares R/4, S/1–2 and Q/4–5 (the latter in Area D), showing that there were houses up until the erosion line on the west, leaving no space for a fortification wall.

The North-Central and Northeastern Part

  • Plans: Figs. 12.27–12.28, 12.33–12.36, 12.38
  • Building CE in Squares T–Y/4–6 (C-1b, C-1a)
  • Building CR in Squares Y–Z/6 (C-1b, C-1a)
  • Building CF in Squares Y–Z, A/4–6 (C-1b, C-1a)
  • Building CW in Squares A–C/5–6 (C-1b, C-1a)
  • Buildings CQ1and CQ2 in Squares A–C/4–5 (C-1b, C-1a
  • Street in Squares Z, A–C/4 (C-1a)
The north-central and northeastern part of Area C was occupied by a well-planned and densely built insula, composed of buildings interconnected by both shared walls and adjoining double walls (Figs. 12.18–12.21, 12.27–12.28, 12.33–12.36): Building CE on the west, Buildings CF, CQ1 and CQ2 on the south, and Buildings CR and CW on the north. The plan of each building, aside from CQ1 and CQ2, was different. Buildings CQ1 and CQ2, and (apparently) CF, were completely excavated, while Buildings CE, CR and CW continued beyond the limits of the excavation. All these buildings were founded in Stratum C-1b and continued to be in use, with some changes, in Stratum C-1a. A street, 2.3–2.8 m wide and ca. 15 m long, separated this block of buildings from the south-central and southeastern parts of the area in both strata.

The South-Central Part

  • Plans: Figs. 12.39–12.40, 12.44
  • Building CG in Squares T–Y/2–4 (C-1b, C-1a)
  • Building CM in Squares Y–Z/3 (C-1b)
  • Building CH and the apiary in Squares Y–Z, A/1–2, 20 (C-1b)
  • Piazza 2417 in Squares Y–Z/3–4 (C-1a)
In Squares T–Z/1–4, the south-central part of Area C, substantial changes occurred in the transition from Stratum C-1b to C-1a, following a severe destruction at the end of Stratum C-1b. The following units were found in this part of the area:
  • Stratum C-1b: Building CG, Building CM, Building CH, the apiary (Figs. 12.39–12.40, 12.44).
  • Stratum C-1a: Building CG (partly continued to be in use), Piazza 2417 (replacing Building CM) (Fig. 12.50)

The Southeastern Part

  • Plans: Figs. 12.39, 12.48–12.53
  • Building CZ in Squares Z, A–B/2–3 (C-1b)
  • Building CP — early phase in Squares A–C/1–2 (C-1b)
  • Building CQ3 in Squares A/2–3 (C-1a)
  • Building CX in Squares B–C/2–3 (C-1a)
  • Building CP in Squares A–C/1–2 (C-1a)
  • Building CL in Squares Y–Z, A/1–2, 20 (C-1a)
In the southeastern part of Area C, the distinction between Strata C-1b and C-1a was clearer than in most of the rest of the area, with C-1b Building CZ and the early phase of Building CP having different plans than Buildings CQ3, CX and CP above them, and Building CL replacing the apiary. The following units were defined:
  • Stratum C-1b: Building CZ and an early phase of Building CP (Fig. 12.39)
  • Stratum C-1a: Buildings CQ3, CX, CP and CL (Fig. 12.50).

While the buildings of Stratum C-1b in this area were only partially excavated, the four buildings of Stratum C-1a were exposed in their entirety. They comprised a densely built and well-planned urban block, bordered by the street in Squares Z, A–C/4 on the north and Piazza 2417 on the northwest. Unlike the situation in the Stratum C-1a buildings in the northern part of Area C, most of the walls between the various units in this part of the area were shared, and in only one instance was there a double wall. This indicated a high degree of interdependence between all these units on the level of construction, and possibly function as well. Moreover, it seems that during some stage of the use of this complex, some walls were razed to create access between the units.

Building CZ of Stratum C-1b apparently suffered a destruction, judging by the large amount of fallen bricks and some burning (Figs. 12.88, 12.90), although it did not leave complete vessels or other objects on the floors, aside from one place. The early phase of Building CP seems to have met the same fate, with fallen bricks and burnt debris, although its floors were not reached in the excavation. All four buildings of Stratum C-1a were destroyed by a heavy conflagration and their remains were exposed just below topsoil, with numerous finds on the floors.

Square R/4 — Strata C-1b and C-1a

Plans, Sections, and Photos
Plans, Sections, and Photos

  • Figure 12.24 - Plan of Stratum C-1b from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.25 - Plan of Stratum C-1a from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.97 - Section 43 (Square R/4, looking north) from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.64 - Square R/4 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.65 - Square R/4 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)

Discussion
  • Plan: Figs. 12.24–12.25
  • Section: Fig. 12.97
  • Photos 12.8, 12.64–12.65
  • Pottery: C-1b — Fig. 13.40:8–12; C-1a — Figs. 13.68–13.70
Introduction

In Square R/4, above C-2 Room 1555, two main phases were attributed to Strata C-1b and C-1a; the latter was the clearest and best preserved, found just below topsoil and containing destruction debris and restorable vessels on a floor. Traces of additional narrow brick walls and restorable pottery revealed in the topsoil to the north and south of Square R/4, and in Square Q/4 of Area D, indicated that domestic occupation in the Iron Age IIA reached the western perimeter of the tell, with no evidence for any fortification wall.

Room 4483 in Stratum C-1b

Several phases of construction were found in this room (Fig. 12.24).

The eastern wall in Stratum C-1b was 1557, which continued the northern line of Wall 1413 that ran the entire length of Area C on the west (see details below); it seems that Wall 1557 was not used in Stratum C-1a. Parallel to it and 3.1 m to its west was Wall 1563, which apparently continued to be in use from Stratum C-2. In the initial phase of Stratum C-1b, a pink plaster floor (4483) passed below Walls 2416 and 4457, and possibly related to Wall 1557 on the east. At this stage, Wall 1568, which abutted the southern continuation of Wall 1557, was most probably the southern wall of the room, while its northern wall was beyond the excavation area. In a later phase of C-1b, Wall 2416 was built against the western face of Wall 1557; on the south, it abutted Wall 1568. In the center of the room, a narrow north–south wall (4457; Photo 12.64), preserved only one course high, made a corner on the south with Wall 4458, which was first built in Stratum C-2 (see above, Room 1555). In Stratum C-1b, its eastern part was covered by Floor 4483; a small round posthole was found on the northeastern end of this floor. The addition of Wall 4457 formed a narrow space (0.9 m wide) on the western side of the room. While Floor 4483 ran below the secondary walls (2416, 4457), the occupation debris above the floor abutted these walls. To the west of Wall 4457, Floor 4488, made of plaster with a layer of striations above it, penetrated below Wall 4457. In the second phase, a higher floor (4464) was laid, 0.1 m above the latter, abutting Walls 4457 and 4458. To this same phase, and perhaps to the same building, we attributed several walls surrounding a courtyard with ovens found in Square Q/4, which was part of Area D (Chapter 15; see also Fig. 12.24). The density of construction and layers points to the intensive activity in this area on the cusp of the mound during the course of Stratum C-1b.

Room 2442 in Stratum C-1a

A new room was built above the C-1b remains in this square, reusing Wall 2416 and adding new walls on the south (2423), west (1554) and north (1552) (Fig. 12.25). Wall 1558 was a short segment that seemed to corner with Wall 1552; perhaps it was the original western wall of the room that was removed at one point and replaced by Wall 1554, slightly to the west. A concentration of stones (2450), some of which were grinding stone fragments, was found in the southwestern corner of the square. These might have been part of a pavement which had continued to the west, but was eroded down the slope. A north–south row of three stones, running along the western face of Wall 1554, may have belonged to a room in Square Q/4 (Area D), bounded by Walls 1816 and 1808 (Figs. 12.19, 12.25). This space, poorly preserved due to the severe erosion on the slope of the mound, may have belonged to the same building as Room 2442.

Inside the room was a 0.4 m-deep layer of burnt destruction debris (2405) on a beaten-earth floor (2442, 87.56 m); part of this floor was a rectangular patch of hard plaster (2438) which abutted the northern face of Wall 2423 (Photo 12.65). It sloped slightly down to the north (0.18 m over 1.2 m) and might have served for some liquid-related activity; this plaster had been repaired with a whitish lime substance at one time during its use. In the burnt debris was an assemblage of restorable vessels (Figs. 13.68–13.70). One sherd of an imported Greek bowl was found as well (Fig. 13.70:22; see Chapter 28A). The smaller vessels in this room were found just below topsoil, in a layer above two parallel rows of storage jars that rested directly on the floor, one running along Wall 2416 and the other near Wall 1554 on the west. Most of the jars were fallen with their rims to the north; under several of the jars was a burnt patch with phytolith, suggesting that they had been set on some organic material, such as reed mats or wood.

Building CD and the Area to the North — Stratum C-1b

Plans, Sections, and Photos
Plans, Sections, and Photos

  • Figure 12.24 - Plan of Stratum C-1b from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.65 - Section 11 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.66 - Section 12 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.67 - Section 13 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.68 - Section 14 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.66 - Tilted Wall 2495 in C-1b Building CD excavation from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)

Discussion
  • Plan: Fig. 12.24
  • Section: Figs. 12.65–12.68
  • Photos 12.66
  • Pottery: Fig. 13.41
North of Building CD

Above the elements attributed to Stratum C-2 to the north of Building CA in Squares R–S/4 was the southern end of a room or a courtyard located in front of Building CD (Fig. 12.24). Although not well preserved, a gap in its southern wall (1524) was probably an entrance, on line with the entrance to Building CD, thus linking the two units. Wall 1524 was built on top of a thin fill laid on Stratum C-2 Wall 8503; it ran flush against Wall 1464 of Building CD, creating a wide double wall (Fig. 12.66). The western end of Wall 1524 continued westward to abut (but not to join) the eastern face of Wall 2416, and was abutted on the north by Wall 1557. Several bricks with two marginal bosses on each end were incorporated in Wall 1524. Such protrusions must have been part of the brick mold and their function might have been to improve the grip of the mud plaster that covered the walls. Alternatively, it could have been intended as a decorative element, as no traces of plaster were found. Bricks with similar protrusions were also found in walls of Stratum C-1b in Buildings CE and CF (see below). On the east, Wall 1524 cornered with Wall 2501, although this corner was disturbed. On the west, Wall 1524 cornered with Wall 1557, the northern end of long backbone Wall 1413. All three walls were abutted by occupation debris (1512) and a floor (2494, 86.75 m), which contained an oven (2496) and a stone basin in the northern balk (unnumbered). The floor (4491) in the western part of this space was set on a bedding of small stones that raised it slightly higher than the floor level to the east.

No architecture that could be attributed to Stratum C-1a was found here and the same loose debris, possibly a disturbance, that covered Building CD, also covered these remains (Fig. 12.25).

Building CD

This building in Squares S/3–4 (Fig. 12.24; Photo 12.2) was, in fact, a renovation of Stratum C-2 Building CA. The outer walls were rebuilt along the same lines, but the inner division was canceled, thus creating a large, roughly rectangular space; the external measurements were 5.0×6.2 m and the floor space, ca. 20 sq m.

All the outer walls of C-2 Building CA were rebuilt with a new type of brick made of light gray, dark gray and light brown clay. The demarcation between the previous walls and the rebuild was very clear and a distinct line of a fill or repair was visible, especially in the northern, eastern and southern walls (Figs. 12.65–12.67; Photos 12.28, 12.66). This was a layer of light brownish-gray clay (similar to the brick material) that was packed down on top of the damaged C-2 walls, leveling them in preparation for the rebuild.

On the north, Wall 1464 replaced C-2 Wall 4438; the entrance into the new building was now located nearer to the center of the northern wall, through an opening in the double wall (1524/1464). Wall 1464 was deliberately cut on its western end, as can be seen in the western balk of Square S/4 (Fig. 12.66). On the west, Wall 1523 replaced C-2 Wall 4440 (Fig. 12.67); it was poorly preserved and tilted severely towards the east, especially in its northern part. This wall ran along the eastern face of Wall 1413, with the latter continuing further to the south and north to enclose additional units. On the south, Wall 1448 replaced C-2 Wall 4439; the repair line between the two walls was clearest here (Photo 12.28). On the east, Wall 2495 replaced C-2 Wall 4434 (Fig. 12.66; Photo 12.66); however, the former was traced only in Square S/4 and did not continue to the south. This may be due to its state of preservation or, as suggested above, Wall 1506, possibly built at the end of Stratum C-2 as a buttress for the damaged eastern wall of Building CA, continued in Stratum C-1b as the southeastern wall of Building CD (Fig. 12.68). As noted above, it is possible that Wall 1506 had been first built in Stratum C-1b, although this seems less likely. This rather makeshift arrangement would have lent a slipshod look to this part of the building, which contrasts with the otherwise well-built walls. The eastern side of Building CD was less well preserved, just like in its predecessor, Building CA.

The inner division of the previous Building CA was cancelled. The inner walls were deliberately removed, so that five to six cut courses were detected close to their juncture with the external walls of the building: Wall 2509 of the previous building was cut 0.35 m to the east of its corner with Wall 4440 and Wall 2493 was cut 0.15 m to the north of its corner with Wall 4439 (Photo 12.28). The reason for the deliberate razing of these inner partition walls was not clear; perhaps they were in such a poor state of preservation following the destruction of Building CA that they required removal before the leveling and rebuilding could take place.3 Indeed, below the lowest floor of Building CD were layers of brick debris interspersed with layers of red clay and ashy gray striations, which might be understood as a fill (2491 in Square S/4, 2485 in Square S/3) laid on top of the previous building, serving to level off the razed walls. These layers yielded sherds and partial vessels, including red-slipped and hand-burnished bowls and jugs (Fig. 13.41).

On top of this debris/fill were successive occupation layers, with a total thickness of 0.6–0.8 m, rich in sherds and bones: 2486, 1485 and 1466 in Square S/4, and 1474 in Square S/3. While these layers were stratified, it was difficult to clearly identify a floor. Two flat-topped stones were found near the northeastern and northwestern corners of the building, relating to Locus 2486. Their function was not clear, as they were too close to the wall to have served as pillar bases, recalling the stones along the walls in Building CY of Stratum C-2 (see discussion above).

The only internal construction in the new building was a row of crumbly gray bricks (0.5–0.6 m wide) added along the northern face of Wall 1448, covering the cut southern end of Stratum C-2 Wall 2493. This element (2484) was preserved 0.4– 0.6 m high and 3.4 m long; it might have been a bench along Wall 1448.

The end of Building CD was not violent and no traces of sudden destruction were found. The building was not renovated in Stratum C-1a, when its southern part was covered by the northern end of Piazza CK and its northern part was covered by a layer of loose debris (1412, 1417) that appeared to have been a disturbance of some sort.

Piazza CK — Stratum C-1a

Plans, Sections, and Photos
Plans, Sections, and Photos

  • Figure 12.25 - Plan of Stratum C-1a from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.65 - Section 11 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.69 - Section 15 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.70 - C-1a Piazza CK from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.71 - C-1a Piazza CK from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)

Discussion
  • Plan: Fig. 12.25
  • Section: Figs. 12.65, 12.69
  • Photos 12.70–12.71
  • Pottery: Figs. 13.71–13.72
Introduction

In Stratum C-1a, Building CD went out of use and a large open area, denoted Piazza CK, replaced it (Squares S–T/2–3). This courtyard included the open area to the south of Building CD, as well as the cooking area described above. It was bordered on the south by Wall 1437 (the northern wall of Building CJ) and an additional stub of a wall (1415), on the east by Wall 1416 (the western wall of Building CG), and on the west by Wall 1413 (the long backbone wall running along the entire area). On the northeastern end of this space was a short wall (1457) that seemed to be a continuation of the northern wall of Building CG; it was preserved only one course high and ended abruptly after 2.0 m, on line with Wall 1415 on the south. It is possible that these were stubs of walls that had been dismantled or otherwise damaged. Thus, the width of Piazza CK ranged from 7.0 m on the south to 8.0 m on the north, and its length was at least 13 m, as the northern end was beyond the limit of the excavation area. The total area was at least 97 sq m, making this one of the largest open areas in all strata in Area C, which was, for the most part, densely built up. Access into the piazza must have been from the north.

In the enclosure formed by these walls, the northwestern quadrant (Square S/4) contained a layer of soft earth and eroded brick debris (1417, 1412, 1439) that might have been a late disturbance, while in the rest of the area, very burnt and vitrified brick debris resting on a hard-packed white floor (1418, 1422, 1428) was revealed under topsoil (Figs. 12.65, 12.69). Running through the center of this courtyard on a north–south axis and abutted on the east, south and west by the destruction debris and white floor, was a concentration of stones, several of which were grinding stone fragments, and brick fragments (1427) (Photo 12.70). This element was roughly L-shaped, with a plastered, right-angled niche in its western face, which contained part of a smashed storage jar (unrestored); another storage jar (Fig. 13.72:9) abutted the installation on its south, and yet another one (Fig. 13.72:10) was found to its north. Another concentration of basalt stones was found 0.5 m to the south of 1427, designated 1496; they most likely comprised parts of the same element, perhaps with a stone missing in the middle. Two cooking pots (Fig. 13.71:7, 9) were found against the western face of these stones (Photo 12.71). An additional element was a brick block (1458), 1.0 m long, 0.5 m wide and preserved to one or two courses, located just to the west of the southern end of 1427 (Fig. 12.69). This might have been a work surface or, perhaps, a space divider.

Wall 1413 in Strata C-1a–b

Wall 1413, that bordered Piazza CK on the west, ran for 19.7 m on a slightly southeast–northwest line along the western end of the entire area and continued beyond the limits of the excavation to both the north and the south (Photos 12.2–12.5). In Square R/4, Wall 1413 abutted the western end of Wall 1524. The continuation of its line to the north was denoted 1557 (Photos 12.4–12.5, 12.8). The southern part of Wall 1413 was made of hard yellow bricks, typical of Stratum C-2, as opposed to the light gray bricks of the rest of the wall, typical of Strata C-1b and C-1a. This was the only place in this wall where two phases were discerned: in the earlier phase (Stratum C-1b), the wall was termed 2432 and the later phase, 1431 (Stratum C-1a). Wall 1413 was constructed slightly above and west of Stratum C-2 Buildings CA and CB (Figs. 12.16, 12.69). In Stratum C-1b, its lower part adjoined the western wall of Building CD and it served as the western border of the space south of Building CD, of the unit north of Building CD, and of Building CJ. In Stratum C-1a, it was the western border of Building CJ and Piazza CK. In Square R/4, the structures of both Strata C-1b and C-1a (described above) were attached to its western face. Wall 1413 was unique in its length and multiple-use in several units during the course of two strata, making it a prime example of the integrated urban planning that characterized this area.

Building CE

Plans, Sections, and Photos
Plans, Sections, and Photos

  • Figure 12.27 - Plan of Stratum C-1b from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.28 - Plan of Stratum C-1a from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.62 - Section 8 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.63 - Section 9 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.64 - Section 10 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.75 - Buildings CE, CF and CG from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.76 - Building CE, C-1b Room 2489 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.77 - Building CE, looking east at Wall 2454 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.78 - Building CE; corner of Walls 2454 and 1491 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.79 - Building CE, C-1a Room 1471 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.80 - Northern rooms of Building CE from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.81 - Building CE, Stratum C-1b, Room 6449 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.82 - Destruction debris inBuilding CE, C-1b Room 6449 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.83 - Detail of marginal bosses on bricks in C-1b Wall 6452 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.84 - Building CE, C-1a Room 6433 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.87 - C-1 Building CR from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)

Discussion
  • Plan: Figs. 12.27–12.28
  • Section: Figs. 12.62–12.64
  • Photos 12.75–12.84, 12.87
  • Pottery: C-1b — Figs. 13.44–13.45; C-1a — Figs. 13.75–13.76
Introduction

Building CE was located in Squares T–Y/4–6, to the east of the cooking area in Square T/4. The building was composed of a broad room in the south and an area to its north, of which a strip, 2.0 m wide and 10 m long, was excavated (Photo 12.75). The broad room was a rebuild of an earlier structure, attributed to Stratum C-2 (Figs. 12.9–12.10); it had two phases, while the area to the north had three. In Stratum C-1b, the building suffered a destruction, after which it was renovated in Stratum C-1a and continued to be used with various changes, mainly in its northern part, until its final destruction.

The Broad Room

Room 2489 — Stratum C-1b

Room 2489 was a rectangular room (internal measurements 2.0×4.8 m; 9.6 sq m) with an entrance just east of the center of the northern wall (1491); the threshold was paved with a wooden plank (Fig. 12.27; Photo 12.76). Inside the entrance were a bowl and a cup-and-saucer (Figs. 13.44:4, 13.45:12). The southern wall of this room (1473) ran parallel to the northern wall of Building CG (see below), separated by a 0.10 m gap, which contained a large amount of sherds, possibly a fill. The eastern end of Wall 1473 dog-legged 0.3 m to the north, exactly following the line of the C-2 wall here. The eastern wall (2454) was part of a long wall that enclosed the entire building on the east. Note that Wall 2454 was oriented due north–south, while the rest of the room was angled towards the west, so that this wall was not parallel to the western wall of the building (1487), lending a somewhat crooked look to room. Wall 2454 was built flush against the western wall of Building CF; together, they were 1.1 m wide. At its southern end, Wall 2454 made a corner with Wall 4479, the northern wall of Building CM to the south in Stratum C-1b, which created a double wall with the southern wall of Building CF. This construction method well demonstrates the closely interrelated character of the architecture of the buildings in this northeastern insula.

All the walls were composed of hard graybrown bricks, with light-colored mortar lines; they were burnt to black in some instances, particularly in the east. The western face of Wall 2454 and the southern face of Wall 1491 included bricks with marginal bosses composed of two vertical protrusions on each end of the brick (Fig. 12.29; Photos 12.77–12.78), identical to those found in other buildings in the north-central part of Area C in Stratum C-1b, including the unit north of Building CD, described above, and Building CF; they were also found in the walls of the rooms to the north of the broad room in Building CE (Photo 12.83). Walls 2454 and 1491 contained a thick and intricate construction of perpendicular and parallel wooden beams in their foundations (Fig. 12.29; Photos 12.77–12.78). The beams, like the bricks, were very burnt.

The smooth reddish-brown beaten-earth floor (2489, 86.30 m) was coated by a thick layer of black ash (2458; Fig. 12.64), covering mostly the eastern half of the room (Photo 12.76). A small square plastered brick (2477; 0.45 x.0.45 m, 0.45 m high) was attached to Wall 1491, just east of the entrance and opposite the offset in Wall 1473. It had a slight depression on top which contained some light gray ash, although it is possible that it had served as a jar support. Underneath it was an intact juglet in a small pit (Fig. 13.45:10), apparently placed there as a foundation deposit before the brick was laid.

Room 1471 — Stratum C-1a

Following the destruction of C-1b, the broad room continued to be in use in Stratum C-1a with the same walls (Fig. 12.28), although there was a visible repair in the upper courses of the western wall (1487), composed of light gray bricks (Photos 12.76, 12.79). Above the burnt debris on the floor of C-1b was a layer of hard brick debris (2443) that supported an earthen floor (1471) at level 86.65 m, which was covered by a layer of decayed brick debris with some ash (Fig. 12.64; Photo 12.79).

The Northern Rooms and Courtyard

Introduction

Remains of rooms and possibly a courtyard were found in Squares Y/5–6 to the north of the broad room (Photos 12.80–12.84). It seems that these were part of Building CE, particularly due to the shared walls and similar construction techniques, although no entrance was found to join them in the limited excavated area. Each of these components had two phases, attributed to C-1b and C-1a, while the northern courtyard contained yet an additional phase.

Rooms 6448 and 6449 — Stratum C-1b

Two narrow rooms (6448, 6449) were excavated to the north of the eastern side of the broad room; no entrance joined them. The eastern wall of both rooms was the continuation of Wall 2454, indicating that the northern rooms and the broad room to the south were part of the same building.

Like in its southern end, the foundations of the entire length of Wall 2454 contained a thick and intricate composition of wooden beams, both perpendicular and parallel to the lower course of bricks (Figs. 12.30, 12.62). Wooden beams, all charred, were found below the floors of the two rooms as well (Photos 12.80–12.81). All of the wood was set into a distinct layer of soft reddish earth (6426, 6486; Fig. 12.32); such a construction of wooden beams in a reddish fill was a feature found in the foundations of other Stratum C-1b buildings as well.

The western wall of the two northern rooms was Wall 6452; only its eastern face was uncovered. This wall cornered with Wall 1491 on the south, just east of the entranceway in that wall. Wall 6452 also had many wooden beams in and adjoining its foundation (Figs. 12.30, 12.62– 12.63). Walls 2454 and 6452 ran for 7.0 m and two east–west cross walls (6447 and 7445) divided this space into two identical rooms (6448 on the north and 6449 on the south), each 3.1 m long and between 1.6–1.8 m wide. The difference in width was due to the angle of Wall 6452, which ran slightly southeast to northwest, as opposed to the straight north–south line of Wall 2454. Wall 6447, which separated the two rooms, had wood in its foundation, but Wall 7445, the northern wall of Room 6448), did not. As they had no entrances, it is possible that these rooms served as storage spaces, accessed from above. All the walls of these rooms, aside from 7445, which was poorly preserved, included bricks with marginal bosses composed of thin vertical protrusions on both ends, which were hallmarks of Stratum C-1b in this part of the area, as noted above (Figs. 12.29, 12.63; Photo 12.83). The southern room had a patchy beaten-earth floor at level 86.12 m (6449), on which were vessels and sherds, among them three complete chalices (Fig. 13.44:10–11, 13), as well as loomweights and a concentration of burnt grain against Wall 1491. Four 14C measurements of this grain (Chapter 48, Sample R24) provided a calibrated average date between 902–843 BCE (1σ) and 920–830 BCE (2σ).

Two large bricks set near the corner of Walls 6452 and 1491 might have served as a kind of podium or shelf, possibly for the chalices found nearby (Photo 12.82). Room 6448 contained a similar floor in its southern part, while its northern part contained a concentration of stones that might have been a disturbed stone floor (7451), including two broken upper grinding stones. The stones were covered by a thin layer of debris (7446) with some sherds and bones.

Rooms 6448 and 6449 were covered by a fill (6432), which leveled them in preparation for the renovation that took place in Stratum C-1a.

Courtyard 7427 — Stratum C-1b

To the north of Wall 7445 in Square Y/6 was an open space, continuing the activity that was here in Stratum C-2. This space is described here as part of Building CE, although, in fact, no entrance to the two southern rooms was found, and it might represent the southern part of an open space to the north of this building. The two phases identified in this space were both attributed to Stratum C-1b, as they covered the Stratum C-2 activity and were sealed by the Stratum C-1a courtyard floor.

The courtyard surface was composed of red and gray striations (7427) that were a direct continuation of those found here in Stratum C-2 and their attribution to two sub-phases of C-1b was based on their relation to related installations. The lowest layer was related to three poorly preserved installations, whose function remained unknown (Fig. 12.31): a ring of brown clay (7463), almost directly underneath C-1b Oven 7443, and two semi-circles of soft red clay (7464, 7465), filled with light gray ash. These installations seem to each have been used only for a short time and cut each other in a haphazard manner.

In the later phase of Stratum C-1b, the uppermost layer of the red and gray striations contained one poorly preserved oven (7443) and several shallow red-clay circles (7433, 7437, 7438), similar to those of the previous sub-phase. In both phases, only a few sherds and bones were found. The center and southeastern part of these remains were cut by Pit 6498 (Photo 12.87).

Space 6433 — Stratum C-1a

A reddish clay floor (6433, 5415) in Square Y/5 was laid at level 86.75 m, above a fill covering C-1b Rooms 6448 and 6449. Thus, the entire area north of Wall 1491 and west of Wall 2454 became an open area, at least 10 m long and continuing to the north beyond the excavation area. The reddish clay floor was covered by a soft burnt layer just under topsoil. The floor and burnt debris abutted the rather poorly preserved upper courses of Walls 2454 and 1491, which were rebuilt after the C-1b destruction. Below Floor 5415 was a layer of wooden beams that both penetrated underneath the foundation of the C-1a rebuild of Wall 2454 here and extended into part of the room. This wood was laid in two layers: an east–west upper layer and a north–south lower layer (Fig. 12.32). This was one of the few instances where wood was used in construction in Stratum C-1a.

A number of installations were set on this floor. In the southeastern corner was a mud-plastered clay ring (5436) containing a large lower grinding stone inside; an upper grinding stone was found below this and another such grinding stone rested on top of the clay ring. This is similar to grinding installations found in other Stratum C-1a buildings, such as Buildings CF, CQ1, CQ2 and CP. The southern part of a similar ring (5438) was found in the northwestern corner of Square Y/5, although it did not contain any grinding stones. Three bricks were found to the west of 5436 and one to its north. The southern part of the space was covered with a layer of burnt destruction debris containing pottery and loomweights (Photo 12.84), while the northern part was less burnt.

On the northern end of this open area (Square Y/6) was a layer of brick debris and collapse, with some ash and charcoal (7404), abutting Wall 4422 and the northern end of Wall 2454. Although no clear floor level was discerned, this layer clearly covered the Stratum C-1b activity below. Three intact vessels (Fig. 13.76:6, 10–11), one jug and two juglets, were found in this debris layer.

Building CR

Plans, Sections, and Photos
Plans, Sections, and Photos

  • Figure 12.27 - Plan of Stratum C-1b from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.28 - Plan of Stratum C-1a from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.33 - Plan of Building CR, early phase of Stratum C-1b from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.34 - Plan of Stratum C-1b from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.35 - Plan of Stratum C-1a from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.36 - Plan of Building CF, Stratum C-1a from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.85 - Square Z/6, looking north at C-1a, C-1b and C-2 walls from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.86 - Square Z/6 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.87 - Squares Y–Z/6 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.88 - Fractured and displaced blocks of Building CR, late phase of C-1b from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.89 - Broken Jugs and charred beams in Building CR, C-1a Room 6468 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.90 - Building CR, C-1a Room 6468 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.91 - Buildings CR, CF, and CG from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)

Discussion
  • Plan: Fig. 12.27–12.29, 12.33–12.36
  • Photos 12.85–12.91
  • Pottery: C-1b — Fig.13.48:1–14; C-1a — Figs. 13.77–13.79
Introduction

Building CR was the southern part of a building in Squares Y–Z/6 that continued to the north beyond the limit of the excavation (Photos 12.6–12.7, 12.43, 12.86) and was, in fact, a rebuild of Stratum C-2 Building CT; this was one of the few instances of continuity between all the Iron Age IIA strata in Area C. Building CR had three sub-phases, the two early ones attributed to Stratum C-1b and the latest to Stratum C-1a. The southern wall of Building CR was also the northern wall of Building CF and its eastern wall was the western boundary of the entrance into that building (Photo 12.86). The southwestern corner of this building was cut by Pit 6498 (Photos 12.43, 12.48, 12.87).

Building CR in an Early Phase of Stratum C-1b

Plans

Plans

  • Figure 12.33 - Plan of Building CR, early phase of Stratum C-1b from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)

Discussion
  • Plan: Fig. 12.33
New walls built above those of C-2 Building CT followed roughly the same line and orientation and, like that building, enclosed two rooms, one on the east (6491) and one on the west (6459), separated by Wall 6490. As noted above, Wall 6490 was built on top of the Stratum C-2 debris. The outer walls of the building in this phase were 6467 on the south, 7458 on the east, 4422 on the west and 6489 on the north of the eastern room; the latter had an entrance 0.6 m wide on its western end, which was paved with a single brick course, showing that this building continued to the north. No clear floor was found in this phase, although it seemed that the lower part of Floor 6491 in the eastern room abutted the upper course of Wall 7458 on the east, and thus, it is shown on the plan of this sub-phase.

Building CR in the Main Phase of Stratum C-1b

Plans

Plans

  • Figure 12.27 - Plan of Stratum C-1b from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.34 - Plan of Stratum C-1b from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)

Discussion
  • Plans: Figs. 12.27, 12.34
The western wall (4422), the dividing wall (6490) between the rooms, and the northern wall of the eastern room (6489) with its entrance, remained unchanged in the subsequent phase. A new southern wall (6493) was built directly above Wall 6467 of the earlier phase; its upper-two preserved courses were slightly narrower than the latter and were made of a different brick type (reddish gray and crumbly), as opposed to the hard light gray bricks of the earlier phase. The eastern end of this room underwent a more pronounced change, where the wall was replaced by several rows of narrow bricks on a north–south line (6512). Although it seems that this was an intentional arrangement, these bricks might represent a fallen wall or a feature whose function remained unknown (Photo 12.88). These brick rows ended 1.0 m west of Building CW (see below), creating a rather narrow corridor that led into Building CF to the south. A very large concentration of bones, including many mandibles, was found on the eastern end of the bricks of 6512 (7410). It may be noted that the locus in the entrance corridor (6463) to the east of the installation also contained a relatively large amount of bones. The floor of the room (6491) was composed of smooth light brown clay.

A layer of soft debris (6479) above the floor included several high quality red-slipped and burnished bowl fragments (Fig. 13.48:1–4); its upper layer might have been a fill laid in preparation for the construction of the subsequent phase.

The western room (5459) did not undergo any change in this phase of Stratum C-1b. It contained a layer of brick debris and charcoal patches, with some bones and sherds. No clear floor level was discerned.

Building CR in Stratum C-1a

Plans

Plans

  • Figure 12.28 - Plan of Stratum C-1a from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.35 - Plan of Stratum C-1a from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.36 - Plan of Building CF, Stratum C-1a from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)

Discussion
  • Plans: Figs. 12.28, 12.35–12.36
In Stratum C-1a, the western wall of Building CR (4422) continued unchanged, while the other walls were rebuilt. The new southern wall (6410), built directly over the previous wall, still served as the northern border of Building CF (Photos 12.85– 12.86), but now only on the east, as an additional wall (6409) was built alongside it on the west (Photo 12.91). The new eastern wall of the unit (6419) was built over the rows of 6512. A new dividing wall (6461) between the two rooms (6468, 6416) was built to the west of the line of the previous wall, so that the western room was now smaller than the eastern one. Due to the poor state of preservation of Wall 6461, the space was excavated as one (6416) until it became clear that these were two rooms separated by this wall.

Floors of this stratum were found 0.7–0.8 m above those of the previous phase. The floor of the eastern room (6468) covered the top of Wall 6489, so that this room, like the western one, continued to the north beyond the limit of the excavation. In Room 6468, the floor was covered by a layer of burnt destruction debris, covered in turn by fallen bricks just below topsoil. This room contained 13 loomweights, including several that were arranged in a circle against the eastern face of Wall 6461, and others that surrounded two burnt wooden beams on a north–south axis that appeared to have belonged to a loom (Photos 12.89–12.90). Among the pottery vessels (Figs. 13.77–13.79) were seven jugs, two of which were finely red slipped and burnished (Fig. 13.79:6–7).

Building CF

Plans, Sections, and Photos
Plans, Sections, and Photos

  • Figure 12.27 - Plan of Stratum C-1b from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.28 - Plan of Stratum C-1a from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.29 - Building CE, Stratum C-1b; corner of Walls 2454 and 1491 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.33 - Plan of Building CR, early phase of Stratum C-1b from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.34 - Plan of Stratum C-1b from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.35 - Plan of Stratum C-1a from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.36 - Plan of Building CF, Stratum C-1a from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.58 - Section 4 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.59 - Section 5 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.60 - Section 6 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.61 - Section 7 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.91 - Buildings CR, CF, and CG from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.92 - Building CF from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.93 - Eastern balk of Square Z/6 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.94 - Eastern part of Building CF from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.95 - Section in the middle of Square Z/5 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.96 - C-1a Building CF, broken pottery in southern part of Room 5498 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.97 - C-1a Building CF, Room 5498 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.98 - C-1a Building CF, Room 5498 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.99 - C-1a Building CF, Room 5499 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.100 - C-1a Building CF, below Room 5499 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.101 - Building CF from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.102 - Building CF from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.103 - Building CF from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.104 - Building CF, C-1a Room 5444 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.105 - Building CF from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.106 - Building CF, top of destruction debris 6401 in C-1a from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.107 - Building CF, grinding installation 6406 and destruction debris 6401 in Room 6435 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.108 - Building CF, fragments of altar from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.109 - Building CF, grinding installation 6406 in Room 6435 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.110 - Building CF, Stratum C-1a, grinding Installation 6406 in Room 6435 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.111 - Smashed vessels on floor of Room 5460 in Building CF from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.112 - C-1a Building CF, Room 5444 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.113 - Room 5444 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)

Discussion
  • Plan: Figs. 12.27–12.28, 12.33–12.36
  • Section: Figs. 12.58–12.61
  • Photos 12.5–12.6, 12.91–12.113
  • Pottery: C-1b — Figs. 13.46–13.47, C-1a — Figs. 13.80–13.96
Introduction

Building CF in Squares Y–A/4–6 was one of the largest and most interesting structures in Area C. Its unique plan, fine construction, and exceptional finds point to its importance. The building was initially constructed in Stratum C-1b and, following a destruction, was renovated and reused until its final destruction at the end of Stratum C-1a. Its external measurements were 8.7×11.3 m (excluding Wall 2454 on the west and the entrance corridor) and its floor space was 50.46 sq m in Stratum C-1b and 52.89 sq m in C-1a. This latter phase was the best known, as it was exposed just below topsoil and destroyed in a fierce conflagration, after which the building was abandoned. Although the remains of Stratum C-1b were not as well preserved, they were sufficient to define a separate building phase, with finds attributed to its floors. Both phases will be described together, emphasizing the stratigraphic considerations that led to the division between the two. Building CF was built over Stratum C-2 Building CU (Photos 12.85, 12.100– 12.104); although both buildings were of the same orientation, they were two entirely different structures.

Building CF contained an entrance corridor in the northeast and three main components: a rectangular space on the north, with a western and an eastern wing to its south. Each of these wings was enclosed by separate walls that adjoined each other to form double walls, so that each was both independent and united. Double walls also surrounded the building on the west, south and east; these walls had a total width of 1.0–1.1 m. This, along with the well-built straight walls, lent the structure a sturdy look and also raises the possibility that the building had an upper floor. Thus, Building CF, although a unique and independent structure, was an integral part of a well-planned quarter that was densely built in both Strata C-1b and C-1a (Photos 12.6–12.7, 12.91–12.92; 12.169).

The Entrance Corridor

Introduction

The entrance into the building in both strata was in its northeastern corner, through a passageway which continued to the north beyond the limit of the excavation. The entrance was bordered on the east by Wall 6408 in both strata and on the west by the eastern end of Building CR (Wall 7458 in the early phase of Stratum C-1b, brick rows 6512 in the later phase of C-1b, and Wall 6419 in Stratum C-1a). This formed a 2.0 m-wide corridor which was narrower only in the latter part of Stratum C-1b, when 6512 occupied part of its western side. Three phases were discerned in the entrance, one attributed to the construction of the building and the other two to Strata C-1b and C-1a.

The Entrance Corridor in Pre-Stratum C-1b

Plans

Plans

  • Figure 12.33 - Plan of Building CR, early phase of Stratum C-1b from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)

Discussion
  • Plan: Fig. 12.33
Just above the floor and pits that occupied this area in Stratum C-2 was a layer of patchy red and gray striations (6478, 7457, 7472) that contained a series of small, shallow pits and plastered bins, some of which cut each other, indicating intense activity here. The pits contained soft brown earth with few sherds and bones. The striated layer and pits abutted early Stratum C-1b Wall 7458 on the west and Walls 6497/6408 on the east. In fact, these shallow bins and pits made passage here virtually impossible, similar to the situation in Stratum C-2 described above, with Pit 7504/7507. It is possible that these elements represent a phase that can be defined as interim between Stratum C-2 and C-1b, perhaps related to the construction of the building. In any case, they did not enable easy access to the building while they existed.

The Entrance Corridor in Stratum C-1b

Plans

Plans

  • Figure 12.27 - Plan of Stratum C-1b from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.34 - Plan of Stratum C-1b from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)

Discussion
  • Plan: Figs. 12.27, 12.34
In the main phase of Stratum C-1b, the entrance corridor contained soft debris (6463) with many bones; no floor was detected. On the west, it was bordered by the bricks of 6512. The western face of Wall 6408, the eastern border, was very damaged on this level and apparently underwent some kind of repair that included a row of small stones inserted into its lowest course. The northern end of the corridor was bordered on the east by poorly preserved Wall 6497 of Building CW. The corridor was narrowed by the bricks of 6512 in this phase.

The Entrance Corridor in Stratum C-1a

Plans

Plans

  • Figure 12.29 - Building CE, Stratum C-1b; corner of Walls 2454 and 1491 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.35 - Plan of Stratum C-1a from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.36 - Plan of Building CF, Stratum C-1a from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)

Discussion
  • Figs. 12.29, 12.35–12.36
In Stratum C-1a, the corridor contained a beatenearth floor at level 86.60 m, covered with burnt destruction debris (6412, 6417), including some fallen bricks and restorable pottery (Figs. 13.86, 13.89, 13.94; Photo 12.93; see also Fig. 12.58). Like in Stratum C-1b, Wall 6408 continued as the eastern border of the corridor, aside from its northern end, where Wall 6497 of Building CW constituted the border. The corridor was 1.5 m wide in this phase.

The Northern Space in Stratum C-1b

Plans

Plans

  • Figure 12.27 - Plan of Stratum C-1b from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.34 - Plan of Stratum C-1b from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)

Discussion
  • Plan: Figs. 12.27, 12.34
In Stratum C-1b, the entrance corridor led into a broad space (internal measurements 2.0×5.3 m; 10.2 sq m) from which the western and eastern wings were accessed.

The northern border of this space was Wall 6493, shared with Building CR (Photos 12.85, 12.91–12.92). On the east, it was bounded by Wall 6408, and on the south, by Wall 6482 (Photos 12.94, 12.116). No entrance in Wall 6482 that would have connected the northern space with the rooms to the south was found, but possibly one had existed above the two preserved courses of this wall.

The space enclosed by these walls contained a patchy floor of red, gray and white striations (6466) at level 86.10 m, with only a few sherds and bones (Photo 12.93). The floor was covered by a layer of soft brown earth (6450) which might have been a leveling fill in preparation for the construction of the Stratum C-1a floor above. Two smooth pink mizi limestone slabs were found on the floor level, one in Square Z/6 and another near the southeastern corner of the space. They were similar to the large stone found in Room 6465 to the south.

A curious feature revealed at the bottom level of the striations in this space was the presence of several very large, amorphic blocks of brick, with a particularly large one in the center (Fig. 12.58). It is possible that these were placed as a kind of leveler above the remains of C-2 Building CU, or were simply discarded during the construction of Building CF and covered by the earliest floor of that building.

The Eastern Wing

Introduction

This wing was composed of a large room on the north and a smaller room to its south; the latter was accessed only through the former. In Stratum C-1b, the larger northern room of this wing was separated from the northern rectangular space described above by a wall, making it a separate room. In Stratum C-1a, when this wall was removed, these two spaces were united and were accessed directly from the entrance in the northeast of the building. On the other hand, the southern room remained the same in both strata. The description below follows these developments: the two phases in the northern room are described separately (C-1b and C-1a), and the two phases in the southern room are described together.

Room 6465 — Stratum C-1b

Plans

Plans

  • Figure 12.27 - Plan of Stratum C-1b from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.34 - Plan of Stratum C-1b from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)

Discussion
  • Plan: Figs. 12.27, 12.34
This room was bordered by Walls 6482 on the north, 5437 on the south, 6455 on the west, and 6456 on the east (internal measurements 3.4×3.5 m; 11.9 sq m) (Photo 12.94). The two latter walls were the direct continuation of the western and eastern walls of the southern room (5454, 6424); all these walls had a thick layer of wooden beams in their foundations. A 0.1 m-thick layer of reddishbrown and gray striations (6465), whose bottom was a thin layer of light gray mud plaster at 85.90 m, abutted the lowest level of the surrounding walls. A large, smooth pink mizi limestone with a flattened top was found 0.4 m to the east of the center of Wall 6455, abutted by the striations (Photo 12.95). This would have been too large and not well located to have been a pillar base, although its function was not clear. A relatively large amount of sherds (Figs. 13.46–13.47) and several grinding stones were found in this room. The striations and stone were sealed by Floor 5498 of Stratum C-1a.

Room 5498 — Stratum C-1a

Plans

Plans

  • Figure 12.29 - Building CE, Stratum C-1b; corner of Walls 2454 and 1491 (1:50) from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.35 - Plan of Stratum C-1a from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.36 - Plan of Building CF, Stratum C-1a from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)

Discussion
  • Plans: Figs. 12.29, 12.35–12.36
The removal of Wall 6482 in Stratum C-1a created a large space in the northeast of the building that included both Room 6465 and the broad northern space of C-1b (6466) of the former building. Another major change that took place in this room in Stratum C-1a entailed the deliberate removal of the eastern and western walls down to their lowest one or two courses (Photo 12.94), which were covered by the C-1a floor makeup. This widened the room internally by 1.0 m, so that the internal measurements of this space were now 4.4×6.0 m (26.4 sq m). This cut was especially evident close to the northern end of the southern room (5499), where the higher southern ends of these walls remained intact (Photo 12.95). With the removal of the eastern and western walls, there was no longer a double wall between the northern part of the two wings of the building or between the building and Building CQ1 to its east.

The slightly higher stump of the erstwhile northern wall (6482) created a situation wherein the floor (6427, 86.50 m) in the area of the former northern space was now 0.35 m higher than the floor (5498, 86.15 m) to the south of this wall; this discrepancy was probably bridged by wooden or brick steps. Floor 6427 in the north was composed of white lime, covered with burnt debris (6417). An oven (6421) was built in the center of the northern space, against the southern face of Wall 6410, about 1.0 m to the west of the location of Oven 7428 of Stratum C-2, yet 2.0 m higher (Photo 12.109). A storage jar (Fig. 13.90:10) and a krater (Fig. 13.84:2) were found right near it, resting on the floor. On the far eastern end of this space, opposite the entrance corridor, was a large, roughly squared, 0.3 m-tall, flat-topped stone. Numerous bones found on and nearby this stone suggest that it was possibly used as a butcher block (Photo 12.94).

Floor 5498 in the south (covering the area of C-1b Room 6465) was composed of thin mud plaster below a layer of soft reddish earth, which covered the top of the cut walls of Stratum C-1b. On the floor was a 0.7 m-thick layer of very burnt destruction debris (5416, 5429, 5439), containing fallen bricks, burnt brick debris, ash and charcoal, ceiling collapse, and 49 complete (restorable and intact) vessels (Figs. 13.80–13.95; Photo 12.96). Other finds included grinding stones and stone vessels, as well as 59 stone loomweights, mostly concentrated around a wooden beam that apparently represented a loom in the middle of this space (Photos 12.96–12.97; Fig. 12.35). To the north of this beam was a poorly preserved installation (5481) composed of a low, curving parapet of clay; to its north were short pieces of wood and numerous fragments of an oven or a low-fired clay vat; none of these elements could be reconstructed due to the fierce destruction. Built against the southern wall of this space (5437) was a grinding stone installation (5456), like that found in Room 6435 (6406) (Photos 12.96, 12.98), although this one was a semi-circle attached to the wall, while the latter was a complete oval (described below). This installation was composed of a low round-topped clay parapet, 0.9 m at its widest diameter, in which a large lower grinding stone was set on an east– west axis; it was not found tilted, as it was in Installation 6406. Two complete upper grinding stones were found nearby. A unique find in this room, located 1.5 m north of the entranceway in Wall 5437, was a pottery model shrine (Chapter 35, No. 36), resting directly on the floor, its opening facing north. Its upper part was broken off, found overturned just to the southeast of the lower part, with a Hippo jar (Fig. 13.92:3) lying smashed on top of it; another storage jar (Fig. 13.89:9) was found to its east (Photo 12.96). The top of the model shrine was adorned with a unique scene of figures in relief, showing what appears to be a lion(?) grasping two human heads in its claws. Inside the box was light gray ashy material that contained an animal jaw bone and a tooth. A jug containing grain (Fig. 13.93:5) was found in this room as well. Some grain was also found spilled on the floor near the abovementioned storage jars. Grain from the jug was submitted to 14C dating (Chapter 48, Sample R35); the average calibrated dates were 922–850 BCE (1σ) and 970–838 BCE (2σ).

Room 5499 — Strata C-1a and C-1b

Plans

Plans

  • Figure 12.27 - Plan of Stratum C-1b from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.29 - Building CE, Stratum C-1b; corner of Walls 2454 and 1491 (1:50) from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.35 - Plan of Stratum C-1a from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.36 - Plan of Building CF, Stratum C-1a from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)

Discussion
  • Plans: Figs. 12.27, 12.29, 12.35–12.36
A 0.8 m-wide entranceway in the western end of Wall 5437 led into the southern room (internal measurements 2.2×3.3 m; 7.26 sq m). This room did not undergo any architectural change between Strata C-1b and C-1a and it had been in continuous use, with frequent floor clearings. The walls, preserved to a height of 1.3 m above the floor, were covered with fine hard mud plaster that continued down to constitute the original floor makeup (5499), which was covered by a layer of smooth red earth, just as in the northern room. The floor plaster was laid just above a layer of charred wooden beams which were, in fact, a continuation of those in the foundations of the eastern and southern walls (Fig. 12.37; Photos 12.99–12.100). Under the level of the plaster floor, the courses of the walls contained bricks with two vertical protrusions near the ends, exactly like the bricks that were found in the western wing of this building in its Stratum C-1b phase (see below), as well as in the unit north of Building CD and in Building CE, both attributed to Stratum C-1b. The wooden beams and this type of brick support the conclusion that the original construction of this room was in Stratum C-1b.

The room was filled with almost 1.0 m of very burnt destruction debris; the top layer (5426) was virtually sterile and contained extremely hard brick material and fallen bricks, as well as ceiling material, while the remainder of the debris (5461) was extremely burnt and rich in finds, including 46 intact and smashed vessels (Figs. 13.80–13.95), 19 of them storage jars, which were mostly stacked against the eastern wall. One of these jars was found full of a powdery white substance, most likely an organic material that had burnt, while another contained grain. Additional finds included grinding stones and other worked stones, a large clay ‘footbath’ (Fig. 13.96a:11), and 15 loomweights, concentrated in the entranceway (5500) (Table 12.15). In the southeastern corner of the room was a concentration of extremely burnt pinkish brick that had pulverized. This appears to have been some installation that was too damaged by the fire to define.

The Western Wing

Introduction

In both Strata C-1b and C-1a, the western wing of the building (Squares Y–Z/4–6) was composed of a long rectangular space. In Stratum C-1b, there was a small niche or cell on the north and the rest was one long hall, while in Stratum C-1a, the hall was divided into four consecutive rooms, including the small niche/cell on the north, and three small rooms to its south (Photos 12.92, 12.101).

This wing was bordered on three sides by double walls that remained the same in both strata: on the west by Walls 4422 and 2454, on the south by Walls 4413 and 4479, and on the east by Walls 5414 and 5454. In Stratum C-1b, the northern border of this wing was a single wall (6533), while in Stratum C-1a, it was composed of a double wall: Wall 6409 was built alongside Wall 6410, the southern wall of Building CR.

The Western Wing in Stratum C-1b

Plans

Plans

  • Figure 12.27 - Plan of Stratum C-1b from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)

Discussion
  • Plan: Fig. 12.27
Stratigraphic evidence for the use of the western and southern external walls (2454, 4479) in Stratum C-1b came from adjoining units (Buildings CE and CM), where floors and walls belonging to this phase abutted them. All the internal walls in this wing were constructed in Stratum C-1b and continued to be used in Stratum C-1a, based on the following evidence:
  1. Walls 4413 and 4422 (Squares Y–Z/4) had wooden beams incorporated in their foundations; this was a consistent characteristic typical of all Stratum C-1b construction in Area C, but was almost never found in walls that were first built in Stratum C-1a.

  2. The bricks in the lower courses of the northern face of Wall 4413 and eastern face of Wall 4422 (southern end) had two vertical protrusions, or marginal bosses, on each end, which was a characteristic found in other walls clearly dated to Stratum C-1b in the adjacent Building CE and in the unit north of Building CD (see above).

  3. The wooden beams incorporated in the foundation of Wall 4479, seen in its southern face in Square Z/4 and clearly related to Stratum C-1b, were probably, based on their levels, the continuation of the beams in the foundation of Wall 4413, which ran adjacent to it on the north and served as the inner southern wall of the western wing.

  4. The floors abutted the lowest course of these walls.

In Stratum C-1b, the long rectangular hall of the western wing was accessed directly from the western end of the broad space (6466). At the northern end of the hall was a small chamber, bordered on the north, west and south by Walls 6533, 6534 and 6535. On the east was a short wall (7422) whose top was flush with the floating level of the former walls, so that it seems to have served as a threshold. Inside this small room was a layer of brick chunks, charcoal and rubble (7409), similar to that found in the hall to the south, but on a level 0.6 m higher. This would have required a step down to the hall, although this was not identified in the excavation, since the C-1a wall here was not dismantled. Underneath the floating level of the walls was a layer of soft debris (7417) that abutted Wall 7422, but was only excavated to a depth of 0.1 m and could not be defined; perhaps it was a fill laid to level the C-2 remains below.

The length of the hall was 8.6–8.8 m (due to the angle of the southern wall, 4413) and its width, 2.7 m. Its interior was revealed only in probes under the floors and benches of Stratum C-1a (Figs. 12.59– 12.61; Photos 12.102–12.105). The lowest layer was 0.4 m-thick, composed of soft, smooth, burnt black material (5488, 5487, 5475, from north to south), which abutted the lowest course of the walls, on the level of the wooden beams in their foundations, as revealed in those spots where we removed the benches of the later phase. This black layer apparently represents the floor; directly below it were the remains of Stratum C-2 Building CU. Finds from this black layer included red-slipped and hand-burnished pottery, mostly sherds, but several complete or almost-complete vessels as well (Figs. 13.46–13.47), along with loomweights, beads, stoppers, grinding stones, bone objects and some grain (Table 12.14). This layer was covered by a 0.4 m-thick layer of burnt rubble (5478, 5479, 5463, from north to south), composed of hard burnt chunks of reddish brick, gray ash, bits of charcoal and large segments of collapsed ceiling material, some of which lay flat (Photos 12.102–12.105). This rubble abutted the surrounding walls in each room and was covered by a thin layer of whitish material (phytolith?), on which the Stratum C-1a floors, walls and benches were laid.

The Western Wing in Stratum C-1a

Introduction

Plans

Plans

  • Figure 12.29 - Building CE, Stratum C-1b; corner of Walls 2454 and 1491 (1:50) from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.35 - Plan of Stratum C-1a from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.36 - Plan of Building CF, Stratum C-1a from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)

Discussion
  • Plans: Figs. 12.29, 12.35–12.36
Following the destruction of the C-1b building, traces of which were noticeable mainly in the western wing, the long narrow hall was divided into four consecutive rooms by the addition of three cross walls that were built on top of wider foundations, which also served as narrow benches along the walls and continued eastwards to serve as brick thresholds in each entrance (Photos 12.92, 12.101). Two of the walls (5464, 5497) had a shallow niche cut into their southern face. Access to each of the rooms was only from the adjoining room, so that in order to enter the southernmost room, one had to pass through the three rooms to its north. From north to south, the dividing walls of these three rooms were: 5464, 5431 and 5497. They were 1.6 m long and 0.5 m wide each, and terminated 1.0 m west of Wall 5414, so that the entrances were aligned on a north–south axis, located in the northeastern corner of each room.

Along the north–south walls were lines of bricks, most of them 0.35 m wide, while others were narrower (0.3 m) or wider (0.45 m). All were preserved 0.25–0.35 m high (two courses); their height above the abutting floors ranged from 0.1– 0.25 m, while in the northern room they were flush with the floor. These were understood as benches, and they joined with those found under the three east–west cross walls. The bottom level of the benches was ca. 0.65 m above that of the outer walls of the building to which they were attached, and they were clearly built on top of the rubble and collapse layer ascribed to Stratum C-1b, described above (Figs. 12.59–12.61). This rubble also abutted the very bottom of the benches, suggesting that they were slightly sunk into that debris when constructed. The north–south benches lining the eastern and western walls of this wing run on one continuous line. This was particularly noticeable on the east, where the bench ran contiguously along the western face of Wall 5414. The benches were all composed of identical bricks that had been burnt to an almost stone-like consistency and to a pinkish color.

The Stratum C-1a floors in each room were composed of white lime and abutted the upper course of the benches. On these floors was a thick layer of burnt destruction debris with many finds. Following is a description of the rooms from north to south (6435, 5460, 5445, 5444)

Room 6435

This was a small room (internal measurements 1.5×3.1 m; 4.65 sq m) built above the small chamber/nich, 7409, of Stratum C-1b. On the north, west and south, the tops of the C-1b walls (6533, 6534, 6535) were visible in the floor makeup of the new room. Although they lined the walls, they were different from the other benches in this wing, as they did not rise above the floor level, and they continued down to be abutted by the C-1b rubble rather than built above it.

The room was entered from the broad space to the east. The beaten-earth floor (6435, level 86.85 m) was 0.35 m higher than Floor 6427 to the east, which would have necessitated some kind of small step to join them. A large grinding stone installation (6406) occupied its southeastern part. On the floor was a 0.4 m thick layer of destruction debris (6401) that contained 41 smashed and intact vessels, an exceptionally large amount considering the small space (Figs. 13.80–13.96; Photos 12.106–12.107). Just below topsoil were fragments of an elaborate horned pottery altar with mold-made female figures (Photo 12.108; Chapter 35, No. 5). The impression was that the numerous finds here were in storage and not found as used, since they were densely packed in this small area, around the grinding stone installation (6406) that took up part of the room as well (Photos 12.106–12.107, 12.109–12.110).

Installation 6406 was comprised of a finely made oval, round-topped clay parapet, 0.4 m high, enclosing a large lower grinding stone, on top of which was a complete upper grinding stone lying on its eastern end. The large lower grinding stone was somewhat raised above the floor of the installation and tilted down from west to east, so as to facilitate the gathering of the grain into a small depression between the western end of the lower grinding stone and the parapet. Curiously, the installation, built against the eastern end of Wall 5464, was situated so that its eastern end partially blocked the entrance to the room to the south. It is either possible that this was a later addition to the room or that, despite its position, it was not considered as an obstacle. This installation was similar to the one found in Room 5498 of the eastern wing of Building CF, as well as in Building CQ1 and possibly, Buildings CQ2, CP and CE; one was found in Area G as well (Chapter 20). The clay parapets of these grinding stone installations enabled flour to be easily collected and to prevent grain from being scattered. It seems that the grinder would have worked from the higher (western) side of the installation, so as to use gravity when pushing the upper grinding stone (as in Photo 12.110), although this was quite a cramped space to crouch in.

Room 5460

The second room from the north, built above C-1b burnt debris 5478 (Figs. 12.59–12.60), was the largest (internal measurements 2.4×2.7 m; 6.48 sq m). Destruction debris (5425 on the east and 5428 on the west) covered the white lime floor and the benches (Photo 12.111). The northern wall (5464) was built on top of a wider wall (5474) that protruded on its southern face, creating a kind of narrow bench; a shallow niche created in Wall 5464 widened this bench to 0.3 m. Abutting the western wall (4422) was a line of bricks that cornered with 5474 and created a bench (5472). A similar situation existed on the east, where Bench 5473 abutted Wall 5414; this bench continued south into the other rooms as well and cornered on the north with 5474. No bench lined the southern wall.

Among the many finds was a Hippo storage jar with an inscription reading לשקינמש, Isqymns (Fig. 13.91:2; Mazar and Ahituv 2011: 303–304; Ahituv and Mazar 2014: 44–45; Chapter 29A, No. 6). It was found in Locus 5425, along with another 40 vessels, several of them intact (Figs. 13.80–13.87, 13.89, 13.91–13.93, 13.95–13.96); most were concentrated in the southeastern part of the room, near the entrance leading south to Room 5445 (Photo 12.111). Among them was a unique shovel (Fig. 13.96:1; Chapter 35, No. 49).

Room 5445

The middle room, built above C-1b burnt debris 5479, was the smallest (internal measurements 1.2×2.7 m; 3.24 sq. m). Its northern wall (5431) was built on top of a slightly wider wall/ bench (5484), so that only 0.2 m of the latter protruded into the room on the south, but not at all on the north. On the west, Bench 5485 cornered with 5484. On the east, the situation was somewhat ambivalent: it seems that 5473, the eastern bench of Room 5460 to the north, continued to the south into Room 5445 as well. However, an additional row of bricks, identical to Bench 5473, adjoined it on the west. Above this western row of bricks was a line composed of large chunks of burnt bricks. This feature (5458), 0.3 m wide and 1.5 m long, stood two courses high and blocked the entrance into this room, as well as the entrance into the southernmost room (Photo 12.111). However, although it appears to have been built as a blockage, it is possible to understand it as the collapse of bricks from one of the walls that happened to land on this line inside the room.

Room 5445 was filled with burnt destruction debris (5421, 5467) that covered and abutted the benches and rested on Floor 5445; however, as opposed to the other rooms in this building, it was virtually empty, with only a small amount of sherds, mostly concentrated on the eastern bench (Figs. 13.81–13.82). Among the sherds was a fragment of a Greek bowl (Fig. 13.96:9; Chapter 28A).

Room 5444

This room, built above C-1b burnt debris 5463 (Fig. 12.60) was the southernmost and innermost room in the western wing (internal measurements 1.8×2.7 m; 4.86 sq m) (Photos 12.112–12.113). Its northern wall (5497) was built on top of a wider wall that served as a narrow bench on the south (5471); a niche cut out of the southern face of the wall exposed 0.5 m of this bench, although on the eastern and western ends, where there was no niche, only 0.1 m of it protruded. This arrangement was almost identical to that in the northern end of the northernmost room. This small room was found full of extremely burnt destruction debris (4414) on the white lime floor with some ash (5444), including many fallen bricks that had been fired almost to the consistency of pottery. Thirteen vessels from this room were restored (Figs. 13.80– 13.81, 13.83–13.84, 13.86, 13.90–13.96). Several of these were found on (or partly on) the benches, including a Hippo storage jar on the eastern bench (Fig. 13.91:4), another storage jar (Fig. 13.90:9) on the eastern end of the northern bench, just where the entrance was, and a very large krater (Fig. 13.92:7) on the southern bench. A unique find was a large, heavy clay box with a matching lid (Fig. 13.96a:10) in the northwestern corner of the room (Photo 12.112). This box, very distorted by fire, ca. 0.55 m wide, 0.65 m long and 0.45 m high, was set on a protrusion in the corner of Benches 5469 and 5471, composed of bricks identical to those of the benches, apparently deliberately built to accommodate the box (Photo 12.113). The lid of the box was found overturned just to its east, above a bowl (Fig. 13.80:6) and an intact juglet (Fig. 13.95:11) was found just below the box’s southwestern corner; the only finds inside the box was a small fragment of a very worn female figurine (Chapter 34, No. 13).

The location of this room in the deep interior of the western wing of Building CF, which was surrounded on three sides by double walls and accessed only through the other rooms of the western wing, as well as the unique pottery box and ceramic assemblage, indicated that it had some special function, perhaps some sort of a treasury.

Summary of Building CF

The architecture and contents of Building CF are unique in many ways. Although the grinding installations, oven and many loomweights found in this building in Stratum C-1a are typical of household activity, the plan of this building, the double walls, and the unique finds make it exceptional.

The net floor space is not exceptional and should be regarded as modest compared to other Iron Age II houses (Table 12.13; Schloen 2001: 165–183; Mazar 2008; see summary below), although it was larger than most other buildings excavated at Tel Rehov. Based on the width of the walls, we may assume that the house had a second story, although no evidence for a staircase was found; a wooden ladder or steps could have been located near the entrance or in the entrance corridor. Such a second story could accommodate private living rooms in this building. We assume that all the spaces in both strata were roofed, based on the fragments of fallen ceiling material found in the debris. Although one may surmise that the large northeastern space (5498) in Stratum C-1a was an open courtyard, this does not seem feasible, in spite of the fact that an oven was located at the northern end of this space. Air and light could be obtained through the main entrance on the north and windows in the southern wall of the building, since all other walls bordered neighboring buildings.

The most outstanding feature in this building was the row of small rooms in the western wing in Stratum C-1a, with benches along the walls. The consecutive arrangement of four rooms entered successively by way of the previous room, lined with benches along most of the walls, is virtually unparalleled in the Iron Age architecture in Israel (see further below). The small size of these rooms and the fact that the two inner ones could not get direct light or air except from the room to the north, emphasize their unique function. The inscribed jar with the inscription — לשקינמש, lšqynmš — found in the largest of these rooms, and the massive pottery box with the lid found in the southern room, allude to a special function of this wing. We can suggest that these were the offices of an important personality, perhaps a merchant or a clan leader, and that the box served as a ‘treasury’ of some kind. The unique model shrine, decorated altar facade, and so-called ‘footbath’ (the function of which remains enigmatic), as well as the presence of two elaborate grinding stone installations, a loom, and other rich finds from this building, are evidence of this special function.

The construction of this building in Stratum C-1b and its renovation in Stratum C-1a, are a process known from other structures in Area C, such as Buildings CE, CR, CQ1 and CQ2. The integration of Building CF with the buildings surrounding it during both strata is typical of the architectural and occupational nature of the Iron Age IIA at Tel Rehov. One possible reason for such dense and crowded construction may be related to efforts to stabilize the structures in light of the seismic sensitivity in this region. This may also be related to local architectural traditions that continued during all of Iron IIA, perhaps with earlier origins, and were special markers of the inhabitants’ cultural identity.

An interesting parallel to the plan of this building can be seen at Megiddo in Stratum VA– IVB Building 2081 (Loud 1948: 44–46, plan: Fig. 388, reconstructed plan: Fig. 100). This building comprised a large courtyard (2081). In the southwestern corner of the courtyard was a cult corner containing two stone horned altars, two pottery stands and additional objects (Zevit 2001: 220– 225). From the courtyard, an entrance led into a unit that resembled Building CF, with a rectangular hall containing an inner chamber. From the front part of the hall, an entrance led into a narrow side chamber, which, in turn, led into two additional rooms arranged in a similar manner as those in Building CF, with entrances located at the end of the walls. It may be suggested that a room at the southwestern corner of this building was also part of this chain of rooms, since the walls were preserved lower than the floor and the location of entrances could not be determined with any certainty in this place. The size of this building fits that of Building CF. It differed in having an additional western wing, the long hall 2163. However, no entrance connecting the eastern to the western wing was found and thus, it is difficult to say whether it belonged to the same building. Another exceptional feature was the two pillar bases at the front part of the main hall. These have no parallels in Building CF, unless we consider the large stone found near Wall 6455 in Stratum C-1b and a second large stone found nearby in Stratum C-1a as pillar bases found out of their original position. It should be noted that the rooms of the eastern wing of Building 2081 at Megiddo were not numbered and no finds were published from them. However, the cult corner in Courtyard 2081 included pottery similar to that from Tel Rehov Strata IV–V (C-1a–b). It may be suggested that these two buildings might have had similar functions, perhaps serving as dwellings of elite families who incorporated commercial activities in their household and had their own cult corners and paraphernalia (see Chapter 4; Fig. 4.12).

Building CW

Plans, Sections, and Photos
Plans, Sections, and Photos

  • Figure 12.34 - Plan of Stratum C-1b from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.35 - Plan of Stratum C-1a from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.38 - Plan of Buildings CW, CQ1 and CQ3, Stratum C-1a from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.55 - Section 1 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.56 - Section 2 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.114 - C-1a Buildings CW, CQ1, CQ2 (west half excavated) from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.115 - Debris on Floor 8430 in C-1a Building CW Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.116 - C-1a Building CW, looking west, Rooms 6411 and 6438 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.117 - C-1a Building CW, looking south; destruction debris and vessels in Room 6411 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.118 - C-1a Building CW, Room 6411 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.119 - C-1a Skeleton in Square C/6 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)

Discussion
  • Plans: Figs. 12.34–12.35, 12.38
  • Sections: Figs. 12.55–12.56
  • Photos 12.114–12.119
  • Pottery: C-1b — Figs. 13.48:15–20; C-1a — Figs. 13.97–13.102
Introduction

Building CW (Squares A–C/6) was constructed above Stratum C-2 Building CY (Photo 12.114) and to a large extent, is a rebuild of the latter, retaining much of its layout. Like Building CY, it was only partly excavated and continued to the north beyond the limit of the excavation area. Two phases were defined in this building, attributed to Strata C-1b and C-1a, yet in the second phase (C-1a), changes occurred mainly in the courtyard and the eastern part of the building, while the two rooms in the west remained unchanged; thus, they appear in the plans of both Strata C-1b and C-1a. Since the differentiation between the two phases was not emphatic, both are described together.

The building adjoined the entrance corridor and northern space of Building CF on the west and the northern wall of Buildings CQ1 and CQ2 on the south (Photos 12.92, 12.114). Its outer width from east to west was 10.4 m and its known length was 5.8 m, although it extended to the north beyond the limits of the excavation area. Unlike most other Iron IIA buildings at Tel Rehov, this appears to have been a variation of a courtyard house, with a large open courtyard surrounded by rooms, at least on one side. See also Building CY in Stratum C-2 and Building CZ in Stratum C-1b for a similar concept. The southern border of the building was Wall 6444, which ran parallel and adjacent to the northern wall of Buildings CQ1 and CQ2 (6407), forming a double wall, 1.1 m wide. Wall 6444 contained wooden beams typical of Stratum C-1b in its foundation; these were round, ca. 0.05–0.07 m in diameter, closely spaced, and placed perpendicular to the wall’s foundation (Photos 12.59–12.61). The western wall 6408 continued to the south where it was the western wall of Building CQ1. It is thus clear that Building CW was built together with Building CQ1, and probably with CQ2 as well. The eastern wall in Stratum C-1b (8491) was replaced in C-1a by Wall 8424.

Courtyard 7501 (C-1b) and 7471 (C-1a)

In Stratum C-1b, the spacious courtyard was 6.0 m wide and at least 5.5 m long. Its western border was Wall 6420 and its northern continuation, Wall 6476. The border on the east was Wall 8491; a segment of an additional wall (8476) was attached to its western face for 2.5 m; north of this, in its stead, was a north–south row of rather large (ca. 0.3×0.4 m each) roughly rectangular stones (8499), three of which were placed together and a fourth slightly to the north, running into the northern balk (Photo 12.63). These stones adjoined Wall 8491 and thus could not have served as pillar bases; they recall the stones along the walls in Building CY of Stratum C-2 and elsewhere and perhaps served as solid bases for jars or other objects. In Stratum C-1a, Wall 8476 and the stones were removed, and substantial changes were made in the eastern part of the courtyard (see below).

Only a single floor was found in the courtyard (7471, level 86.29 m) (Photo 12.114), laid on a 0.4 m-thick fill of soft brown earth (7501, 8462) that covered the remains of Stratum C-2 Building CY (Fig. 12.55). This fill layer is shown in the plan of Stratum C-1b (Fig. 12.35), as we assume that it was laid at that time, in preparation for the laying of the floor; it is possible that an earlier floor of C-1b was removed when Floor 7471 was laid, leaving only the fill. The floor (shown on the plan of Stratum C-1a; Figs. 12.36, 12.38) was composed of soft reddish-brown earth, its central and southeastern parts burnt black, with some light gray ashy patches and flecks of charcoal throughout. The floor dipped down in the northwest, visible in the northern section of Square B/6 (Fig. 12.55); in this shallow depression was a complete Hippo jar (Fig. 13.99:7). It was not clear whether this depression was intentional (a pit?) or whether it represented a postdepositional phenomenon. A concentration of black ash found to the west of this dip, against Wall 6476, contained two cooking pots (Fig. 13.98:1, 3) and a loomweight. Along the western end of the courtyard was a strip of small stones (7479) set closely together, although rather haphazardly, with a lower layer of stones in its central part. The stones ran parallel to Wall 6420 (Photo 12.114) and may have been a remnant of a poorly preserved stone pavement. The stones ended in the north close to the abovementioned dip in the floor; they recall those found in the northwestern part of Building CX, described below.

The main change in the courtyard, attributed to the transition from C-1b to C-1a, took place in its eastern part and included the replacement of Wall 8491 with Wall 8424 and the addition of an installation that covered Wall 8476 and Stones 8499. Wall 8424 was poorly preserved and it is not clear if it was cut on its northern end or whether there had been an entrance there.

The installation included Wall 8426, an east– west wall, preserved along 2.2 m and 0.15 m high, that extended from the center of Wall 8424 and served as a divider between two spaces that were open to the west (Photo 12.115). The floors of these spaces (8423, 8430 in the north, 8420 in the south) were covered with plaster that lipped up to the faces of the wall in a manner that created shallow channels, which were burnt on their western ends. The northern end of the northern space contained a concentration of stones, east of which were three jugs and one juglet (Fig. 13.101:2–3, 6, 12). On its western end, Wall 8426 joined a shallow north– south channel that terminated on the north near a large lower grinding stone embedded in the floor, and on the south at the center of the southern space. Two stone mortars, one particularly large and the other smaller, flanked the northern end of the channel on the west and east, respectively. The function of these elements remained unclear; it is possible that some substance was drained from the plastered floors into the shallow channel on their west, and that the grinding stone and mortars were used in conjunction with this activity.

A 0.6 m-deep destruction layer (7401), revealed below topsoil, was found in the entire courtyard area, comprising hard burnt brick debris with complete fallen bricks, charcoal and ash. Fifty-one vessels were found here (Figs. 13.97– 13.102), including a large flask (Fig. 13.102:1) and two sherds of Cypriot Black on Red bowls (Fig. 13.102:8–9), as well as numerous other finds (Table 12.16).

Room 6411

This room was bordered by Walls 6408 on the west, 6429 on the north and 6420 on the east (internal measurements 2.1×3.0 m; 6.3 sq. m). An entranceway in the southern end of Wall 6420 led to the room from the courtyard. The only floor found in this room (6411) was made of pink plaster laid above a layer of earth and brick debris (6451) that appears to have been a fill above Building CY, similar to the situation in the courtyard to the east.

Brick benches (6457, 6458 and 6496) were constructed along the western, eastern and southern walls of the room respectively. The benches were 0.35 m wide and 0.35 m high, recalling those in Building CF, although in this case, they were built against the walls and not under them. Placed on top of each end of the western and eastern benches (6457, 6458) were flat-topped stones, perhaps serving as solid supports for jars or other objects (Photo 12.116). In the southwestern corner of the room was an L-shaped brick that formed a niche in which an intact juglet (Fig. 13.101:11) was placed. The room was full of heavily burnt destruction debris (6411) that both covered and abutted the benches. Twenty vessels were found in this debris, including chalices, cooking pots, storage jars, jugs, juglets, and a large krater with grain (Fig. 13.97:15); most of the vessels were concentrated in the debris above the benches that lined the walls (Photo 12.117). A concentration of ten clay loomweights was found on the western end of this bench (Photo 12.118). Other finds in this room included three scale weights and a bronze scale pan, as well as a seal and iron tools (Table 12.16).

Room 6438

This room, located in the northwestern part of the building, was bordered by Walls 6429 on the south, 6497 on the west and 6476 on the east. The internal width was 2.5 m and it was at least 1.4 m long, as its northern border was beyond the limit of the excavation area, with an entrance probably in its northeastern corner. Although the eastern and western walls continued the lines of those of Room 6411 to the south, they were not one and the same, as they abutted the northern face of Wall 6429, but did not bond with it. It is possible that this room had been accessed from the courtyard on the east at a spot further to the north, beyond the limits of the excavation. Just as in Room 6411, a layer of debris that might have been a fill (6462) was found above the C-2 remains and was covered by the floor and benches in this room, so it is assumed that it, like the room to its south, had only one phase of use.

Benches (6480, 6481) lined the western and eastern walls (but not the southern wall), continuing the line of the benches in Room 6411 to the south. Here too, stones were found on top of their southern and northern ends (Photo 12.116). The room was full of burnt destruction debris; eight vessels rested on Floor 6438 at level 86.50 m.

Area East of Building CW

A narrow area (ca. 0.9 m) was excavated to the east of the building in Square C/6, in which a layer of soft debris resting on a plaster floor (8428) was found at level 86.14 m, attributed to Stratum C-1a. A human skeleton (8472; Photo 12.119) was found on the northern end of this plaster floor, at a spot where there was possibly an entrance in Wall 8424. This was the only case of a human skeleton found in Area C (see Chapter 46B), evidence of the sudden violent end of the Stratum C-1a city

Buildings CQ1 and CQ2

Plans, Sections, and Photos
Plans, Sections, and Photos

  • Figure 12.34 - Plan of Stratum C-1b from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.35 - Plan of Stratum C-1a from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.57 - Section 3 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.120 - Wall 7413 of C-1a Building CQ2 tilted southward towards the street from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.121 - C-1a Building CQ1; destruction debris in western rooms from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.122 - C-1a Building CQ1 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.123 - Wall 7413 of C-1a Building CQ2 tilted southward from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.124 - C-1a Building CQ1; destruction debris in Room 7490 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.125 - Tilted Wall in C-1a Building CQ2 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.126 - Destruction debris in Room 7500 of C-1a Building CQ1 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)

Discussion
  • Plans: Figs. 12.34–12.35, 12.38
  • Section: Fig. 12.57
  • Photos 12.120–12.126
  • Pottery: Figs. 13.103–13.119
Introduction

To the south of Building CW and the east of Building CF were two virtually twin buildings, termed CQ1 and CQ2, adjoined by a double wall (Squares A–C/4–5). Both buildings were enclosed on the north by Wall 6407, which was attached to Wall 6444 of Building CW, together creating a double wall, 1.1 m wide (Photo 12.120). On the west, Building CQ1 adjoined Building CF with a double wall, although in Stratum C-1a, with the removal of the inner wall of the northeastern part of Building CF, a double wall was left only in the south and the two buildings shared a wall in the north. Thus, it can be seen how Buildings CQ1 and CQ2 were not only related to each other, but were also a part of the northeastern insula, all the units of which must have been built together according to an integrated plan. On the south, the buildings were closed by a single wall and fronted by a street. The eastern border of Building CQ2 was also a single wall; although unexcavated, it is possible that a north–south street ran here and continued to the north alongside Building CW.

Both buildings were small and comprised three rooms each: a rectangular room on the south and two small rooms on the north, one larger than the other. Yet another building with the same plan was found to the south of Building CQ1, termed Building CQ3. The entrance to Building CQ1 was in its southeastern corner (opposite the entrance of Building CQ3), but curiously, no entrance into CQ2 could be identified. While Building CQ1 was built on a north–south axis, its eastern side ran on a slightly northwest–southeast line, which dictated the orientation of the adjoining Building CQ2; in fact, the eastern wall of the latter building was even more skewed, lending it a trapezoidal shape.

Similar to Building CW to the immediate north Buildings CQ1 and CQ2 had one main phase, with burnt destruction debris under topsoil down to the floors and only ephemeral indications of an earlier occupation in Stratum C-1b. Both buildings were built above remains attributed to Stratum C-2 in Squares A–B/4–5. The most likely explanation is that the buildings were constructed in Stratum C-1b and continued to be in use until the violent destruction at the end of Stratum C-1a. The wood in the foundations of the walls points to this option, as this was a typical C-1b feature. Thus, the buildings appear on the plans of both Strata C-1b and C-1a.

A narrow area to the south of Buildings CQ1 and CQ2, as well as Building CF to their west (Photos 12.120, 12.122), appears to have been an east–west street, some 1.4 m wide, that ran between the block of Buildings CF, CQ1 and CQ2 on the north and Buildings CQ3 and CX on the south, merging into Piazza 2417 on the west in Stratum C-1a.

The buildings are described below as found in Stratum C-1a, noting the very minor remains of the sporadically detected earlier (C-1b) phase.

Building CQ1

Plans, Sections, and Photos

Plans, Sections, and Photos

  • Figure 12.34 - Plan of Stratum C-1b from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.35 - Plan of Stratum C-1a from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.38 - Plan of Buildings CW, CQ1 and CQ3, Stratum C-1a from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)

Discussion
  • Plans: Figs. 12.34–12.35, 12.38
Introduction

The external measurements of Building CQ1 were 5.2–5.5×6.4 m (floor space, ca. 19 sq m). It included one large room (6483) that spanned the width of the building and two smaller rooms (6436, 7447) to its north. The southern wall was Wall 6445, which continued the line of Wall 5455, the southern inner wall of Building CF. On the west, the building was closed by Wall 6408, which continued to the north, where it was the western wall of Building CW and abutted the eastern wall of Building CF on the south (Photos 12.121–12.122). The eastern wall (7416) created a double wall with Wall 7413 of Building CQ2. The wall was skewed towards the southeast, perhaps as a result of seismic activity, judging by the rather acute drop visible in its southern part (Photo 12.125). The walls of this building were preserved to 0.7–1.2 m above the floors. Note that the floor levels were 0.7–0.8 m lower than those of the adjacent Building CW, but were almost identical to those in the eastern part of Building CF. Such a discrepancy must reflect the existing topography; it seems that when these buildings were constructed, there was a slope from the northwestern corner of the mound towards the southeast.

Room 6483

The southern and largest space of the building was apparently a roofed room, measuring internally 2.8×4.3 m (floor space, 12.04 sq m). The entrance into this room, and, in fact, into the building itself, was in its southeastern corner. The entrance was 1.2 m wide and had a brick threshold at 86.12 m; it opened to the street that ran along the southern façade of the building, although the excavated level of the street surface was higher by ca. 0.7 m than the threshold. This would have required few steps or a ladder to access the building from the street, whether into Room 6483 or to a second story.

The floor was composed of two parts: on the west was a stone floor (6472) that ran up to the line of the entranceway in Wall 6446, containing closely laid basalt stones and limestones, as well as some broken upper grinding stones and mortars. Underneath the stone pavement were two large stones that apparently served to buttress it. Such a stone floor was rare at Tel Rehov in Iron IIA and was found only in Buildings CQ1, CQ2 and perhaps CJ in Stratum C-1a.

The stone floor was abutted on the east by a smooth reddish clay floor (7450 in the east, 6483 in the west); patches of this matrix were also found between the stones, so that it apparently had covered them as well. In the central-eastern part of Floor 6483 was a round, flat-topped stone that appears to have been a pillar base; it was encircled by several small stones that included two loomweights, one of stone and one of clay. Between this pillar base and Wall 7454 on the north was a patch of hard plaster.

The floor was covered with a layer of extremely burnt and heavy destruction debris (6423, 6439, 7420) (Fig. 12.57) that included fallen bricks, collapsed ceiling, charcoal, ash, plaster fragments and parts of a clay installation, possibly an oven, that could not be reconstructed (Photo 12.121). In the northwestern part of the room, near the southern face of Wall 6446, was a grinding stone installation (6453), like those found in Buildings CF and CE; it was not very well preserved (Photo 12.122). The lower grinding stone of the installation was installed on a brick base, which raised it to ca. 0.4 m above the floor; underneath the stone was an antler. This room contained 26 vessels (Figs. 13.103–13.107), as well as other objects (Table 12.17), notably 52 loomweights.

The reddish clay matrix of Floor 6483 rested on a 0.15 m-deep layer of red, gray and white striations (also numbered 6483) that abutted the lowest courses of the surrounding walls, which contained wooden beams in their foundations. These striations penetrated below the stone floor in the western half of the room and they may have belonged to the initial use of this room in Stratum C-1b.

Room 6436

The small northwestern room (6436; measuring internally 1.9×2.35 m, 4.46 sq m) was bordered on the east by Wall 6422 and on the south by Wall 6446; in the eastern end of the latter wall was a narrow entrance, 0.5 m wide. The floor was made of smooth reddish clay (level 86.00 m), identical to that of the large room to the south. The wood in the foundations of the surrounding walls protruded somewhat into the room below the floor, embedded in a matrix of reddish clay (6477) that was similar to the floor makeup itself. This sub-floor material with wood was laid on top of Wall 6501 and Locus 6502, attributed to Stratum C-2 (Fig. 12.12). A wooden beam was found in the entranceway itself, possibly a threshold. On the floor was heavy burnt destruction debris with fallen bricks and ceiling material (6413; Photo 12.121). This small room contained 34 complete or partial vessels (Figs. 13.103–13.107) and 107 loomweights, which indicate that a loom stood in this room, along with many other finds (Table 12.17).

Room 7447

The northeastern room (7447; measuring internally 1.3×2.0 m, 2.6 sq m) was separated from the room to its west by Wall 6422. This small narrow room was entered from the larger southern room by way of an opening, 0.8–0.9 m wide, in its southern wall (7454); this opening had a brick threshold that was, in fact, the continuation of Wall 7454, on the level of the floor. A row of bricks (7448) ran along the northern wall of this room just on the floor level and might have been a bench. Like in the room to the west, the wooden beams in the foundation of Wall 6422 protruded into the sub-floor makeup of reddish clay. The reddish clay floor was identical to that of the other rooms and was covered by very burnt complete fallen bricks and ceiling material (7426); on it were six pottery vessels and other objects (Table 12.17)

Building CQ2

Plans, Sections, and Photos

Plans, Sections, and Photos

  • Figure 12.34 - Plan of Stratum C-1b from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.35 - Plan of Stratum C-1a from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.38 - Plan of Buildings CW, CQ1 and CQ3, Stratum C-1a from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)

Discussion
  • Plans: Figs. 12.34–12.35, 12.38
Introduction

Adjoining Building CQ1 on the east was an almost identical, slightly larger unit, termed Building CQ2 (Photos 12.120, 12.123) (external measurements 5.6–6.0×6.3 m; floor space, ca. 21 sq m). As noted above, the southern part of the western wall was slightly skewed, and the entire eastern wall (8405) was even more so, and thus, the building was somewhat trapezoidal (Photo 12.123).

The problem of the entrance to this building remains unresolved. If we duplicate the plan of Building CQ1, the entrance should have been close to the eastern end of Wall 8434 and thus, exactly opposite the entrance into C-1a Building CX to the south. However, the wall here stood up to 1.0 m above the floor level inside the building and did not show any signs of a gap or a blockage. Note the suggestion that the street level to the south of Building CQ2, which was ca. 1.0 m higher than the floor inside the building, might have served to directly access an upper floor.

Building CQ2 contained 165 vessels, an extremely large amount for such a small building, even when taking into account the existence of a second story. Building CQ1, more or less the same size, contained 66 vessels. See further discussion in Chapter 45.

Room 7500

The southern and largest room of this building (7500) spanned its entire width. Due to the angle of the eastern wall (8405), it was trapezoidal (internal measurements 2.6×4.5–4.9 m; 12.2 sq m). The floor of this room was identical to that of Room 6483 in Building CQ1: a stone pavement (7503) on the west and soft reddish clay on the east (7500), on line with the entrance into Room 7490. The pavement was nicely laid, with small stones filling the gaps between the flat-topped stones, which incorporated several broken and complete upper grinding stones. A large lower grinding stone was found in the southwestern part of the room, some 0.3 m above the stone floor. It is possible that this had belonged to a grinding stone installation similar to those found in Building CQ1, CF and CE, as chunks of hard clay found scattered nearby might have been part of its surrounding parapet. Attached to the center of the southern wall was a bin (7508), 0.8 m wide and 1.5 m long, with narrow clay walls that also ran partially along the southern wall. A stone mortar was found on the northeastern end of this bin with an upper grinding stone inside it.

Underneath the reddish clay floor in the southeastern corner of this room was a rather large smooth pink mizi limestone resting on a layer of red and gray striations (8445), similar to those in Building CQ1; a juglet (Fig. 13.118:11) was found in this layer. This stone was very similar to that found in the Stratum C-1b phase of Building CF, described above. Like in Room 6483 in Building CQ1, this layer ran to the west under the stone floor and it is possible that it represented the Stratum C-1b occupation. The foundations of both the southern and eastern walls of Building CQ2 were not reached and it is possible that an earlier phase is yet to be exposed.

Room 7500 was full of very dense burnt destruction debris (7442), with large chunks of collapsed ceiling and many fallen bricks (Photos 12.124, 12.126). In this debris were 88 vessels (Figs. 13.108–13.119), among them a number of fine small closed vessels. Several other objects were found as well (Table 12.18). An interesting find was a concentration of some 20 small polished black and gray wadi pebbles found on the floor, as well as inside an intact juglet (Fig. 13.118:17). These were weighed in order to ascertain if they had significance as weights, but it seems that this was not their main function, as they did not yield any known value (pers. comm., Raz Kletter).

Room 7490

The northwestern room (internal measurements 2.1×2.7 m; 5.8 sq m), was slightly wider than its counterpart in Building CQ1. On the east, it was closed by Wall 7406 and on the south by Wall 7459, in which a 0.75 m-wide entrance was located on its eastern end. Wooden beams were incorporated in the foundations of the walls in this room (Photo 12.125) and the entrance had a fine brick threshold with a plank of wood found in situ. An exceptional recess was located in the outer eastern side of the entrance in Wall 8411, a detail somewhat similar to the rounded recesses in two of the entrances in Building CP (11440, 11446), described below. Two brick courses were missing from this wall in its center (Photo 12.126); this appears to have been a kind of window or niche between this room and the one to its south.

The reddish clay floor (7490) in this room was exactly the same as the floors in Building CQ1. The top of Stratum C-2 Wall 7492 (Photo 12.125) protruded into the floor, running along the northern wall of the room, 0.2 m above the floor, and might have been used as a bench.

This room was filled with burnt destruction debris (7444), including many fallen bricks, collapsed ceiling material, charcoal and ash (Photo 12.126), as well as 66 complete or almost-complete vessels (Figs. 13.108–13.119) and other finds (Table 12.18). A complete baking tray (Fig. 13.112:1), made of non-cooking pot fabric, a rare item in the Iron Age IIA pottery assemblage of Tel Rehov, was one of the finds in this room.

Room 8431

The northeastern room was the smallest; its trapezoid shape was due to the angle of the eastern wall (8405) (internal measurements 1.2–1.4×2.1; ca. 3.0 sq m). A row of bricks (8412) ran along the southern face of Wall 6407 in the northern part of this room, continuing the line of 7492 from the adjacent room, but standing much higher, almost on the level of the tops of the surrounding walls. Since excavation did not proceed below the floor, it is not known whether this was the upper part of an earlier wall, like Wall 7492. The entrance to the room on the southeast, 0.7–0.8 m wide, contained a curious feature composed of four narrow bricks that formed a square, enclosing a small area of softer debris (8446). To the south of the southern brick was an upper grinding stone, parallel to the threshold; it is difficult to say whether it was deliberately placed there or was fallen. The presence of this bin-like element just where one would step into the room through the threshold is enigmatic. It is possible that it was a Stratum C-1b element that slightly protruded into the floor here, or that it was somehow related to the function of the room.

Room 8431 was full of burnt destruction debris and fallen bricks, yielding seven vessels and several other objects (Table 12.18).

Summary of Buildings CQ1 and CQ2

Buildings CQ1 and CQ2 (and also Building CQ3 to the south, see below) are exceptional among the Iron Age houses in Israel in their relatively small overall size and the even smaller size of the inner rooms, which could hardly be used as living rooms. It may be assumed that these houses had a second story, thus their functional space could have been double, although no evidence for steps was found and access must have been from the outside of the building. This possibility may explain the lack of an entrance in Building CQ2; it is possible that the lower storey of this building was entered by a wooden ladder from an upper floor. Yet, this is a hypothesis that has no factual support and, in fact, there was such an entrance in Building CQ1, despite the higher street level to its south. Notably, the buildings contained very large amounts of pottery, as well as a range of other finds, that might point to them having been dwellings. On the other hand, they lacked cooking facilities, such as ovens, although cooking pots and one baking tray were found.

These buildings can be compared to small houses found in Area C at Hazor, dating to the 13th–11th centuries BCE (Yadin et al. 1960: 98, Pl. 208), in Tell Abu Hawam Stratum IV (Hamilton 1935: Plate IV), Aphek Stratum X11 (Gadot and Yadin 2009: 90––93, Figs. 6.2, 6.4), and perhaps also Building 442 in Stratum VIA at Tel Batash, although it was not fully uncovered and appears to have been larger (Mazar 1997: 76–79; list cited from Gadot and Yadin 2009: 93, with Egyptian parallels as well). However, all these examples are much earlier (13th–11th centuries BCE), while no similar houses are known in Iron Age II Israel.

Building CG

Plans, Sections, and Photos
Plans, Sections, and Photos

  • Figure 12.18 - Plan of Stratum C-1b from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.19 - Plan of Stratum C-1a from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.39 - Plan of Stratum C-1b from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.40 - Plan of Buildings CG, CH, CM and apiary, Stratum C-1b from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.68 - Section 14 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.69 - Section 15 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.73 - Section 19 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.76 - Section 22 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.77 - Section 23 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.92 - Buildings CF, CW, and CG from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.127 - C-1 Building CG and C-2 Buildings CA and CB from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.128 - Tilted and Deformed Walls in Building CG from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.129 - Tilted and Collapsed Walls in Building CG from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.130 - Wood Beam Foundations in Building CG from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.131 - Destruction and slippage of lower brick courses in Room 2441 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.132 - Destruction and slippage of lower brick courses in Room 2441 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.133 - Collapse of Wall 2439 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.134 - Foundation trench of C-1 Wall 1416 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.135 - Brick collapse from C-1b Building CG from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)

Discussion
  • Plans: Figs. 12.18–12.19, 12.39–12.40
  • Sections: Figs. 12.68–12.69, 12.73, 12.76–12.77
  • Photos: 12.92, 12.127–12.135;
  • Pottery: Figs. 13.52–13.55
Introduction

Building CG (Squares T–Y/2–4) was a narrow rectangular structure, measuring externally 3.4×8.9 m, with massive walls wider than those of other buildings (recalling the double walls of back-to-back units) (Photos 12.5, 12.8, 12.127). Both the external and the internal walls were 0.9 m wide, composed of two rows of bricks, one laid widthwise and one lengthwise, a building technique found so far almost exclusively in this building. The walls were composed of hard-packed light and dark gray bricks and were exposed just under topsoil.

The building contained three small square rooms that had no entrances and were apparently accessed from above. The floor space of each room was 2.5–2.7 sq m. It is possible that this building had a second story. Although the amount of debris and fallen bricks found here did not seem to justify this, we must take into account that much of this material was eroded and disappeared from this high point of the lower mound.

The only discernible change in this building between Strata C-1b and C-1a took place in its southernmost room, while only one phase was detected in the other two rooms. The buildings adjoining Building CG underwent alteration in C1a. In Stratum C-1b, Building CM abutted it on the east, Building CH on the south, the apiary on the southeast, and the open area south of Building CD on the west. In Stratum C-1a, although still adjoining Building CE on the north, the areas to the east and west of Building CG became open spaces (Piazza 2417 to the east and Piazza CK to the west).

The two outer walls on the west and east (1416, 2411) ran parallel to each other on an almost straight north–south line, while the northern (2453) and southern (2439) walls of the building were slightly skewed, running on a southwest–northeast line; on the north, this was the same angle as that of Building CE, which adjoined it. The sharp angles of the short walls (especially in the northern part of the structure) give the plan a slightly irregular shape.

The building was constructed on top of the ruins of Building CB of Stratum C-2: the western wall (1416) was built over Wall 2505, 0.3 m to its east (Figs. 12.16, 12.68–12.69, Photos 12.31– 12.34) and the southern wall (2439) was built over the southern part of the entrance in Wall 2505 (Photo 12.32). Room 2444 covered Wall 2481 of C2 (Photo 12.38). All the walls were preserved ca. ten courses high and had wooden beams in their foundations (Photos 12.128–12.133). The massive construction of the interior and exterior walls was apparently related to the surmised function as a granary or storage building.

Building CG — Stratum C-1b

Room 2460

The northernmost room (internal measurements 1.5–1.6×1.6 m; ca. 2.56 sq m) contained fallen ceiling material and hard vitrified brick debris (2449), some of it burnt to a powdery lime, to a total depth of 1.2 m above the assumed floor at level 86.40 m. Although excavation proceeded past the foundation level of the walls, no clear floor matrix was detected and the assumed floor (2460) was determined only on the basis of the location of the finds and the floating level of the walls (Fig. 12.76). Unlike the other rooms in this building, no charred wood was found here below the floor level.

This small room contained 22 vessels of various types (Figs. 13.52–13.55), many of them very burnt. Twenty-eight stone loomweights were found, concentrated mainly in the southwestern corner of the room. No grain was found in this room, although a large amount was found in the other two rooms. The small size of this chamber and the lack of an entrance indicated that this large collection of varied pottery vessels and objects was apparently stored here, perhaps close to the time of destruction. As we assume that all three chambers in this building served as a granary, the use of this chamber for storage appears to be secondary, at a time when no grain was stored here.

Room 2444

The middle room of the building (2444) measured almost exactly the same as Room 2460 to its north (internal measurements 1.5×1.6 m; 2.4 sq m). Its southern wall (2429) had a 0.7 m wide gap in its five upper courses (not shown on the plan; Photo 12.127), although its southern face and bottom courses clearly showed that this was a solid wall. This gap appears to have been intentional, perhaps used as a storage niche or it was an elevated opening, similar to those in the square granary rooms at Tel Hadar (Kochavi 1999: 181, Fig. 2).

A light-colored clay layer which appears to have been the floor (2444, 86.60 m) was defined as such mainly based on its position at the foundation of the walls, the wooden beams underneath it, and the destruction debris (2425) resting on it, including a large amount of grain. Just below the floor level, a round wooden beam was incorporated in the foundation of Wall 1416, running 1.3 m from the northwestern corner of the room to the south, where it branched out to protrude into the room for 0.25 m. Round wooden beams (average diameter 0.10–0.15 m) were also placed in the foundation of Wall 2411 on the east (Fig. 12.77). However, as opposed to the beam in Wall 1416, these were laid perpendicular to the wall and protruded into the room up to 1.5 m, just below the floor level; they included tree trunks and branches, as well as some worked beams (Fig. 12.41; Photo 12.130). As noted above, these same wooden beams were visible in the eastern face of Wall 2411. It thus can be seen that the wood was laid in preparation for the construction of the walls and floors and constituted a well-planned system. Under the charred wood that extended from the foundation of Wall 2411 into the room was a single course of bricks (2478) running north–south, serving as a kind of support, above which a shallow fill was laid. These bricks appeared to have been intentionally removed from C-2 Wall 2481, which ran under the northern end of this room, and served as a sub-floor constructional element (Fig. 12.77; Photo 12.38).

The room was full of fallen ceiling material and extremely burnt debris, including ashes and complete fallen bricks, burnt to white and yellow vitrification and to a powdery consistency (2425), which were found especially in the southwestern part of the room, at a total depth of 1.0 m. At 86.80–86.90 m, a large concentration of charred grain (about 2.0 kg) was found in the southwestern corner and against the northern face of Wall 2429. The only other finds in this room were fragments of a bowl (Fig. 13.52:10) and sherds of a large Hippo storage jar (Fig. 13.55:18), indicating that its main function might have been grain storage, used as a kind of a ‘chamber-bin’. The grains were identified as wheat (Chapter 53) and were subjected to a series of 14C dating. One measurement from Locus 2444 (Sample R30) provided the dates 928–858 BCE (1σ) and 970–846 BCE (2σ); a second date appears to be too high. Samples R31–R34 from Locus 2425 were measured with 21 repetitions in four laboratories; the average calibrated date was 898–844 BCE (1σ) and 906–837 BCE (2σ) (see data and discussion in Chapter 48).

Room 2441

The southern room is reconstructed as having been identical to the two complete northern rooms. With the reconstructed southeastern corner, Room 2441 measured internally ca. 1.6×1.7 m (2.7 sq m), very similar to the room to its north. However, most of the eastern and southern walls of this room had collapsed towards the southeast (Figs. 12.69, 12.72; Photo 12.133), leaving only stumps, each 0.7 m long: Wall 2439 on the south and the end of Wall 2411 on the east (Photo 12.127). Note that the eastern end of Wall 2439, as preserved, ends in a straight vertical line (Photos 12.127, 12.143). This straight ending raised a suspicion that this was a door jamb of an opening leading to the room from Building CH on the south. However, this is not certain, since the lower courses of the wall are seen fallen in the same collapse that is attributed to Stratum C-1b. It might be that this supposed entrance belonged to a rebuild of this room in Stratum C-1a, although this is far from certain.

Both the floor and the walls of this room were constructed above a 1.3 m-deep layer of fill and wood which apparently was laid as a leveler and stabilizer on top of the C-2 remains below (Photos 12.128–12.129). This deep wooden construction was composed of four to five layers of alternating lengthwise and widthwise wooden beams (2470, 2471, 4421; Fig. 12.42a–c; Photos 12.131–12.133). The upper layer of wood, with nicely worked rounded beams, some reaching over 1.0 m long, was mostly laid on a north–south axis (2470; Photo 12.143). The two lowest layers of this wood (2471, 4421) were mostly laid on an east–west axis (Photo 12.133). Notably, most of the lower level of this sub-floor wooden construction was horizontal, as opposed to the higher levels of the wood, which sloped down towards the east, having collapsed with the southeastern corner of the room. Although the lower layers of wood under the floor penetrated down deeper than the wood in the foundations of Walls 1416 and 2439, and were found on the level of the entranceway in C-2 Wall 2505 (Photos 12.32–12.33, 12.128–12.129), they should be attributed to the construction of Building CG in Stratum C-1b. The reasons for this are:

  1. The entrance in C-2 Wall 2505 was intentionally filled in and leveled off with a wooden beam when C-1b Wall 1416 was built; this beam was on the same level as the uppermost wood in Locus 2470.

  2. The wooden beams would have obstructed passageway through this entrance and thus, they could not have been used in C-2.

  3. The wooden construction was concentrated between the line just to the east of Wall 1416 and the eastern face of Wall 2411, indicating that all these elements were built at the same time.

  4. The lowest wooden construction was on the same level as the foundation of Wall 2429, seen on its southern face (85.80 m), and Wall 2411, seen on its southern end (85.90 m).

  5. The construction of Wall 1416 cut the eastern end of Stratum C-2 Wall 1483, with a clearly visible foundation trench (Photo 12.134). Thus, the wood in the foundation of Wall 1416 postdated the Stratum C-2 walls, including 2505.
In the severely burnt destruction debris of fallen bricks and wood in Room 2441 were 57 restorable vessels of various types (Figs. 13.52–13.55), as well as other finds (Table 12.19), and a concentration of burnt grain. All the finds were concentrated within the area enclosed by the surmised lines of the collapsed walls and did not continue to the east or south. This further supports the idea that this originally had been a closed room like the two others in this building. The destruction debris rested on a layer of powdery white lime that apparently had been the floor; this floor was found to be horizontal on the west (86.30 m), but fallen towards the east, underneath the brick collapse described above (Photo 12.131). The lowest level to which this white floor was traced was 85.05 m (2471), just in the area where the assumed southeastern corner of the room is reconstructed. Most of the restorable pottery vessels were found in the collapse down to the east, so that their levels were below that of the horizontal section of the white floor in the west, but they were clearly related to this floor.

The collapse of the southeastern corner of Room 2441 created a huge pile of fallen bricks, 3.0 m high (Photos 12.131–12.133), that collapsed on the floor of the northwestern corner of the apiary, which was ca. 1.3 m lower than the foundation of the walls. The discrepancy between the foundation levels of the walls of Room 2441 and the bottom of the collapse might indicate the existence of a basement or some other hollow space below this room, perhaps enclosed on the west by Wall 2505, reused from Stratum C-2. The layers of charred wood found here may have been related to the construction of such a basement, as in Building CH (see below), and it might have been open towards the apiary on the east and south.

It was difficult to securely determine whether this collapse occurred as a result of human activity (war, unintentional burning, etc.) or was caused by a severe earthquake. The latter possibility seems more likely, based on paleomagnetic testing (Chapter 54). This destruction by fire and collapse is attributed to the end of Stratum C-1b. Five 14C dates measured on the grain found in the collapse layer (Chapter 48, Sample R26) provided the following calibrated average dates: 926–898 BCE (1σ) and 970–850 BCE (2σ). These early dates fit the destruction of Stratum C-1b, as confirmed also by dates from the apiary to the east

Building CG — Stratum C-1a

Since the two northern rooms of Building CG did not suffer the same severe collapse as Room 2441, the possibility exists that they continued to be in use during Stratum C-1a (Fig. 12.50). An indication for this is the fact that Piazza 2417 on the east and Piazza CK on the west, both of Stratum C-1a, abutted this building. The floors of the courtyards were at levels 87.55–87.75 m, 1.2–1.4 m higher than the original floors inside these two chambers. There are two possibilities to explain this stratigraphic situation. The first is that the floors of Stratum C-1b continued to be in use in Stratum C-1a and the rooms were approached from above, as in the previous occupation level. In that case, the destruction debris in Rooms 2460 and 2444, with its pottery and the charred grain that was measured for 14C dates, would be explained as belonging to the last use of the rooms in Stratum C-1a. The other possibility is that a new floor was constructed in Stratum C-1a above this destruction debris, which would then be attributed to the end of Stratum C-1b in these two rooms. Such a floor, which was not preserved, would have been at a level higher than 87.70 m (the preserved top of the walls) and might have disappeared due to erosion. We thus leave this question open, although it is of crucial importance for dating, due to the large number of 14C dates from the central room (Loci 2425, 2444) mentioned above. It should be noted that the loci numbers of floors and destruction layers appear only in the plan of Stratum C-1b, thus accepting the second possibility; the first possibility would require presenting these numbers in the plan of Stratum C-1a as well. However, since a final verdict is impossible, the loci in these two rooms are tentatively defined as belonging to Stratum C-1b, although we are aware of the alternative.

Evidence for partial rebuild of the southern room (2441) in Stratum C-1a can possibly be seen in the two upper courses of Wall 2441 close to its southern end; while the entire wall suffered from severe slippage of the bricks, these two upper course were not burnt and were laid horizontally above the burnt and tilted courses below (Photos 12.127, 12.131–12.132, 12.159, 12.160). This raises the possibility that these two courses represent a rebuild of the wall in Stratum C-1a. It should, however, be emphasized that there are no other stratigraphic indications for such a phase in this room, such as a higher floor, although such a floor could have existed close to topsoil and had been eroded away, as possible in the two northern rooms.

In the area east of Building CG, and above the collapse from this building that sealed the apiary, a leveling fill (5430, 4408; Squares Y/1–2) was laid in preparation for the construction of Building CL in Stratum C-1a; Wall 4443 of that building had a foundation trench that cut this fill (Fig. 12.74; Photos 12.135, 12.144). This stratigraphic evidence to the east of Building CG, but clearly related to it, supports our conclusion that the building was founded in Stratum C-1b, destroyed at the end of this stratum, along with Building CH and the apiary, and reused (partially?) in Stratum C-1a.

Building CM — Stratum C-1b

Plans, Sections, and Photos
Plans, Sections, and Photos

  • Figure 12.18 - Plan of Stratum C-1b from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.39 - Plan of Stratum C-1b from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.40 - Plan of Buildings CG, CH, CM and apiary, Stratum C-1b from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.75 - Section 21 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.78 - Section 24 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.79 - Section 25 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.136 - Stratigraphic section through walls in C-2 and C-1b from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.137 - Row of chalices along eastern face of Wall 2411 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.138 - Row of chalices along eastern face of Wall 2411 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.139 - C-1b Building CM from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.140 - Cracked Cooking Jar on the floor in C-1b Building CM from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.141 - C-1b Building CM from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)

Discussion
  • Plans: Figs. 12.18, 12.39–12.40;
  • Sections: Figs. 12.75, 12.78–12.79
  • Photos 12.136–12.142
  • Pottery: Figs. 13.49–13.51
Introduction

Building CM (Squares Y–Z/3) was a unit to the south of Building CF and to the east of Building CG (Photo 12.127), built above the C-2 remains here. It adjoined the apiary on the north and, since the partition wall between them was quite flimsy, it is possible that Building CM was related to the apiary in some functional way, despite the difference in floor levels: 86.20 m in the northern and central part of Building CM and 84.55–84.60 m in the northern part of the apiary. It seems that Wall 9453 of Building CZ (exposed only along its eastern face in Squares A/2–3) was the eastern border of Building CM. The floor inside the western part of Building CZ (84.90 m) was lower by 0.35 m than that in the eastern part of Building CM (85.20 m) and 1.35 m lower than that identified in the western part of Building CM (86.20 m), and it is possible that there was a terraced effect here, following a natural downslope from west to east.

The external measurements of Building CM were ca. 7.8 m×9.0 m, depending on the western and eastern boundaries, which were not entirely clear. It included a small room (4446) in its northwestern corner, a larger space to its south (4445) and possibly an open space (5441, 5442) in its east. Access to the building was most likely from the western end of the street that we assume ran in Squares Z, A–C/4 to the northeast of the building.

Building CM ended in a fierce fire. It went out of use in Stratum C-1a and was covered by a courtyard (2417), whose floor was 1.35 m higher than the floors in this building. It is noteworthy that this was one of the few places where a clear distinction could be made between Strata C-2, C-1b and C-1a.

Room 4446

The northwestern room (4446) was poorly preserved (internal measurements 2.0×2.9 m, 5.8 sq m) (Photos 12.136–12.138). Its walls were composed of crumbly brownish-gray bricks with light gray mortar lines. The western wall of the room (4432) was built above Stratum C-2 Wall 4516 (Fig. 12.75), but continued further to the south, running a total of 4.0 m until it terminated rather abruptly just past its corner with Wall 4411. It ran parallel to the eastern face of Wall 2411 of Building CG, with a 0.2 m gap between them; the foundation heights of the two walls were identical, suggesting that they were constructed together. Yet, unlike Wall 2411, which was standing to a height of 1.5 m, due to its being in continuous use in both Strata C-1b and C-1a, Wall 4432 was preserved only 0.25–0.35 m high, aside from a lone stump that was 0.65 m higher than the rest of the wall (Photo 12.136); this stump was located precisely in the balk between Squares Y/3 and Y/4. It is not clear why it was left standing so high, when the rest of the wall was razed.

Along the eastern face of Wall 2411 was a row of nine chalices (4424) (Fig. 13.49:9–17; Photo 12.138). Two (one intact) were found near the northern end of Wall 4432 (just north of the abovementioned stump), while six more were found running 2.0 m to the south. The chalices were revealed just at the level of the preserved top of Wall 4432, leading to the conclusion that they were placed there following the razing of this wall. Their position exactly in the gap between Walls 4432 and 2411, as well as the higher preservation of the stump, suggests that they might have been a deliberate deposit, perhaps related to some ritual following the destruction of Stratum C-1b.

The northern wall of the building (4479) created a double wall with Wall 4413 of Building CF. Wall 4479 was 8.7 m long, preserved to a height of 1.3 m, and was very burnt. The northwestern corner of Building CM was part of a massive construction, where the corners of four buildings (CE, CF, CG and CM) met. This dense corner in Square Y/4 was a meeting point between Walls 1473, 4479, 4432 and 2454; each of these walls had its own end or face and they abutted one another, indicating that although each belonged to separate buildings, all were built in consideration of each other. As in most other Stratum C-1b walls, wooden beams were incorporated in the foundations of Walls 4432 and 4479. While only a few pieces were noted in the northern end of Wall 4432, the wood in the foundation of Wall 4479 was dense and composed of small rounded beams laid perpendicular to the line of the wall at closely spaced intervals (Photos 12.136–12.137); see Wall 6444 in Building CW and Wall 1437 in Building CH for a similar configuration (Fig. 12.46; Photo 12.145). A unique feature of the wood in Wall 4479 was that it was laid above the lowest two brick courses, rather than at the very bottom of the wall. This somewhat recalls the situation with Wall 2411 in Building CG, where the wooden beams in its foundation were laid on bricks (2478), as described above.

The eastern wall of the room in Stratum C-1b was Wall 4433, which abutted Wall 4479. This wall was 0.8 m wide and was composed of a row of bricks laid lengthwise and one row widthwise, recalling the walls in Building CG. The wall was poorly preserved on both its southern end and its eastern face; it seems that it terminated just about at the line of the balk between Squares Y/3–4, and it is possible that its southern end originally had an entrance that led into the room. The southern closing wall of this room (4411) was very poorly preserved. The room contained several layers of debris (4417, 4430, 4446). While no clear floor was detected, its lowest layer (4446) was on the same level (86.19 m) as Floor 4445 to the south of Wall 4411. These loci, which lacked traces of destruction, might have been a fill that leveled off the area in preparation for the construction of Piazza 2417 in Stratum C-1a.

Space 5441/5442

In the area to the east of Room 4446 was a floor (5441, 5442) at level 86.25–86.30 m. In the north, Floor 5442 contained a concentration of crushed travertine in its center. In the south, Floor 5441 was made of soft pink plaster; a smooth flat-topped pink mizi limestone and a complete storage jar (Fig. 13.51:3) turned upside down were found on this floor. While the northern end of this floor was horizontal, it sloped down towards the south (Fig. 12.78); this slope may possibly be related to the lower southern end of the building, described below. As noted above, it is not known whether this space continued to the east up to Building CZ, as the area between them remained mostly unexcavated (Square Z/3). It might have been an open courtyard, although enclosing walls may be hidden in the unexcavated area in Squares Z/3–4.

Room 4445

To the south of Wall 4411 was a space (4445; Photos 12.127, 12.139–12.142) that ran 3.2 m to the south until Wall 8469, the flimsy narrow wall that bordered the apiary (Fig. 12.78). An interesting feature was a pronounced drop down towards the south, visible in the eastern face of the southern end of Wall 2411 of Building CG, where it bordered Room 4445 (Photo 12.139); this apparently was the result of the same seismic activity that caused the collapse of the southeastern corner of Building CG, described above. The wooden beams laid in the foundation of Wall 2411 that were visible in the matrix of 4445, penetrated under the wall into Building CG to the west, as described above.

The northern and central part of Room 4445 contained very burnt brick debris (4441) on top of a beaten-earth floor (4445, level 86.20 m) (Photo 12.139). An oval-shaped installation built of hard dark gray clay (4448) was built on this floor, just against the southern face of Wall 4411; the gray clay of the installation continued along the southern face of Wall 4411, indicating their contemporaneity. The installation was ca. 0.7 m long, 0.4 m wide, preserved 0.28 m high; it contained a complete cooking jug (Fig. 13.50:4; Photos 12.139–12.140). Another installation related to Floor 4445 was a small bin made of reddish clay and lined with wood (4449) in the southwestern part of this area, built against the eastern face of Wall 2411 (Photo 12.139).

From the line of Installation 4449 until the southern end of the building, the floor was not clear and, in its stead, was a dense concentration of charred wood, 1.0 m wide (4456, 8443, 8447), abutting Wall 8469. Just north of this pile, and east of Installation 4449, was a large stone (Photos 12.139, 12.141–12.142). This strip of charred wood, composed mostly of tree trunks and branches, was set into a reddish layer (8471) (Fig. 12.78). The bottom of this reddish layer (85.30 m) was 0.9 m lower than the floor in the northern part of this room, suggesting that this area might have been dug out to accommodate the wood pile. This strip of charred wood might have been either part of a sub-floor construction or was related to the construction of Wall 8469, which enclosed the apiary to the south (see below). The goal of this wood was perhaps to support the gap created by the 1.6 m height difference between the floor of this space and that of the apiary to the south. Thus, the strip of wood, together with Wall 8469, may be explained as a kind of revetment for the lower terrace on which the apiary was constructed to the south. The eastern part of the wood concentration (8443, 8447) contained many fallen bricks, burnt debris and a thick layer of phytolith (Photo 12.142), inside of which was the lower part of a very large krater (Fig. 13.50:1) and several loomweights.

At the eastern end of Room 4445 was a short north–south line of bricks (8441) standing only two courses high; its northern end terminated in a complete brick, while its southern end appears to have been cut (Photo 12.142). Although these bricks were on line with the middle row of hives in the apiary to the south, no connection between them was found. This segment of bricks could have been a low partition or part of a wall that had been dismantled.

Probe in Square Z/3

To the east of Wall 8441, a probe in the eastern part of Square Z/3 revealed a layer of destruction debris, fallen bricks, wood and phytolith (11429) that rested on a reddish layer (11450) at 85.20 m and abutted Wall 8469 (very poorly preserved here; Photo 12.160), a sequence similar to that in the south of Room 4445. It seems that this was the continuation of the wood and reddish debris layer in the south of that room and might have been related to the eastern row of hives in the apiary, revealed to its south. Most probably, this matrix abutted the western face of Wall 9453 and its corner with Wall 8469, although the point of contact remained unexcavated.

Building CH — Stratum C-1b

Plans, Sections, and Photos
Plans, Sections, and Photos

  • Figure 12.18 - Plan of Stratum C-1b from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.39 - Plan of Stratum C-1b from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.40 - Plan of Buildings CG, CH, CM and apiary, Stratum C-1b from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.70 - Section 16 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.72 - Section 18 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.73 - Section 19 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.74 - Section 20 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.143 - C-1b Building CH from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.144 - Collapsed and Tilted Walls along a lineament from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.145 - Wood foundations from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.146 - Collapsed Wall from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.147 - Collapsed Wall from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.148 - Wooden Construction from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.149 - Wooden Construction from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)

Discussion
  • (Plans: Figs. 12.18, 12.39–12.40, 12.44
  • Sections: Figs. 12.70, 12.72–12.74
  • Photos 12.3, 12.143–12.149;
  • Pottery: Figs. 13.56–13.59
Introduction

Building CH was comprised of two excavated rooms (2455, 2451) that adjoined Building CG on the south (Squares Y–Z, A/1–2, 20) (Photo 12.143); its southern part was beyond the limit of the excavation and to its east was the apiary. This structure apparently functioned as a service wing for the apiary, perhaps used for the processing of the products and/or for administrative work (Fig. 12.47). Its floors were ca. 1.75 m higher than those of the apiary itself, although both were contemporary and related. All the walls of this building were composed of light and dark gray bricks, incorporating sporadic yellow bricks. Along the eastern edge of the two rooms was a sub-floor construction of wooden beams laid in two to three layers that joined the rooms to the apiary floor below, described below.

The western wall (1438) of Building CH, which was also the eastern wall of Building CJ, was exposed along 7.5 m and continued to the south beyond the limit of the excavation. It was built on top of C-2 Wall 2468 (Photos 12.45, 12.143) and had wooden beams incorporated in its foundation, mostly in its northern part (Figs. 12.72–12.74). The northern wall (1437) was the continuation of the northern wall of Building CJ. It terminated on the east just on line with the southern wall (2439) of Building CG, which it abutted. To the east of this was a massive collapse of burnt bricks fallen down towards the east (Fig. 12.72; Photo 12.144), representing the collapsed end of this wall and of the southeastern corner of Building CG, as described above. Wall 1437 had many small round wooden beams in its foundation, set perpendicular to the wall in two layers, above the preserved top of C-3 Wall 4495 (Fig. 12.72; Photos 12.144–12.145).

The eastern part of Building CH collapsed down onto the floor of the apiary, evoking the southeastern end of Building CG to the north. This collapsed eastern part of Building CH was superimposed by the western wing of Building CL of Stratum C-1a (Photos 12.143–12.144, 12.146– 12.147, 12.149). Although none was found, it is possible that there had been an eastern closing wall to Rooms 2455 and 2451, built above the wood, that collapsed entirely. Alternatively, some wooden partition might have closed off this end of the room that faced the apiary, as it is difficult to imagine that the upper rooms were simply open to the east, on a higher level than the apiary floor below.

The two excavated rooms of Building CH were separated by Wall 2426, which extended 3.0 m to the east of Wall 1438, until it was cut by the foundation trench of Wall 2413, the western wall of Building CL (Photos 12.146–12.147, 12.149). No entrance between the two rooms was found; perhaps such a connection had been located further to the east, or each was accessed separately from the apiary by way of wooden ladders or brick steps. Wall 2426 was built on top of the northern face of C-2 Wall 2465 (Photo 12.148). It was horizontal on its western end, but 1.0 m from its corner with Wall 1438, it collapsed towards the east at an acute angle; the difference between the level and fallen parts of the wall was 0.5 m (Fig. 12.74; Photos 12.146–12.147). The bricks from this wall fell onto the apiary floor and were subsequently covered on their eastern end by Building CL of Stratum C-1a, as noted above. The stratigraphic sequence in this area is very clear and, in fact, determined the attribution of Building CH to Stratum C-1b.

While the eastern part of Building CH was covered by Building CL in Stratum C-1a, its western part remained in ruins, apparently an open area that was not accessed from Building CL and was perhaps used for refuse. However, Wall 1438, the western wall of the building, continued to be in use in Stratum C-1a as the eastern wall of Building CJ (described above).

The Wooden Construction

Below the destruction debris in the eastern part of the rooms was a unique construction of wood, two to three layers deep, 1.4 m wide, and running north to south along 10 m, the entire exposed length of the building, from the southern balk of Square Y/1 (where it continued to the south beyond the limit of the excavation) up to Wall 1437 and the subsidiary balk to its east in Square Y/2, where it intersected with the perpendicular beams in the foundation of Wall 1437 (Figs. 12.45–12.46; Photos 12.3, 12.143–12.144, 12.146, 12.148–12.149). The wood continued to the north under Wall 1437 and apparently ran under Wall 2439 (collapsed at this point) to join with the sub-floor wood in Room 2441 in Building CG, showing that the two buildings had been constructed at the same time.

The wood that ran along the eastern edge of Rooms 2451 and 2455 was obviously constructed before the floors were laid and before Wall 2426 was built. Just north of Wall 2426, the strip of wood cut C-2 Wall 2465. The eastern part of the wooden construction sloped down towards the east, particularly in the southern part (Square Y/1); the height of the top of the wood in the west was 86.25 m, while the height of its top in the east was 85.50 m, a 0.75 m difference over 1.4 m. The wood was comprised mostly of tree trunks and branches, all found charred and carbonized.

In the northern room (2455), the wood was laid in two layers, with a 0.2 m-deep reddish fill between them; the uppermost layer ran north–south and was composed of relatively large beams, while the layer below, less well defined, ran both north– south and east–west, creating a kind of a weave. There was a 1.0 m gap between this strip of wood and the wood in the foundation of Wall 1438 (Figs. 12.45–12.46; Photos 12.144, 12.148). No wood was found to the east of this strip and it was laid on top of layer of whitish material, possibly very burnt wood or bricks, located directly above the preserved tops of Stratum C-3 Walls 4495 and 4496. It is suggested that these walls served as a support for the wood (see further below).

In the southern room (2451), the wood construction consisted of three tiers whose eastern part was markedly stepped (Photo 12.149). Like in Room 2455, the wood was laid alternately north– south and east–west (Fig. 12.45) and did not join with the wood in Wall 1438, except for one beam that protruded from the wall in the northwestern corner of the room. Like in the northern room, underneath the wood was a white layer which was laid on top of a Stratum C-3 gray-brick wall (4480).

Two alternatives are suggested to explain this construction. The first is that this descent could have been wooden steps, wood that supported brick steps, or a sloping ramp, leading down to the apiary floor on the east. This suggestion is supported by the relatively orderly manner in which the tiers of wood were laid (Fig. 12.45; Photos 12.143–12.144, 12.146, 12.148). The alternative explanation is that the wood, as found, was fallen, and that originally it had served as a roof and support beams of a hollow space below it, forming a basement in Building CH. Such a basement may have been bordered on the west by re-used C-3 Wall 4495 and perhaps by a wood construction built on that wall, while in the east, it could have been left open towards the apiary, with only a few wooden posts supporting the roof (see suggested reconstruction in Fig. 12.47c). The eastern part of Wall 2426 could have been partly built above this basement, which would explain its sharp collapse towards the east, to a level below its foundation further west (Fig. 12.74). The destruction of this structure and the bricks of Wall 2426 and their collapse into the apiary, created the slope of this layer as found. The height of this basement can be calculated by comparing the floor to the west (2451, 1515, levels 86.20–86.40 m) to the top level of the gray walls of Stratum C-3 (4480, 4495, 4496) that were found below the charred beams (85.14–84.85 m), since we surmise that these walls served as a support for this basement. This difference in levels (maximum 1.55 m) should also include the floor of the basement and the thickness of the wood construction that supported the floor above it, that later collapsed. Thus, the subfloor space itself could not have been more than ca. 1.0 m high. According to this reconstruction, this basement could have had two components: 1) underneath the northern room (2455), a narrow space located in the area above Stratum C-3 Walls 4495 and 4496 (Fig. 12.47a) and 2) underneath the southern room (2451), a narrow space that would have been open towards the apiary (Fig. 12.47b). Alternatively, it is possible that this entire area was one long space, possibly continuing to the north into Building CG, as suggested above (Fig. 12.47d). The roof of this alcove would have been the collapsed tiers of wood on the eastern end of the wooden construction in the south. The low ceiling of this basement would suggest that these spaces could have served for storage of commodities in containers. The postulated space below Room 2441 of Building CG (described above) might have been a continuation of the same phenomenon.

Room 2451

The southern room (2451) was at least 3.3 m from north to south, as its southern border was beyond the limits of the excavation (Photos 12.143, 12.149). Like the room to the north, the eastern end collapsed to the east and was covered by Stratum C-1a Building CL.

The floor of this room was identical to that of Room 2455, both in its composition of burnt powdery white lime and the reddish sub-floor material, as well as the strip of wooden beams on its eastern end. Here too, it is surmised that below the floor in this room there was a basement, as described above.

On the floor was a thick layer of destruction debris with fallen bricks, ceiling material, charcoal and ash, concentrated mainly in the west and south of the room. Fifteen vessels were found in this room (of which only a part was excavated), as well as other finds (Table 12.21).

The Apiary — Stratum C-1b

Plans, Sections, and Photos
Plans, Sections, and Photos

  • Figure 12.39 - Plan of Stratum C-1b from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.40 - Plan of Buildings CG, CH, CM and apiary, Stratum C-1b from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.44 - Plan of Building CH and apiary from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.73 - Section 19 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.80 - Section 26 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.81 - Section 27 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.82 - Section 28 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.83 - Section 29 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.84 - Section 30 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.85 - Section 31 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.86 - Section 32 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.87 - Section 33 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.150 - General view of C-1b apiary from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.151 - Another view of C-1b apiary from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.152 - Another view of C-1b apiary from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.153 - Tilted Wall 5453 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.154 - Collapsed western part of Wall 8469 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.155 - Collapsed bricks in western end of Wall 8469 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.156 - North-central and northwestern part of apiary from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.157 - Tilted Wall 8469 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.158 - View of the apiary from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.159 - Central and western part of the apiary from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.160 - Northern end of the apiary from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)

Discussion
  • Plans: Figs. 12.39–12.40, 12.44
  • Sections: Figs. 12.73, 12.80–12.87
  • Photos 12.8, 12.150–12.160; additional illustrations in Chapter 14A
  • Pottery: Figs. 13.60–13.67
Introduction

The area to the east of Building CH in Squares Y– Z, A/1–2, 20 was occupied by an apiary of industrial scope, which included three north–south rows of unfired clay hives, separated by elongated aisles. The stratigraphy and general spatial organization of the apiary will be described below, while the structure and makeup of the hives, as well as additional details and illustrations, are presented in Chapter 14A. Three scientific studies of the apiary are presented in Chapters 14B–14D, and discussions of the apiary’s operation, historical context, and ethnographic comparisons are presented in Chapter 14E.

The Borders of the Apiary

Due to the broad expanse of this space, as well as the very nature of the industry, which contained over a million bees, we assume that this had been an open area, although it is probable that each row of hives was roofed with thatch or other material, such as cloth or clay, to shield them from the intense heat in the summer or from the rains in the winter.

The apiary was bordered by Wall 9453 on the east, Building CH on the west, and Wall 8469 of Building CM on the north. It extended to the south beyond the limit of the excavation in Square Z/20 and thus, it measured 9.0–9.5 m from east to west and at least 13.0 m from north to south, an area of 117–123.5 sq m

The Eastern Side

The eastern wall of the apiary was Wall 9453, which was on line with Wall 6408 of the northeastern complex (Squares A/4–5; Fig. 12.18), demonstrating the integral city plan of Stratum C-1b. It was a well-built wall, preserved to five courses and very burnt, that ran for 16.4 m, serving as both the eastern wall of the apiary and the western wall of Building CP (early phase), while on its northern end (preserved to ten courses, not burnt), it was both the western wall of Building CZ and, most likely, the eastern wall of Building CM. Above it was C-1a Wall 9406, that served as the western wall of both Buildings CP and CQ3 (Fig. 12.82; Photos 12.152–12.153, 12.234). Wall 9453 was abutted on the west by the destruction debris and floor of the apiary (9451); a perpendicular wooden beam in its foundation extended into the floor. The southern end (in Square A/1; Fig. 12.39) contained a section with some irregular bricks, possibly an entrance leading to the lower phase of Building CP on the east (Photos 12.153, 12.234). Just at this point, it was abutted by a 2.0 m-long strip of narrow bricks fronted by a patch of small stones on the floor level that might have served as a step up to this entrance. The western face of the wall was covered with a hard brownish-yellow mud plaster, while its bricks were mostly brown and gray and of a very hard consistency, possibly due to the fire that engulfed this area

The Northern Side

Wall 8469 on the north of the apiary ran ca. 9.0 m from its junction with Wall 2411 of Building CG until its assumed corner with Wall 9453 on the east. This was not a regular wall, but rather a narrow, 0.35 m wide retaining wall or partition, perhaps constructed in conjunction with the deep strip of wood to its north (at the southern end of Building CM) described above, which both abutted the northern side of this wall and penetrated down to a level below its foundation (Fig. 12.78; Photos 12.142, 12.151, 12.154, 12.160). The wall was best preserved near its corner with Wall 2411 (top level 86.45 m), where it suffered severe collapse represented by a tumble of bricks (Photos 12.154–12.155). This suggests that at this point near Building CG, the wall was built of bricks as a regular wall, as opposed to its center and eastern end that adjoined the three rows of hives, where it appears to have been built of packed clay and not of actual bricks. This part was lower and extremely damaged, burnt to a pulverized white and pinkish color, and no brick courses could be discerned (Photos 12.156–12.157). The highest level of its central segment was just about on line with the highest preserved top of the hives (Photos 12.151, 12.156–12.157). Between the floating level of this wall and the apiary floor was a 0.15 m thick layer of brown-earth fill that also filled a narrow channel that ran along the southern face of the wall (Photos 12.151, 12.156, 12.159). The eastern end of Wall 8469, north of the eastern row of hives, was so poorly preserved that only a narrow strip of pulverized pinkish material could be identified, although a few complete fallen bricks to the west and east of these hives might have belonged to it (Photo 12.157). As mentioned above, Wall 8469 was most likely not a free-standing element, but rather a kind of buttress attached to the wood construction to its north, both creating a single, quite massive construction that separated Building CM on the north from the apiary to the south. This might have been due to the difference in level of 1.3–1.5 m between these two units, with Wall 8469 and the wood construction serving as kind of terrace or retaining wall between them.

The Northwestern Corner

The northwestern corner of the apiary was bordered by the southeastern corner of Building CG; part of the collapse of this corner was found on the apiary floor here. Wall 2411 was floating at level 85.90 m, much above the level of the apiary floor (Photos 12.158– 12.160). This is explained as the result of the construction of the apiary on a lower level, while penetrating into and removing Stratum C-2 remains, as noted above. The thick wooden construction in the foundation of the walls of Room 2441, the southern room of Building CG, might have been related to the need to buttress this height discrepancy or, as suggested above, could have been part of a subterranean space under the room that had faced the apiary.

The Western Side

Building CH bordered the apiary on the west, to the south of the aforementioned corner of Building CG. As described in detail above, its walls and floors were on a higher level than the apiary floor by some 1.7 m, built above a wooden construction that was founded on Stratum C-3 gray-brick walls (4480, 4495, 4496), creating a roofed area below Building CH, perhaps open towards the apiary on the east (Fig. 12.47c). The apiary floor ran up to the eastern faces of Walls 4480 and 4496 (Figs. 12.72–12.73; Photos 12.17, 12.158), and possibly to Wall 5483 on the south. A thin layer of eroded gray debris (4499) from these walls was found right on top of the floor (4469, 5440, 7481) in this southwestern section of the apiary (Figs. 12.86–12.87). It is surmised that when the builders of Building CH and the apiary dug down to this level, they encountered these earlier walls and reused them as a support for the wooden construction that bordered the building on the east and as the western edge of the apiary. In spite of the differences in the floor level of ca. 1.7 m, the apiary was most likely related to Building CH, which might have served as its service wing, as proposed above.

Thus, the apiary was surrounded (at least) on three sides by built units, and was established on a lower level than those structures on its west and north. On the east, it seems as though the adjoining units were built more or less on the same level, judging by the floor levels.

Stratigraphy

As noted above, no remains of Stratum C-2 were identified in the probe made below the apiary floor (Figs. 12.80, 12.82), and, in fact, C-3 walls were found directly relating to this floor (Figs. 12.72– 12.73). The reason for the lack of C-2 remains was most likely related to the low level of the apiary; it appears that the builders dug down to this level to create this broad cavity for their industry, obliterating all traces of the previous phase, until they encountered remains of an even earlier occupation, C-3, which they utilized to some degree, as described in detail above and below. It should be noted that Stratum C-2 remains were revealed east of the apiary under Building CZ (in Squares A– C/2–3 (Figs. 12.7, 12.15). Wall 11471 of Stratum C-2 was cut in this place by Wall 9453, which served as the eastern boundary of the apiary. Thus, Stratum C-2 remains were found to the north, west and east of the apiary, but not within its confines.

The fallen bricks and burnt debris found in the western part of the apiary, which originated in C-1b Buildings CG and CH, sloped down from west to east, while the same level of destruction debris found in the center and east of the apiary was horizontal (Figs. 12.73, 12.80, 12.83–12.87; Photos 12.150–12.151). Stratum C-1a Building CL was built directly above this ca. 1.0 m-deep layer of collapsed bricks and burnt destruction debris that covered the apiary (Photo 12.146) and thus, the attribution of the apiary to Stratum C-1b is secure.

The Apiary Floor

The level of the apiary floor ranged from 84.50– 84.70 m. It was composed of three different matrices (Photos 12.150–12.152, 12.158), all of which were covered by the same destruction debris and collapse (Figs. 12.73, 12.80–12.81, 12.83– 12.87).

The first type of floor was made of dark red smooth clay, found in the space between Wall 9453 and the eastern row of hives (8482, 9451; 84.55– 84.60 m) (Photos 12.152–12.158). It had many black burnt patches, especially on its northern end. In the center of this part of the floor was a hive (8500) that appeared to have fallen from the eastern row.

The second type of floor was made of very hard-packed crushed white tufa, 0.25 m thick, found in the aisle between the eastern and middle rows of hives and in the northern part of the aisle between the middle and western rows of hives (Fig. 12.82; Photos 12.152, 12.158). This floor was covered in part by a thin layer of soft reddish material, identical to the fill in other Stratum C-1b buildings in which the wood was set. It is notable that the hives were set ca. 0.15–0.3 m above this hard white floor and red layer, on top of a loose brown-earth fill that included many bones, some sherds and pieces of wood (Fig. 12.81; Photos 12.152, 12.156). This was the same material seen under the foundation of the northern wall (8469) and in a narrow channel running along its southern face (Photos 12.151, 12.159). The destruction debris in the apiary, including a large amount of collapsed bricks, rested directly on this floor. The very hard and thick matrix of this floor seems to have served a purpose related to the work in the hives, since it was concentrated mainly in that area. The reason for the fill between the floor and bottom of the hives must have been technical, related to drainage and ventilation; perhaps the large amount of bones in this fill served this purpose. In several places, particularly in the middle row of hives, we found evidence for charred beams that separated the hives from the floor, suggesting that in some places, the hives were located on a level raised by wood. Another interesting feature in the hard white floor between the middle and eastern rows (8436) was a sunken area adjoining the floating level of the three northernmost hives in the middle row and abutting the floating level of Wall 8469 to its north (Photos 12.156, 12.159). This sunken area measured 0.6×1.2 m and was 0.1 m deep; it was lined with the same hard white material as the floor showing that they were constructed together, and was filled with the same loose brown fill as the channel that ran alongside Wall 8469 and that was placed under the hives.

An enigmatic feature identified under the southern end of the middle row of hives (seen in the northern balk of Square Z/1) was a round area of eroded gray brick material, 0.5 m in diameter, which was cut into the hard white floor and penetrated into the upper pink layer of the Stratum C-3 accumulation under the apiary (Photo 12.20). It is possible that this was a pit, related in some way to the construction of the hives. This further supports the relationship between the hard white floor and the hives themselves.

The third floor type was a soft powdery matrix of vivid red color, found in the southwestern part of the apiary (Photos 12.8, 12.150–12.152, 12.158). It merged with the hard white floor just south of the western row of hives and west of the southern part of the middle row of hives (4469); it continued to the southwest (7481) to abut Walls 4495 and 4480, as well as to the southern part of the apiary in Squares Y–Z/20 (5440, 9455, 9458). In the probes excavated below the apiary floor in the area south of the three rows of hives (Squares Y–Z/1; Figs. 12.4, 12.82; Photos 12.19–12.20), it was seen that this red powdery layer continued to the east and south underneath the hard white tufa floor described above. It thus seems (as suggested above) that the tufa floor was laid above the soft red floor of Stratum C-3, possibly to provide a substantial, non-permeable surface for the hives and the related activity, while in the west, where there were no hives, there was no need for such a surface. The question remains whether the builders of the apiary reused the Stratum C-3 floor that they encountered (along with the gray-brick walls) when digging down to the level on which they intended to establish the apiary, or whether this was a new floor laid in Stratum C-1b when the apiary was built. Since there was no other floor below that abutted the C-3 gray walls, it seems that the former possibility is more viable. What is clear is that both types of floors — the hard white and the soft red — were used together for the duration of the operation of the apiary and were found covered with the same layer of fallen bricks, burnt debris and pottery.

Pits in the Red Floor

To the west of the middle row of hives in Squares Y–Z/1–2 were a number of pits that were dug from this red floor, as most of them were lined with this same material (Photos 12.150– 12.152, 12.158–12.159). Very little pottery was recovered from these pits (Fig. 12.62:4–13), aside from 8496, which contained a large amount of redpainted pottery and a few red-slipped and handburnished sherds. It is difficult to phase these pits and, ultimately, it depends whether the red floor was a Stratum C-1b addition or was originally laid in Stratum C-3 and reused.

These pits included (from north to south):

  • 8497 in Square Z/2, 0.45 m long, 0.15 m deep, elliptic; it contained gray debris, no finds; adjoined the white floor on the north and the red floor on the south.
  • 8493 in Square Y/2, 0.45 m deep, composed of a slightly higher round pit on the west (0.9 m in diameter) and a smaller round pit on the east (0.5 m in diameter), separated by a thin wall of the same red matrix as the floor. The western pit was lined with this red clay, but the smaller eastern pit was lined with soft brownish clay and had a burnt black line in its walls and bottom; it contained a layer of soft gray earth and ash with a few worn sherds.
  • 8495 in Square Y/1, 0.35 m deep, 0.65 m in diameter, round. The western part was lined with same red material as the floor, while the slightly lower eastern part contained eroded gray debris with a few sherds and bones.
  • 9427 in Squares Y/1–2, 0.3 m deep, 2.5 m long, roughly oval, abutted the reddish floor and was lined with the same material; it contained a very large amount of bones and a few sherds.
  • 8496 in Square Y/1, 0.2 m deep, 2.7 m long, amorphic, abutted the reddish floor, but was not lined with this material; it contained soft gray earth, brick debris and chunks and a very large amount of bones and sherds, many of which were red-painted (Fig. 13.62). On the southern end of this pit was a small rounded sunken area of darker gray color. This pit ran just along the top of the eastern face of C-3b Wall 9429 (Fig.12.5).
No clear floor was found in the northwestern part of the apiary; instead, there was a layer of soft gray earth (8444, 8498) between the western row of hives the collapsed southeastern corner of Building CG. Fallen bricks and burnt debris from this corner rested directly on this layer which must have been contemporary with the red floor (4469, 7481) to its south, based on the levels. On line with the southern end of the western row of hives, the powdery red floor (4469) was traced.

For the description of the apiary itself, and its operation, see Chapter 14A.

Building CZ — Stratum C-1b

Plans, Sections, and Photos
Plans, Sections, and Photos

  • Figure 12.18 - Plan of Stratum C-1b from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.39 - Plan of Stratum C-1b from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.48 - Plan of Building CZ, Stratum C-1b from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.89 - Section 35 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.90 - Section 36 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.91 - Section 37 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.92 - Section 38 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.94 - Section 40 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.95 - Section 41 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.161 - Southeastern part of Area C from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.162 - C-1b Building CZ from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.163 - C-1b Building CZ, southwestern room (11449) from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.164 - C-1b Building CZ, looking south at Wall 11427 below C-1a Wall 10482 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.165 - C-1b Building CZ, southeastern part from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.166 - C-1a Wall 10464 sealing the fallen bricks and debris on Floor 1142 of C-1b Building CZ from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.167 - Pillar bases of C-1a Building CX set directly on top of fallen bricks from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.168 - Layered Walls in C-1b Building CZ from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)

Discussion
  • Plans: Figs. 12.18, 12.39, 12.48
  • Sections: Figs. 12.89–12.92, 12.94–12.95
  • Photos 12.9, 12.161–12.168
  • Pottery: Fig. 13.51:17
Introduction

This building, only party excavated in Squares A– C/2–3, was composed of a central space flanked by two rooms on the western side and at least one room on the eastern side; it might be considered a variation of a courtyard house. Its borders on the north and east were beyond the limit of the excavation, yet it appears that it was bordered on the north by an unexcavated earlier phase of the Stratum C-1a street. In that case, it may be assumed that the building could not be much larger than the parts excavated. On the west, it was probably attached to Building CM, and its southwestern corner abutted the northeastern corner of the apiary. On the south, the neighboring building was the early phase of Building CP, with a double wall between the two (Photo 12.161). Its external measurements were at least ca. 7.5×12 m. In the southeastern corner of Building CZ was an opening leading south into Building CP (early phase) (Photos 12.165, 12.168).

The walls of Building CZ, built of gray and brown bricks, were well preserved in the western part, up to a height of up ten courses above the floors (Photo 12.163).

The Central Space

The central space of this building was bounded on the south by Wall 11421, on the southeast by Wall 10500, on the west by Wall 11407, and on the north probably by the continuation of Wall 11455, which is known only in the western part of the building. Since Wall 10500 cornered with Wall 10518 and did not continue to the north (Photos 12.161– 12.162, 12.164), a large L-shaped space was created, most likely an unroofed courtyard, which was 6.2 m from north to south, 3.6 m wide at its southern part, and at least 7.5 m from east to west in its northern part; it thus measured at least 41 sq. m.

Wall 11421 was first built in Stratum C-2 (see above) and was reused in Stratum C-1b, since the debris and floor (11422, 11442) related to this stratum abutted it above the debris attributed to Stratum C-2, some 0.5 m lower. The northern wall (11458) of the adjacent Building CP was built flush against Wall 11421; it was preserved three courses higher than Wall 11421 (Photos 12.165, 12.168) and, in fact, the layer of fallen bricks and debris that filled the courtyard abutted these top courses, as well as the top courses of Wall 11421. It seems that, at one point, the upper part of Wall 11421 had been removed in its center and eastern end, revealing the northern face of Wall 11458 and making it the southern border of this space.

The floor identified in the central part of the courtyard (11422, 11426, 11442) was composed of somewhat patchy red and gray striations that sloped down from east to west in the southern part near Wall 11421, but were horizontal in the northern part (north of the line of Wall 10518). In the southwestern corner of the courtyard, just east of the entrance into Room 11449 was a pit (11456) lined with very hard gray mud plaster; it contained only a few sherds. In the area to the north of Wall 10518 (the eastern segment of the L-shaped space) was a 0.9 m-deep layer of fallen bricks and burnt debris (11402, 11414) that contained a few grinding stone fragments and a small amount of bones and sherds, many of them red slipped and hand burnished. There was no clear floor makeup, so that the floor level (11408, 85.36 m) was determined mainly by the bottom of this debris; a two-sided mortar surrounded by three pestles was found on this lower level. Wall 10464 and the floor of Stratum C-1a Building CX sealed this layer (Photo 12.166) and, in fact, the pillar bases in the floor of Building CX were set directly into the fallen bricks and debris of the courtyard (Photo 12.167).

Room 11404

In the southeastern part of this building was Room 11404 (internal measurements 2.1×3.25 m; 6.8 sq m) (Photos 12.162, 12.165). The room was bounded on the south by Wall 11421 and on the north and west by Walls 10500 (1.3 m long) and 10518 (2.4 m long), the latter revealed directly below the floor of Stratum C-1a Building CX (Photos 12.176, 12.180–12.181). The eastern wall was not revealed, but it was most likely located close to the edge of the excavation, just below C-1a Wall 10490, continuing the line of the short segment of a wall (11479) revealed to the south in Square C/2, belonging to the early phase of Building CP (Fig. 12.39; Photos 12.165, 12.168).

This small room had three entrances. The western entrance, 0.8 m wide, led to the room from the southern part of the courtyard. The other two, also 0.8 m wide, were opposite each other on the eastern ends of Walls 10518 and 11421. The former led to the northeastern part of the L-shaped courtyard, while the latter led to Building CP (early phase) by way of an identical entrance in Wall 11458, the northern wall of that building (Photos 12.165, 12.168). The room with three openings is unparalleled in other buildings and may indicate some special function, possibly for transit between Buildings CZ and CP.

This room contained a large amount of fallen bricks with very few sherds and bones. The floor was not well defined, just like in Locus 11408 to the north, and was determined mainly by the bottom of the latter layer and the floating level of the L-shaped walls

The Western Wing–Rooms 11449 and 11457

The western wing of this unit contained two square rooms of identical size: Room 11449 on the south and Room 11457 on the north, each with internal measurements of 2.4×2.4 m; 5.8 sq. m (Photos 12.161, 12.163). The western boundary of both rooms was the northern continuation of Wall 9453, which was the wall between the apiary and the early phase of Building CP. A distinct fill (0.08 m thick) separated this wall from the Stratum C-1a wall above it (9406) (Fig. 12.95; Photo 12.163). Wall 11412 separated the two rooms and Wall 11407 bordered both on the east; openings in both ends of this wall led to the courtyard on the east. Wall 11455 bordered the northern room on the north and Wall 11427 on the south; both were superimposed by Stratum C-1a Walls 10472 and 10482 of Building CQ3, respectively (Photo 12.164).

The floors in the two western rooms were made of red clay and were 0.25–0.3 m lower than those in the eastern part of the building. They were covered by a 1.0 m-deep layer of complete and partial fallen bricks, burnt debris (11410 in the southern room and 11423 in the northern room; Fig. 12.94) with large fragments of charcoal and a large amount of sherds (particularly in the northern room). The pottery included many red-slipped and hand-burnished sherds, although in the northern room, a relatively large proportion of the pottery can be dated to Iron Age I (i.e., Fig. 13.161:2–4) and might have originated in earth dumped here as a fill between the fallen bricks, in preparation for the construction of Stratum C-1a Building CQ3. After removal of the floor of Room 11449, the top of an earlier wall (11471) built of hard yellow bricks was uncovered at level 84.85 m and attributed to Stratum C-2 (Fig. 12.14; Photo 12.163).

The floors of C-1a Building CQ3, located 1.45 m above those of Stratum C-1b, sealed the debris and the tops of the walls in these rooms (Photos 12.171, 12.173, 12.176). Notably, the floor level in these two rooms (84.85–84.90 m) was only 0.15– 0.2 m higher than the floor of the apiary that abutted the eastern face of Wall 9453, showing that this building was built on the same low level as the apiary, as opposed to the higher elevation of Buildings CM, CG and CH to its north and west.

It was deliberated whether Building CZ might be attributed to Stratum C-2 rather than to C-1b. In favor of this assessment were the following arguments: 1.) the building’s walls were preserved to 11–12 courses, just like other Stratum C-2 structures to the north and west (e.g., Building CB); 2.) its levels and stratigraphic situation were similar to those of nearby Room 6515 and other remains in Squares A–B/4–5, which we attributed to Stratum C-2 (Figs. 12.7, 12.12), although they were found right below C-1a Building CQ1, just as Building CZ was found just below C-1a Building CX; 3.) Building CZ was filled with fallen bricks and relatively empty of finds, like most C-2 structures. In contrast, the following arguments were in favor of the attribution of Building CZ to Stratum C-1b: 1.) it shared a wall (9453) with the apiary of Stratum C-1b; 2.) we assume that Building CX above it was founded in Stratum C-1a, since no traces of an earlier phase were identified in that building; 3.) while the walls of Stratum C-2 were composed of distinct hard yellow bricks, the walls of Building CZ were built of the typical gray and brown bricks found in Stratum C-1b; 4.) Wall 11471, found below the floor of the southeastern room of Building CZ (Fig. 12.15; Photo 12.163), was constructed of the C-2 brick type and apparently penetrated below Wall 9453 to its west.

This dilemna remains unsolved and both possibilities pose questions. If we attribute Building CZ to Stratum C-2, we would need to understand Wall 9453, the eastern boundary of the apiary, as a reused C-2 wall, and this has no other support, particularly in light of the lack of C-2 elements in the area of the apiary. We would also have to assume that either Building CZ continued to be in use in Stratum C-1b with insignificant changes, or that Building CX (the building above Building CZ) was first erected in Stratum C-1b, which too, lacks evidence (although we suggested the same concerning Buildings CQ1 and CQ2 which, in our view, were in use in both Strata C-1b and C-1a, based on elements such as wood in the foundations and subfloor striations that abutted the walls). The relatively small amount of pottery recovered from Building CZ is of types that exist in both Strata C-2 and C-1b, and thus does not help to decide the issue. Thus, we attribute Building CZ to Stratum C-1b and remain aware of the stratigraphic ambivalence.

Building CQ3 — Stratum C-1a

Plans, Sections, and Photos
Plans, Sections, and Photos

  • Figure 12.19 - Plan of Stratum C-1a from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.50 - Plan of Stratum C-1a, south-center and southeast from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.51 - Plan of Buildings CQ3 and CX, Stratum C-1a from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.88 - Section 34 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.94 - Section 40 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.95 - Section 41 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.169 - General view of Area C from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.170 - General view of southeastern part of Area C from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.171 - C-1a Building CQ3 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.172 - C-1a Building CQ3; wooden beams below bricks in threshold of Wall 9406 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.173 - C-1a Building CQ3, southern part of Room 10460 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.174 - Smashed object on the floor of Room 10495 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.175 - Room 10495 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.176 - Looking south from Room 10495 to Room 10452 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.177 - Room 10452 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.178 - Smashed pottery and destruction debris against southern wall of Room 10452 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.179 - Room 10452 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)

Discussion
  • Plans: Figs. 12.19, 12.50–12.51
  • Sections: Figs. 12.88, 12.94–12.95
  • Photos 12.169–12.179
  • Pottery: Figs. 13.130–13.135
Introduction

Building CQ3 (Squares A/2–3) was built above the western wing of Building CZ. It was bounded on the north by the street in Squares A–B/4, on the west by Piazza 2417, on the east by Building CX (with which it shared a wall) and on the south by Building CP (partly by a shared wall and partly by a double wall). It was designated Building CQ3 due to the similarity of its plan and dimensions to Buildings CQ1 and CQ2. The external measurements of this building were 5.6×7.2–7.4 m (including all walls) and its net floor space was ca. 23.5 sq m.

Like Buildings CQ1 and CQ2, CQ3 was composed of a single large room (10494) and two small back rooms (10452, 10460). As opposed to Buildings CQ1 and CQ2, there were two entranceways in this building; one in its northeastern corner and one in the middle of its western wall, both 1.2 m wide. The northern entrance (Photo 12.171) led to the street and was located directly opposite the entrance into Building CQ1. The western entranceway led to Piazza 2417; it was partially paved with bricks, in the foundation of which was a plank of wood with small round wooden beams set perpendicularly above it (Photo 12.172). This arrangement was unknown in any other entranceway and represents a rare use of wooden beams in Stratum C-1a.

The western wall of this building was Wall 9406 (Fig. 12.95; Photos 12.162–12.163), whose southern part served as the western wall of Building CP, indicating that the two buildings were constructed at the same time. The southern wall was composed of two abutting segments: 9415 on the west, which was shared with the northwestern room of Building CP, and 10482 on the east, which formed a double wall with the northern wall (10409) of Building CP at this point; this is the only double wall in the entire southeastern complex in Stratum C-1a. Wall 10482 had small round wooden beams in its foundation, similar to those in the western threshold of the building, and was built above C-1b Wall 11427 (Photo 12.164). Walls 10482 and 10409 abutted, but did not bond with, Wall 9448 on their west; this was a constructional feature and not the result of sub-phasing.

Curiously, both Wall 10482 and the section of Wall 10409 that was attached to it on the south were preserved only 0.2 m higher than the floor in Room 10460 and were flush with the floor level in Building CP to the south (Photos 12.169–12.170, 12.173). We may offer two explanations for this situation. N. Panitz-Cohen suggested that the walls were deliberately razed in order to allow for passage between Buildings CQ3 and CP; this could have been done at some point during the lifetime of the buildings. Alternatively, it is possible that such an opening was part of the original plan of both buildings, since, in fact, the low segment of Wall 10409 here was the top of C-1b Wall 11458 (Photo 12.193). If so, then Wall 10482 of Building CQ3 was not a newly built wall, but rather, the top of C-1b Wall 11421, and both walls were deliberately left at a low level in order to allow for passage between the buildings; see also Wall 10464 (described below). According to A. Mazar, the low levels of Walls 10482 and 10409 (western part) resulted from the state of preservation; perhaps this corner (see also Wall 10464, below) was severely damaged during the final destruction of this building or suffered from a late intrusion which could not be observed in the excavation. According to this explanation, there had been no passage between Buildings CP and CQ3.

Room 10494

The northern room’s inner measurements were 3.1×4.4 m; 13.6 sq m (Photo 12.170). As noted above, it had entrances on the north and on the west, as well as two entrances leading to the rooms on its south. The walls, preserved to a height of 0.8– 1.0 m, were burnt and damaged in their upper part, but well preserved in their lower courses. The floor (10494 in the east and 10495 in the west) was covered by a 0.7 m-deep layer of burnt debris (10450) that contained 37 complete or almost-complete vessels (Figs. 13.130–13.135), as well as flint and bones and a number of other items (Table 12.22). Almost all of the western part of this room was occupied by a unique installation (10505).

Installation 10505

The southern end of this installation was composed of a narrow parapet made of hard-packed brick material, 2.0 m long, 0.2 m wide and ca. 0.5 m high (Photos 12.170, 12.174–12.175). Its western end was built on top of a large stone and was attached to the door jamb of Wall 9406, so that it bordered the western entrance into the room on its north.

Attached to the southeastern end of the parapet was a large gray brick. The area left to the south of the parapet must have been used as a narrow passageway into the building from the western entrance, as well as into Room 10452 to the south. In the floor foundation to the southwest of the brick parapet was a patch composed of small stones and chunks of hard brick material (11424; 0.6×0.8 m), as well as fragments of a lower grinding stone and a basalt mortar in secondary use. The brick parapet was built on top of the northern end of these stones (Photos 12.175–12.176).

To the north of the brick parapet, and occupying the northwestern corner of the room, was a squarish (1.5×1.7 m) patch of gravelly earth and reddish brick material, found very burnt. This square was surrounded by brick material similar to that of the parapet on its south, while its center contained a paving of sherds and small travertine stones. On this paving was a storage jar, with its top half apparently deliberately removed (Fig. 13.133:5; Photo 12.174), containing a large amount of gray ash; a few scattered loomweights were found here as well.

The function of this installation remains enigmatic, but the fact that it occupied the western part of the room points to it having been a major feature of Building CQ3.

Room 10452

The southwestern room (10452; internal measurements 2.0×2.6 m; 5.2 sq m) (Photo 12.170) was accessed from the southwestern part of Room 10494 through a 1.2 m-wide entrance in Wall 10417, the northern wall of the room (Photos 12.176–12.177). The room was bordered on the west by Wall 9406, which was also the western wall of Building CP to the south, and on the south by Wall 9415, which was the northern wall of the western part of Building CP; this demonstrates the close relationship between the buildings in this sector. On the east was Wall 10407. All the walls were covered with a high-quality mud plaster (Photos 12.177–12.179), similar in makeup to that found on the walls of Building CP.

The floor (10452) was composed of red clay interspersed with dark burnt material and was covered by a thick layer of fallen bricks, burnt debris and charcoal (9417) that contained 44 complete or almost-complete restorable pottery vessels (Figs. 13.130–13.135), including a storage jar restored from dozens of sherds, with an incised inscription on its shoulder — אלצד ק שחלי Elisedek (son of) Shahli (Fig. 13.133:4; Mazar and Ahituv 2011: 304–305; Ahituv and Mazar 2014; Chapter 29A, No. 7), as well as other finds (Table 12.22). A particularly large concentration of whole burnt fallen bricks was found against the southern and eastern walls. A concentration of smashed vessels (Photo 12.178) was found above a shallow rectangular plastered depression located along the center of the southern wall, bordered by narrow bricks (Photo 12.179).

Room 10460

The southeastern room (10460) was the smallest (internal measurements 1.8×2.6 m; 4.68 sq m). It was accessed from Room 10494 through a 1.0 m wide entrance (Photo 12.170). The room was bordered on the north by Wall 10483, on the west by Wall 10407, on the south by Wall 10482, and on the east by Wall 10464, which was also the western wall of Building CX. A curious feature of the eastern wall (10464) was its ‘stepped’ preservation. On the southern end, at its corner with Wall 10482, it was preserved only 0.15 m above the floor of Room 10460 along 1.5 m, while halfway through the room, the wall was preserved some 0.2 m higher, up to its corner with Wall 10483 (Photos 12.170, 12.173, 12.180); north of this, in Room 10494, the wall was preserved much higher. This low preservation of the southern end of the wall in Room 10460 was similar to that of the southern wall of this room (10482) and western end of Wall 10409 of the adjacent Building CP to the south, described above. As in that situation, here, too, it may be asked whether these walls were deliberately razed in order to allow passage from Room 10460 into the southern part of Building CX on the east, thus effectively joining these two buildings at one point during their lifetime. Alternatively, this low level might be the result of poor preservation, caused by the destruction of the buildings, which might have been particularly heavy in the southeastern corner of Building CQ3.

The floor was less well preserved than in the other rooms and the reddish-brown earth that characterized the other floors was ephemeral here. The room was full of complete fallen bricks and burnt brick debris (10460) (Fig. 12.88). The finds included only a cooking pot (Fig. 13.131:6), a storage jar (Fig. 13.133:6) and several loomweights that were concentrated mainly along the western wall and near the entrance.

Building CX — Stratum C-1a

Plans, Sections, and Photos
Plans, Sections, and Photos

  • Figure 12.19 - Plan of Stratum C-1a from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.50 - Plan of Stratum C-1a, south-center and southeast from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.51 - Plan of Buildings CQ3 and CX, Stratum C-1a from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.88 - Section 34 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.89 - Section 35 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.90 - Section 36 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.91 - Section 37 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.92 - Section 38 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.180 - C-1a Building CX, Room 10507 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.181 - C-1a Building CX, Room 10507 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.182 - Entrance into Building CX from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.183 - C-1a Building CX from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.184 - C-1a Building CX, Room 10507 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.185 - C-1a Building CX, vessels in destruction debris in center of Room 10507 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.186 - C-1a Building CX, Locus 10431, vessels in burnt destruction debris from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.187 - C-1a Building CX from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.188 - C-1a Building CX from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)

Discussion
  • Plans: Figs. 12.19, 12.50–12.51
  • Sections: Figs. 12.88–12.92
  • Photos 12.170, 12.180–12.188
  • Pottery: Figs. 13.136–13.142
Building CX (Squares B–C/3) was bounded by the street on the north and by Buildings CQ3 on the west and CP on the south (external measurements 6.8×7.8 m; internal measurements 5.7×6.8 m; 35.5 sq m). Its western and southern walls were shared by the neighboring buildings, CQ3 and CP, respectively. The building comprised one large space (38 sq m), partially separated by a T-shaped bench or screen wall (10502) into a northern and a southern space on its west (Photos 12.170, 12.180–12.181). The northern and eastern walls (10515, 10490) were built of unique reddish-gray bricks with many light-colored inclusions and barely-visible brick lines. A 1.6 m-wide entrance in the northeastern corner led into this building from the street on the north. This entrance was bordered on the east by a finely plastered pilaster that separated it from the western face of Wall 10490 with a narrow gap filled with burnt material (Fig. 12.92; Photo 12.182). A curious feature in this entranceway was a dip in the floor level just in front of it (11413), so that the threshold, containing traces of burnt wood, was ca. 0.2 m lower than the rest of the floor in this building. The wood in the threshold recalls that in the western entranceway in Building CQ3.

Two means of roof support were identified in the large inner space of this building. One was a north–south row of five pillar bases, each made of an unworked flat stone, located in the northern half, 2.0 m east of the western wall and 3.4 m west of the eastern wall (Photos 12.180–12.181). The two northernmost bases bore traces of the burnt wood pillars on them. The other means of roof support was a unique square pilaster of gray bricks (10517), located to the southeast of the row of pillar bases and standing 1.3 m high (Photo 12.184). A large smooth stone was found southeast of this pilaster.

A T-shaped brick bench or screen wall (10502) was located along the northern two-thirds of the western wall (10464); it protruded 1.3 m into the center of the structure (Photo 12.181). Two vessels were placed in the southern niche formed by this ‘T’, a large barrel krater (Fig. 13.137:2) and a storage jar (Fig. 13.140:14) (Photo 12.185). Another bench (10491) ran along the eastern end of the southern wall (10409), built above the eastern end of C-1b Wall 11421 of Building CZ, separated by a 0.4 m-thick fill.

The floor of Building CX (10481, 10497 and 10507) was composed of reddish-brown clay interspersed with black burnt material and gray ash. In the area between the pillar bases and Bench 10502 was a strip of small travertine chunks that were incorporated into the floor (10477; Photos 12.180– 12.181). They were not suitable to serve as a pavement, since they were very loosely laid, and perhaps they played a role in some activity that took place here. They recall a similar strip of stones (7479) set in the floor of Courtyard 7471 in Building CW. Immediately below the floor level in the southeastern part of the building were the tops of C-1b Walls 10500 and 10518 of Building CZ (Figs. 12.89, 12.91; Photo 12.181).

Like the other units, Building CX was found full of very burnt destruction debris, with fallen bricks, charcoal pieces, ash, and large a amount of pottery, with 122 complete or almost-complete vessels, many of them in situ (Figs. 12.88, 13.136– 13.142; Photos 12.185–12.186). Just inside and west of the entrance, a cooking jug (Fig. 13.138:8) and part of a storage jar were found (Fig. 13.140:17; Photo 12.183). Concentrations of loomweights here, to the south of Installation 10509, and just west of the northern end of the row of pillar bases, found along with fragments of burnt wood beams (Photos 12.181, 12.187–12.188), indicate these had belonged to one, or possibly two looms. Altogether, 164 loomweights were found in this building, mostly in the northern part (Chapter 39).

Two grinding installations were located close to the entrance. One (10509), just to its west, was attached to the northern wall, comprising a large lower grinding stone slab fronted on the east by a small shallow plastered basin which was slightly lower and served as a receptacle for the grain as it was ground; it was surrounded by a flat-topped brick ‘rim’ (Photo 12.188). An additional lower grinding stone slab fragment was found below the upper one, apparently as a support, and a nicely worked rectangular smoothed pink mizi limestone, apparently in secondary use, was set under the eastern end of the large lower grinding, between it and the receptacle on the south. On the northern ‘rim’ of the plastered basin was a fine flint blade and a small upper grinding stone; two large upper grinding stones were found just to the west. To the east of Installation 10509, in front of the entranceway, was still another large lower grinding stone slab fragment, found overturned (Photo 12.188). The second installation (10519), less well preserved, was found just south of the entrance, close to the eastern wall. It comprised a similar round plastered receptacle with a brick bordering it on its west; a rounded lower grinding stone was set inside it and another such stone was found to the west of the brick.

A large concentration of grain was found inside a storage jar in the southern part of the building (10431). The grain was submitted to 14C dating (Chapter 48, Sample R36). One of the two measurements provided the calibrated dates 978–848 BCE (1σ) and 996–838 BCE (2σ); the other was way too high and was defined as an outlier.

Notably, no ovens or other cooking installations were found in any of the buildings, CQ1, CQ2, CQ3 and CX, although such installations were found in the larger buildings, CF and CP.

Building CP — Stratum C-1a

Plans, Sections, and Photos
Plans, Sections, and Photos

  • Figure 12.19 - Plan of Stratum C-1a from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.50 - Plan of Stratum C-1a, south-center and southeast from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.52a - Plan of Building CP, Stratum C-1a from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.52b - Isometric reconstruction, Building CP, Stratum C-1a from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.52c - Plan of sub-floor brick construction in Building CP, Stratum C-1a from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.92 - Section 38 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.169 - General view of Area C from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.170 - General view of southeastern part of Area C from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.189 - C-1a Building CP, with sub-floor construction in Room 10476 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.190 - C-1a Building CP on the floor level from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.191 - C-1a Building CP from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.192 - Wall 9406, dividing Building CL (mostly removed) and Building CP from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.193 - Building CP Walls from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.194 - Building CP Walls from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.195 - Building CP Walls from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.196 - C-1a Building CP from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.197 - C-1a Building CP from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.198 - C-1a Building CP Room 10510 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.199 - Smashed objects in C-1a Building CP, Room 10510 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.200 - Rooms 11441 and 10510 in C-1a Building CP from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.201 - Destruction debris in Room 11441 in C-1a Building CP from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.202 - Rooms 11441 and 11451 in C-1a Building CP from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.203 - Rooms 10476 and 11451 in C-1a Building CP from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.204 - C-1a Building CP from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.205 - destruction debris with fallen grinding stone and loom weights in Room 11451 in C-1a Building CP from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.206 - Room 11451 in C-1a Building CP from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.207 - C-1a Building CP, looking north (before excavation of eastern wing) from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.208 - Room 10458 in C-1a Building CP from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.209 - Room 10458 in C-1a Building CP from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.210 - Pottery altar in C-1a Building CP from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.211 - Broken vessels in Room 10458 of C-1a Building CP from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.212 - Broken vessels in Room 10458 of C-1a Building CP from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.213 - Pottery in Room 10458 of C-1a Building CP from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.214 - Room 10458 of C-1a Building CP from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.215 - Rooms 10476 and 10506 of C-1a Building CP from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.216 - C-1a Building CP from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.217 - Broken Vessels on 1 side of wall and on a Bench on other side - in C-1a Building CP from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.218 - Room 10476 in C-1a Building CP from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.219 - Fractured stones in sub floor construction of Room 10476 in C-1a Building CP from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.220 - Large mortar from Building CP, Room 10476 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.221 - Destruction debris in Room 10476 of C-1a Building CP from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.222 - Bin 10488 and krater-pithos from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.223 - C-1a Building CP from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.224 - C-1a Building CP from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.225 - Room 9449 of C-1a Building CP from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.226 - Bin 9434 in Room 9450 of C-1a Building CP from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.227 - Room 9450 of C-1a Building CP from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.228 - Copious destruction debris in Room 9450 of C-1a Building CP from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.229 - Room 10506 of C-1a Building CP from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.230 - Room 10506 of C-1a Building CP from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.231 - Room 10506 of C-1a Building CP from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.232 - Bin 10501 restored Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.233 - Room 10506 of C-1a Building CP from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.234 - Walls of Building CL from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)

Discussion
  • Plans: Figs. 12.19, 12.50, 12.52a–c
  • Section: Fig. 12.93
  • Photos 12.169–12.170, 12.189–12.234
  • Pottery: Figs. 13.143–13.160
Introduction

Building CP in Stratum C-1a was a large structure with a unique plan, located in the southeastern corner of Area C in Squares A–C/20, 1–2 (Photos 12.169–12.170, 12.189–12.190). The remains attributed to Stratum C-1b, which were only partly excavated, were, in fact, an early phase of the building, with only minor differences in the walls discerned in the part of the earlier building that was exposed, as described above (Photo 12.189). Some of the walls (e.g., 11477/10457 in the south and 11479/10490 in the east) were, in fact, the same, with the upper courses of the previous building reused in Stratum C-1a, now covered with a thick fine mud plaster, and with new floors laid against them (Photos 12.193–12.194, 12.196). The eastern wall of the central rooms (10462, 10485) was new, built above a gap with fill laid above the earlier wall (11473) that served as a threshold in the entranceways in the new wall (Photos 12.191, 12.195). The western wall of the central rooms (9448, 10480) was also new, built above the earlier wall (with no gap or fill); here too, the earlier wall (11470) served as a threshold in the entrances in the C-1a wall (Photos 12.191, 12.196, 12.219). An additional difference was the nature and size of the bricks in the early building, which were larger and of an extremely hard consistency and gray-white color; these early walls were not plastered, while those in the C-1a phase were coated with a fine thick mud plaster.

In Stratum C-1a, Building CP adjoined Building CL on the east and Buildings CQ3 and CX on the south, sharing walls with these buildings (Photos 12.169–12.170), indicating that all were built, and possibly functioned, together.

This building was excavated in its entirety (Squares A–C/20, 1–2). Its external measurements were 9.2–9.7×12.3 m (ca. 112 sq. m, including walls) and its internal floor space (including the benches along the walls) totaled 71.84 sq m. The walls stood to a height of 1.2 m (on the west) to 0.75 m (on the east) above the floors, and were exposed just below topsoil.

Building CP was unique in its plan and flow of internal circulation. Its plan consisted of eight rooms: two large rectangular central ones (10458, 10476) flanked by three small rooms on the east (10510, 11441, 11451) and three small rooms on the west (9449, 9450, 10506). The three eastern rooms had entrances in their northwestern corners that accessed the central rooms. Two of these (11441, 11451) also had entrances in their northeastern corners (on line with the western entrances), leading in from an assumed street or courtyard on the east; all these entrances were 1.3 m wide, except for the western one in the middle room, which was 1.1 m wide. Thus, each of the central rooms could be approached separately from outside the building, as well as from the inside. The three small rooms in the western wing were accessible from the two large central rooms: two of them (10506, 9450) were entered from the southern central room (10476), while the northern one (9449) was entered from the northern central room (10458). Rooms 9449 and 9450 were joined by an entrance, thus enabling circulation between the southern and the northern wings of the building via these two small rooms. On the other hand, the southwestern small room (10506) could be accessed only through the southern central room (10476), and the northeastern small room (10510) could be accessed only through the northern central room (10458), creating a symmetry to the building that was marred only by the difference of accessibility in the eastern rooms and minor differences in room sizes. It is notable that six of the seven entrances found in this building were located in the corners of the rooms; the only entrance located in the center of a wall was the one connecting Rooms 9450 and 9449 in the western wing.

All the walls were covered with plaster and the floors were made of fine red clay mixed with smooth black burnt material. In Rooms 10458, 10506, and the southeastern part of 11451, the floors were set on a mud-plaster bedding (Photos 12.207–12.209) and in Rooms 10506, 10476 and 10510, they were set on a sub-floor brick construction (Fig. 12.52c; Photos 12.189–12.190, 12.194, 12.200, 12.219).

A wide range of many complete or almost-complete vessels (Figs. 13.143–13.160) and numerous objects (Table 12.24), as well as a large amount of grain, were found in the 0.8 m-deep destruction debris on the floors, as detailed below and in Chapter 45.

The Small Eastern Rooms — 10510, 11441, 11451

Room 10510

The northern room of the eastern wing (Photos 12.197–12.198, 12.200) measured internally 2.1×2.7 m; 5.8 sq m. Its eastern wall (10490) was built above C-1b Wall 11479, while its northern wall (10409) was built above C-1b Wall 11458 (Photo 12.193). This room was accessed only through an entrance in Wall 10462 that led from the northern central room (10458).

The floor in this room was identical to the others throughout Building CP, composed of red clay mixed with black burnt material. It sloped down from west to east, from 86.20 to 85.98 m; the western elevation was higher than the other floors in the building, perhaps because just underneath the burnt floor makeup on the west were two concentrations of bricks, one in the southwestern corner of the room and the other in the northwestern corner, just inside the entrance (Fig. 12.52c). The latter (11478) was a rectangle measuring 0.6×1.2 m, ca. 0.1 m high. The bricks in the southwestern corner were more sporadic (Photos 12.189–12.190, 12.197). These are understood as a sub-floor construction, similar to those found in the southwestern part of the building, described below.

The room was full of burnt destruction debris (10492) that contained 17 complete or almost-complete vessels (Photo 12.198), including an intact four-legged incense burner with a matching lid (Fig. 13.158:5; Photo 12.199), as well as other finds (Table 12.24). A large lower grinding stone was found in the entrance leading west to Room 10458, apparently not in situ. Notably, none of the items were found above the sub-floor brick construction in the northwestern and southwestern corners of the room.

Room 11441

The middle room of the eastern wing measured internally 2.2×2.8 m (6.16 sq m) (Photos 12.197, 12.200, 12.202). Like the southern room, it had entrances in its northeastern and northwestern corners. The floor (11441) was composed of reddish clay with black ashy material and sloped down from west to east (85.98–85.75 m), so that its eastern entrance was almost 0.25 m lower than the center of the room, in accordance with the tilt from west to east/southeast observed in many cases at Tel Rehov. On the floor was a 0.4 m-thick layer of heavy burnt destruction debris (11418), with a concentration of seven complete restorable vessels in the center-western part of the room (Photo 12.201). These were the only finds in this room, other than a fragmentary loomweight and a spindle whorl.

Room 11451

The southern room of the eastern wing (internal measurements 2.6×2.8 m; 7.28 sq m) had an entrance in its northeastern corner and another one opposite it that led into Room 10476 on the west (Photos 12.197, 12.202–12.203). A notable feature of the eastern entrance was the molding of the door jambs; the inner (western) northern end of Wall 11440 was nicely molded to a curved shape (Photo 12.204) and the southern end of Wall 11417 that faced the entrance was also curved, although less well preserved. The walls in this part of the room were covered with fine gray-whitish plaster, somewhat different from the light brown mud plaster that coated the other walls of this building. The floor of this room was composed of red clay interspersed with smooth black burnt material. The southeastern part of the floor contained a layer of plaster, identical to that on the walls, below the red and black floor makeup. Heavy burnt destruction debris on the floor contained 18 restorable pottery vessels and a concentration of loomweights, mainly in the center-north part of the room. In the southeastern part was a large pile of fallen bricks and burnt debris that contained a very large lower grinding stone and a large upper grinding stone on top of it, revealed just under topsoil, suggesting that they had fallen from a second floor or from the roof (Photo 12.205; Chapter 43). Attached to the northern wall just inside the western entrance was a raised, semi-circular bench or shelf (11452), 0.85 m long and with a 0.4 m radius, standing to a height of 0.4 m above the floor. Its upper part had a shallow depression, as if it was intended to hold something, such as a vessel, or perhaps it served as a seat (Photos 12.202–12.03, 12.205–12.206).

The Large Central Rooms — 10458 and 10476

The central part of the building included two large rectangular rooms of similar size: Room 10458 on the north and Room 10476 on the south (Photos 12.169–12.170, 12.189–12.190, 12.207).

Room 10458

The northern central room measured internally 4.0×4.7 m; 19 sq m (Photo 12.208). The main entrance to this room was from Room 11411 on the east, while two other entrances led into Rooms 10510 and 9449, the latter creating a connection to the southern wing of the building. The floor was higher by 0.25–0.35 m than that in Room 9449 to the west and Room 11441 to the east, but was almost the same as that of Room 10510 on the northeast.

The preservation of the northern and eastern walls was not consistent. Wall 10409 in the north (which was also the southern wall of Building CX) was preserved 0.9 m high along most of its length, but was much lower on its western end, 2.0 m before its corner with Wall 9448. The difference was 0.7 m, and, in fact, the western end was flush with the floor level of Room 10458. This lower western end adjoined the southern face of Wall 10482 of Building CQ3, which also was preserved to the same low height. As mentioned above in the discussion of Building CQ3, there are two ways to explain this feature: either there was a deliberate lowering of the two walls in order to create a passage from the northwestern corner of Room 10458 into Building CQ3 on the north, or this situation was due to damage caused by the destruction or by some unrecognized later intrusion. A 0.4 m wide bench (10463), composed of terre pisé and partially plastered, was built along the southern face of Wall 10409, running 2.4 m from exactly where Wall 10409 was cut on the west, almost up to the entrance into Room 10510 on the east (Photo 12.208). Two bricks laid on the western end of Bench 10463 were on the same low level as the western end of Wall 10409; their function is not known. Following a 0.7 m gap was yet another brick, set into the corner of Walls 9448 and 10409, found floating 0.1 m above the level of the plastered floor in the western part of this room (10498) (Photo 12.209). The low western end of Wall 10409 abutted, but did not bond with, the western wall (9448) of the room.

The eastern wall (10462) of Room 10458 was different than the others in its composition, being built of similar terre pisé as Bench 10463. It was preserved to only 0.20 above the floor in the south and 0.40 m in the north. The corner of Wall 10462 with Wall 10405 (the southern wall of the room) was not well bonded; the latter was preserved to a height of 0.65 m, similar to that of the northern wall of this room.

Running along the eastern face of Wall 9448 and ending on the north at the entrance into Room 9449, was yet another bench (10454), built of crumbly yellow bricks, 0.5 m wide, 1.6 m long and ca. 0.2 m high (Photos 12.208–12.209).

The floor of the room (10458) was composed of reddish-brown earth mixed with black ash; in the western part of the room, it was laid 0.05–0.08 m above a layer of hard mud plaster (10498) (Photos 12.208–12.209). This plaster was identical to that found under the floor of Rooms 10506 and 11451, as well as on most of the walls in this building; it was concentrated in the area between the lower western end of Wall 10409 on the north and along the line of Oven 10430, just north of Wall 10405, on the south (the contours of this plaster are marked on the plan; Fig. 12.52a). Depressions in the plaster accommodated the rounded contour of the stone mortar, as well as two of the pottery vessels just north of Oven 10430. The plaster-bedding layer was laid on top of a layer of soft light brown earth with very few sherds (11461), which seems to have been a leveling fill laid above the C-1b remains.

The room was full of a layer of burnt destruction debris (10410, 10422) with hard eroded brick material and complete fallen bricks, collapsed ceiling fragments, charcoal and ash, and contained 23 complete or almost-complete pottery vessels and other finds (Table 12.24). A large lower grinding stone was found just to the southwest of the entranceway to Room 10510. A concentration of 22 small stone loomweights was found in the northwestern corner of the room, above the lower western end of Wall 10409 and partially under the brick in the corner of Walls 10409 and 9448 (Photo 12.214); a few additional loomweights were found dispersed throughout the room. On Bench 10454 along Wall 9448 was an intact pottery altar found upside down (Photo 12.210; Chapter 35, No. 3) and a bowl (Fig. 13.143:25). Just to the east of this bench was a dense concentration of finds that included the bottom half of a large krater-pithos (Fig. 13.153:7) with an intact cooking pot inside it (Fig. 13.148:7; Photo 12.213), and to its east, a large oven (10430), adjoined on its east by a smooth flat-topped stone, slightly angled down towards the oven. To the north of the pithos was a group of vessels, including two Hippo storage jars (Fig. 13.151:6–7) and a small red-slipped stand adorned with petals (Fig. 13.144:11; Chapter 35, No. 44) (Photos 12.211–12.212). An upper grinding stone was laid above a well-worked mortar set into the floor, with a small smooth stone to its north (Photo 12.213). Finds on the plaster floor (10498) in the western part of the room included a few small upper grinding stone fragments and pestles, as well as several loomweights and sherds.

Room 10476

The southern central room measured internally 3.6×4.6 m (16.6 sq m) (Photo 12.215). The main entrance to this room was from Room 11451 on the east, while two other entrances led into Rooms 10506 and 9450, the latter creating a connection to the northern wing of the building (Photos 12.189– 190, 12.203, 12.215). Since Room 9450 was joined to Room 9449, one could pass between the southern and northern parts of the building by way of these two small rooms.

Room 10476 was bordered on the east by the southern end of Wall 10462 and its continuation to the south, which was designated a separate number (10485) because it was built of discernible bricks, as opposed to the terre pisé of 10462; it was preserved higher than the latter and its northern end was covered with molded plaster (Photo 12.216). The southern wall of the room (10457) ran along 12.2 m; it was located 0.5 m north of the southern wall of adjoining Building CL on the west, indicating that although they ran more or less along the same line, these were two separate walls. The northern wall (10405) separated the two large central rooms. All these walls were found standing to a height of 0.6–1.0 m and were covered with mud plaster.

The floor was made of soft reddish-brown earth, interspersed with black ash. Just below the floor of the southern half of the room was a subfloor brick construction (11468), composed of closely laid bricks, found along the entire side of the room (Fig. 12.52c; Photos 12.189, 12.219). Five lines of bricks could be discerned in the central part of this area, yet, in the southeastern part, most of the bricks were missing, although it is not clear whether this area had never been constructed or if the bricks had been subsequently removed. On the western side, where the bricks were well preserved, they slanted down from north to south and, in fact, they abutted the upper courses of the walls belonging to the C-1b phase of this building (Photo 12.194). However, these bricks were floating on top of debris (11474) that clearly abutted Stratum C-1b Wall 11472. It thus seems most likely that 11468 was a sub-floor construction of Stratum C-1a, like the others revealed just below the floors of Rooms 10510 and 10506 (Fig. 12.52c). This appears to have been a building technique intended to provide reinforcement of the floors, and perhaps also to protect against rodents in certain places (compare a similar feature in Stratum C-2, Building CY, Room 8488). Indeed, the brick sub-floor construction in this room supported a very heavy pithos (Fig. 13.146:4), a loom with many loomweights, and a unique pottery bin, that were all set on the red floor above it (Photo 12.221).

Benches were constructed along the northern and western walls. Bench 10466, 3.6 m long, 0.6 wide and ca. 0.25 m high, ran along the northern wall (10405); the plaster on this wall joined the plaster that covered the bench. This bench was built directly above C-1b Wall 11472, utilizing the top of this wall as its foundation. On this bench were three cooking pots (Figs. 13.147:1, 3; 13.149:6), one jug (Fig. 13.155:4), four juglets (Fig. 13.156:19, 24– 25) and two loomweights (Photo 12.217). Bench 10467, 1.7 m long, 0.5 m wide and ca. 0.15 m high, was rather poorly preserved along the western wall (10480); a jug (Fig. 13.155:7), a seal (Chapter 30, No. 32), a bead, a loomweight and a scoria scraper were found on it (Photo 12.218). In the northeastern corner of the room, Installation 10468 was composed of bricks set on their narrow side around a circular mud-plastered receptacle (Photo 12.217). Inside the plastered depression were two cooking pots stacked together, a very small one (Fig. 13.148:9) on the bottom and a medium-sized one (Fig. 13.148:4) on top of it.

Room 10476 was full of burnt destruction debris (10426), including fallen bricks, plaster, ceiling pieces, charcoal and ash to a total depth of ca. 0.8 m. The room contained 53 restorable vessels, concentrated mostly in the northern half of the room near Bench 10466, in a gravelly matrix (Photos 12.217–12.218). Some of the vessels in the destruction debris were found in situ (some intact) on the floor, while others were smashed and dispersed throughout the room, as were the other finds (Table 12.24). The destruction debris in the southern half of the room (10493) contained much less pottery than in the north and center, mostly concentrated against the center of Wall 10457. A unique pottery bin (10488) was found against Wall 10457, 0.65 m to the east of the entrance to Room 10506; a similar bin (10501) was found along the same wall in the southwestern corner of Room 10506, 3.0 m to the west (described below) (Photos 12.221–12.224). Bin 10488 was preserved to its top, ca. 0.9 m high, and measured 0.4×0.5 m, with 0.17 m of its bottom sunk into the floor makeup.6 It was built of thick clay slabs, without a lid or a base, and contained a large amount of charred grain (Photo 12.224). Just to its east was a very large pithos (Fig. 13.146:4), found lying on its side, its upper part smashed to small pieces (Photos 12.221– 12.222); a stone was located under the pithos and against the wall of the silo (Photo 12.223). To the east of the pithos was a concentration of 85 loomweights (84 of stone and one of clay), with a concentration of unworked stones nearby. Remains of charred wood here might represent a loom. A few vessels were found in the entrance leading from the east, mostly against the plastered southern doorjamb of Wall 10485 (Photo 12.216). A large and heavy stone was found upside down, just under topsoil in the uppermost level of the destruction debris, just west of the entrance from Room 11451 (Photos 12.215, 12.220). This stone had a small depression carved out of part of its top, in which some substance was probably ground, judging by the shiny surface. It had apparently fallen from the roof, similar to the large grinding stones in Room 11451 to the east, described above.

The Western Rooms – 9449, 9450, 10506

Room 9449

This was the northern room in the western wing (internal measurements 2.3×2.8 m; 6.4 sq m) (Photos 12.207, 12.225). The northern wall (9415) was also the southern wall of Building CQ3; it cornered with Wall 9406 on the west and with Wall 9448 on the east. Notably, this wall was not on line with the northern wall (10409) of the large room to the east, but ran 0.25 m to its north. A 0.5 m-wide and 0.35 m-high brick bench (9443) was attached to the southern face of Wall 9415, which was, in fact, the direct continuation of the line of Wall 10409. Its top level was ca. 0.1 m lower than the western end of this wall and it is possible that it constituted the (as of yet unexposed) western end of Stratum C-1b Wall 11458 (Fig. 12.48), whose extant top was used as a bench in this room. At its juncture with Wall 9406, the bench had an extension, protruding to the south, 0.4×0.6 m, 0.35 m high, with slightly sloping sides. The walls of the room, as well as the bench and its extension, were all covered with the same fine mud plaster. The eastern face of Wall 9406 in this room was very damaged and burnt, as opposed to its excellent preservation further to the north (in Building CQ3) and south, as well as on its western face in Building CL, as described below. The room had two entrances. A 1.0-m-wide entrance in the southern end of the eastern wall (9448) connected this room with the large room (10458) on the east (Photos 12.189–191, 12.196). Since the floor of the room to the east was 0.35–0.4 m higher than that of Room 9449, there was a small step here (Photos 12.196, 12.207). Some charred wooden pieces found in the entranceway might be remnants of a step, doorjamb or door. The bench (10454) with the pottery altar and bowl in Room 10458 to the east adjoined the southern doorjamb of this entrance. A second entrance, 0.9 m-wide, was located in the middle of the southern wall, connecting this room with Room 9450. The floor of the room (9449) was composed of red clay mixed with soft black burnt material.

The room was full of a 0.8 m-deep layer of dense burnt destruction debris with fallen ceiling material and complete fallen bricks (9410, 9418, 9438) (Photo 12.225); 31 pottery vessels were found in this small room, among them 11 storage jars near the eastern wall, where shelves might have been hung, and in the entrance leading to the east, but it is also possible that some of this pottery fell from a second floor. A special find in this room was an ostracon with an inscription mentioning the name Elisha (Mazar and Ahituv 2011: 306–307; Ahituv and Mazar 2014; Chapter 29A, No. 9). See Table 12.24 for other finds.

Room 9450

The middle room in the western wing (internal measurements 2.4×2.4; 5.76 sq m) was accessed both from Room 9449 to its north and from the large room to the east (10476) through a 1.0 m-wide entrance in its southeastern corner (Photo 12.207). The walls were covered with fine mud plaster. The floor (9450) was composed of red clay mixed with soft black burnt material. In the southwestern corner of the room was a square brick bin (9434) (internal measurements 1.0 sq m; 0.6 m high) (Photos 12.226–12.227). It was coated with a fine plaster that continued from the surrounding walls down to line the floor as well. Inside was an intact Hippo storage jar (Fig. 13.151:5; see photo in Chapter 3, p. 68) full of burnt grain, alongside another storage jar (Fig. 13.152:9), a jug (Fig. 13.154:1) and three juglets (Figs. 13.156.9–10, 13.157:4), an unbaked clay stopper, and a stone scale weight. The grain found inside the intact jar was submitted to 14C dating (Chapter 48, Sample R37); the average calibrated dates of three measurements were 890–809 BCE (1σ) and 992–812 BCE (2σ).

The entire room was filled with very burnt destruction debris (9420, 9437), including many complete fallen bricks, pieces of plaster, ceiling material, charcoal and ash (Photo 12.228), with 43 restorable pottery vessels, including 15 storage jars. Two exceptional pottery items in this room were an oval container with a matching lid (Fig. 13.160:1) and a strainer (Fig. 13.160:3). Most of the pottery in this room, in particular the storage jars (like in the previous room), were found smashed to pieces in a thick layer of debris above the floor; relatively little pottery was found in situ on the floor. This situation may hint that much of this pottery fell from a second floor or from higher shelves. A special item in this room was a horned pottery altar with incised decoration, found broken in the corner of Walls 9436 and 9448 (Photo 12.228; Chapter 35, No. 2). Underneath the altar was a complete brick, but it appears that this was fallen and not meant as a support. For additional finds from this room, see Table 12.24.

Room 10506

The southern room of the western wing (internal measurements 2.15×2.5 m; 5.4 sq m) (Photos 12.215, 12.229–12.230) could be entered only from the large room to its east (10476) (Photos 12.203, 12.229). An intact juglet (Fig. 13.156:18) found leaning against the threshold just inside the room appeared to have been intentionally placed there before the floor was laid (Photo 12.233). The western wall of the room (10513) was the poorly preserved continuation of Wall 9406 to its north. The other walls, 9421 on the north, 10457 on the south and 10480 on the east, were well preserved; all the walls were covered with fine mud plaster (Photo 12.229–12.231).

The floor was composed of soft dark earth, except for the northwestern part, which was composed of the same mud plaster as the surrounding walls, recalling the plaster in the western part of Room 10458. This plastered area was 0.15 m higher than the rest of the room (Photos 12.229– 12.230). Below the earthen floor in the southeastern part of the room, against Wall 10457 and just underneath the floor where the pottery bin and pottery ‘bucket’ were found (see below), was a brick construction (11464), similar to the sub-floor bricks found in Rooms 10510 and 10476 (Fig. 12.52c). Like in those rooms, this seems to have been an element related to the construction phase of the building. A low (0.1 m high) bench (10504) composed of crumbly brown bricks was built along part of the western wall (Photo 12.230).

A pottery bin (10501) was set in the southwestern corner of the room (Photos 12.215, 12.223, 12.229–12.232); it was very similar to Bin 10488 in Room 10476, 3.0 m to its east and set against the same wall (10457). It stood 0.75 m high, which was shorter than the other bin; 0.15 m of its base was sunk into the floor makeup. Like the latter bin, it was made with thick slabs and restoration showed it to be trapezoid, with the wider part on top (Photo 12.232; Fig. 13.160:12); it had no base or lid, although 0.1 m above its bottom was a layer of low-fired clay that was laid down as a kind of floor. Inside the bin (capacity-93 liters) was a small amount of burnt grain.

Room 10506 contained a deep layer of burnt destruction debris (10484), including complete fallen bricks, charcoal and ash, as well as 29 pottery vessels, including an intact Cypriot Black on Red juglet (Fig. 13.157:2). Among the unique pottery items was a round ‘bucket’ (Fig. 13.160:2), placed against the center of the southern wall (Photos 12.223, 12.229, 12.231), and a large heavy round container with a matching lid to its east (Fig. 13.159:1); the bucket was intact, found 0.50 m to the east of Bin 10501 and the container was broken. Among the special finds in this room was a complete pottery mold for manufacturing figurines of a naked female (Chapter 35, No. 9), identical to those found attached to the altar fragment from Building CF.

Summary of Building CP

Building CP, with its eight rooms, was the largest and most complex building excavated at Tel Rehov. Many unique features characterized its plan, including the two eastern entrances, the symmetric division into a western and eastern wing flanking central rooms, the plan of circulation, the benches along the walls, the sub-floor brick constructions and the molded plaster on the doorjambs. It contained a large amount of unique pottery items, such as two altars, the Elisha ostracon, containers with lids, a ‘bucket’, a strainer, two free-standing bins, a figurine mold, a stand with petals, and an incense burner with a lid, as well as more than 230 pottery vessels of a wide variety of types (see Chapters 24, 45), all indicating that this building had some special function. The integral relation of Building CP to the smaller buildings to its north (CQ3, CX) and the spacious Building CL to its west, shows that it was part of a greater complex. For further discussion and interpretation, see Mazar (2015) and Chapter 4.

Building CL — Stratum C-1a

Plans, Sections, and Photos
Plans, Sections, and Photos

  • Figure 12.19 - Plan of Stratum C-1a from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.50 - Plan of Stratum C-1a, south-center and southeast from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.53 - Plan of Building CL, Stratum C-1a from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.73 - Section 19 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.74 - Section 20 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.80 - Section 26 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.83 - Section 29 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.84 - Section 30 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.85 - Section 31 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.86 - Section 32 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.87 - Section 33 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.234 - Walls of Building CL from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.235 - Walls in section of C-1a Building CL above C-1b apiary destruction debris (collapsed walls) from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.236 - Wall 4443 in C-1a Building CL from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.237 - Burnt material (9432) on Floor 9435 in C-1a Building CL from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.238 - Burnt oily material (5435) on Floor 5482 in C-1a Building CL from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Photo 12.239 - Eastern wing and Floor 5446 in C-1a Building CL from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)

Discussion
  • Plans: Figs. 12.19, 12.50, 12.53
  • Sections: Figs. 12.73–12.74, 12.80, 12.83–12.87
  • Photos 12.234–12.239
  • Pottery: Figs. 13.125–13.129
Introduction

Building CL was constructed above the fallen bricks and destruction debris of the apiary (Photos 12.142, 12.150–12.153, 12.158, 12.234–12.235) and the eastern side of Building CH (Figs. 12.73– 12.74, 12.80, 12.83–12.87; Photos 12.143–12.144, 12.146–12.147, 12.149). The northwestern corner of this building was built above a leveling fill (4408, 5430) that was laid above the collapse of the C-1b structures to the west (Photo 12.135). This was the one of the most convincing pieces of evidence for two superimposed destructions in Area C.

Building CL was composed of two wings, each comprising two rooms: the external measurements of the western wing were 3.3×6.5 m (not including Wall 4443) and those of the eastern wing were 6.5×11.5 m (including walls). The total floor space was 63 sq m. Although the walls were found standing to a height of 1.2–1.5 m, no entrances were located. A passage from the western wing to the eastern wing may have existed in Wall 4443, close to its corner with Wall 4481, since here the former wall was preserved very low. In such a case, the threshold would have been 0.3 m above the floor. However, this cannot be determined with certainty and the location of entrances in this building remained enigmatic. This building was excavated in parts during several seasons; the excavated parts were removed in order to reach Stratum C-1b below and thus, no general photograph could be taken.

The southern wall of Building CL ran 0.5 m to the south of the line of that of Building CP. However, since the two buildings shared a wall (9406), it is likely that they were built together. All the walls of Building CL were founded 0.4–1.0 m lower than the foundation of Stratum C-1b Wall 1438 in Squares Y/1–2 to the west. This might be explained by the fact that they were built above the apiary, which was on a lower level than the surrounding buildings. Perhaps the deeper foundations were also the result of the need to stabilize these walls, which were built directly above the collapsed bricks and burnt debris that covered the destroyed apiary.

The area to the west and north of Building CL remained unbuilt in Stratum C-1a. To the west (Squares T–Y/20, 1–2), there was only a thin layer of hard brick debris (4505, 4509), 0.2 m deep, covering the burnt destruction layer in the rooms of Building CH. To the north was Piazza 2417.

The Western Wing — Rooms 4435 and 5432

The western wing of the building was about half the size of the eastern wing, and adjoined only its southern part. It was composed of a long room on the north (4435; internal measurements 2.7×3.5 m; 9.45 sq m) and a broad room on the south (5432; internal measurements 1.5×2.9 m; 4.35 sq m). As noted above, there was no entrance between the two.

The western wall (2413) ran for 6.5 m and was preserved to a height of 1.3 m; it was constructed directly on top of the burnt destruction debris and collapsed bricks of Stratum C-1b (Photo 12.235) and also cut the eastern end of Wall 2426 of Building CH (Figs. 12.73–12.74; Photos 12.146– 12.147). The northern wall (2504) was 3.2 m long; its eastern end was preserved almost 1.0 m higher than Wall 4443 with which it cornered on the east (Photos 12.235–12.236); the reason for this was not clear. The southern wall (5423 on the west, 9424 on the east; Photo 12.237) was also the southern wall of the eastern wing; it was exposed over 7.6 m and apparently continued to the east to corner with Wall 10513, although this end remained unexcavated.

Wall 4443, joining the eastern and western wings, ran along 11 m and was preserved to a height of 1.5 m on its northern half, although up to only 0.5 m on the south (Squares Y/1, 20) (Photos 12.236, 12.238). The foundation level of this wall (85.40 m) was 0.3–0.4 m lower than that of Walls 2413 and 2504 (Figs. 12.73, 12.86–12.87). Wall 4481, which separated the two rooms in this wing, was built directly on top of the concentration of cult objects (the pottery altar and petal chalice) in the apiary below.

Both rooms had a distinct floor (4435 in the northern room, 5432 in the southern room) made of a 0.3-m-thick layer of soft light-red clay at levels 86.20–85.90 m (Fig. 12.86). A clay female figurine that most probably had belonged to an altar was found on the floor in the northeastern corner of Room 5432. An almost identical figurine was found in Locus 5446 in the northwestern part of the eastern wing (Chapter 35, Nos. 6a–b); it is possible that these two figurines had originally belonged to the same altar. Room 4435 was filled with burnt debris and fallen bricks (4415), with fragments of cooking pots (Fig. 13.126:7, 11) and a pithos (Fig. 13.128:11). An exceptional feature in this room was a layer of a burnt black oily substance, mixed with some whitish material, that was concentrated mainly on the eastern side (Figs. 12.80, 12.84, 12.86; Photos 12.236–12.238). This layer continued to the east over the low extant top of Wall 4443 into the southern part of the eastern wing (Photo 12.236). This was further evidence that the southern end of this wall had been deliberately razed during the course of the use of Building CL, thus joining the two southern spaces. Alternatively, the southern end of Wall 4443 had been originally built as a low screen wall.

The Eastern Wing — Rooms 5449 and 5482

The eastern wing was composed of two large rooms or open spaces: 5449 on the north (measuring internally 5.0×5.35 m; ca. 27 sq. m) and 5482 on the south (measuring internally 4.2×5.3 m; 22.2 sq m). Wall 5418, the northern wall, was well preserved to 11 courses, built of gray, brown and yellow bricks (Photo 12.142), yet it was found severely tilted to the south, perhaps due to seismic activity (Photos 12.150, 12.152). As noted above, the southern wall of the eastern wing (9424) continued that of the western wing. The eastern wall (9406) was also the western wall of adjoining Buildings CP and CQ3 (Photo 12.192). This latter wall, preserved 14 courses high on its western face, was built directly above the eastern closing wall (9453) of the Stratum C-1b apiary (Photos 12.152–12.153, 12.234). Wall 5453, a well-built wall preserved nine courses high (Photos 12.150–12.153), separated the northern from the southern room, with no entrance joining them.

The floor of both rooms was made of the same soft red clay as the western rooms; it was 0.4 m thick in the north and center (85.70–86.10 m), but only 0.1 m thick near Wall 5453 (85.65 m) (Figs. 12.83–12.84, 12.86; Photos 12.150–12.151, 12.239). The floor in the southern room (5482), at levels 85.60–85.70 m, sealed the fallen bricks and destruction debris of the apiary (Fig. 12.83; Photo 12.150). As noted above, the same black burnt oily substance mixed with white material that was found in Room 5432 to the west continued into the southern part of the eastern wing. It was found in the southern part of Room 5449 and in most of Room 5482, where it fanned out from the southeastern corner towards the north (Photos 12.237– 12.238). This burnt area contained an unusually large amount of bones, some very burnt and of a selective type (see Chapter 49B), as well as gray ash and pieces of charcoal. The burn line ended near the northern balk of Square Z/1, leaving the northern part of Room 5449 not burnt.

Both rooms were full of a thick layer of destruction debris with many fallen bricks, charcoal, fallen ceiling pieces and ash. Many large body sherds of storage jars and pithoi, mostly unrestorable, were found in this debris (Figs. 13.127–13.128), as were several other objects (Table 12.25). Most of the finds were concentrated in the eastern part of Room 5449, including a brick with a dog paw imprint (Photo 12.239).

A curious feature found in the eastern wing of Building CL was a 0.7–1.1 m-thick layer of light gray debris (5419 in Square Z/2 and 5427 in Square Z/1) that sloped down from south to north (Fig. 12.83; Photos 12.150, 12.152). This layer, revealed just under topsoil, was virtually sterile. It appears to be either an intentional fill placed in the room following its destruction or possibly, erosion following the destruction and abandonment of the lower city; the latter explanation seems to be more plausible. In the topsoil (5402) just above this layer in Square Z/2 was a fragment of a very large pottery altar horn (Chapter 35, No. 28).

One has to question whether the two eastern spaces were roofed. In particular, the northern room, whose smallest inner span was 5.0 m, appears to have been too wide to be roofed by regular wooden beams from local trees; since no pillar bases or any other roof support were found, it may be conjectured that at least this space was unroofed.

Summary of Building CL

The unique plan of Building CL and lack of domestic installations rule out it having been a dwelling, and it most likely served for some administrative, industrial or storage function. The large amount of bones, as well as their special nature, might allude to some relationship to the cultic practices in the adjacent Building CP. It is difficult to explain the lack of entrances in this building, especially in light of the fact that in the adjacent buildings to the east, entrances were found in all the rooms. A similar lack of entrances was also observed in Building CG (possibly a granary) and in the outer walls of Building CQ2. One possibility is that the excavated rooms were part of a basement floor, entered from a higher level. But such a hypothesis is contradicted by the level of the floors in the adjacent buildings on the east (CQ3, CX, CP), which were only slightly higher than the floors in Building CL. Alternatively, the rooms were entered from the roof by way of ladders or from the roofs of the adjacent buildings. In such a case, the entire ground floor of this building would have been sealed from the outside. All these features indicate the exceptional function of this building.

Summary of the Stratigraphy, Architecture and Main Features

Plan
Plan

Fig. 12.54

Location of section drawings on superimposed plan of Strata C-3–C-1a (1:250)

Panitz-Cohen and Mazar in Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)

Discussion
Continuity and Change in the Occupational Sequence

The architectural sequence of Strata C-4 to C-1a, ranging from the 11th to the 9th centuries BCE, demonstrated both continuity and change. This sequence, however, was not necessarily related to destruction episodes, as some buildings continued almost unchanged following their destruction, while others were demolished and new ones built in their stead. On the one hand, the use of brick as the only building material, the general orientation of the units, the rebuilding of some walls on the same line, and the density of construction, are continuing features. On the other hand, innovations included changes in the type of bricks (but rarely the size) and the introduction of wooden beams for the construction of wall and floor foundations in Stratum C-1b.

The substantial and well-preserved building remains of the two phases of Stratum C-3 in Squares S/2–4, attributed to Iron IB, are evidence for a well-constructed and planned city, as also found in Strata D-5 and D-4 in Area D (Chapter 15). No evidence for a violent destruction of this level was found. A number of Stratum C-3 walls, characterized by gray bricks and light-colored mortar, were rebuilt in Stratum C-2 of the early Iron IIA on the same lines, but with hard yellow bricks, as in the cases of Walls 2507, 2506 and 8418 in Squares S/2–4. This indicates urban continuity from the late Iron I to the early Iron IIA.

The two pits found in Square R/4 recall a similar feature in Area D (Stratum D-3) in Squares N, P/4–5 and Q/4, where ca. 45 pits were found above and cutting through Stratum D-4 architecture; they were explained as a local feature in this area. Such pits were not found in any other part of Area C, except for a few in the apiary (Squares Y/1–2) in relation to a floor which appears to have originally belonged to Stratum C-3. Thus, the two pits in Square R/4 are understood to have belonged to the same phenomenon as those in Area D at the end of Iron IB. Above the pits and the floor was a thin layer of debris, followed by Locus 1555b, a pottery concentration in the lowest level of a room attributed to a Stratum C-2 (see above).

The division of the Iron IIA into three strata (C-2, C-1b, C-1a) was first and foremost based on a clear differentiation between Strata C-2 and C-1 in terms of overall plan and building techniques. The well-preserved walls of Stratum C-2 (general Stratum VI), sometimes standing to a height of 18 courses, were made of typical hard-packed yellow bricks, differing in their texture from the bricks of Strata C-1b and C-1a (Tables 12.28–12.30). The lack of stone foundations and the almost total absence of wood in the construction were also typical of this stratum. In certain places, we observed architectural continuity between Strata C-2 and C-1b, such as in the transition from Building CA to Building CD, in some of the walls of Building CE, and, to some extent, between the upper phases of Building CT, as well as one wall in Building CZ. In other places, the builders of Stratum C-1b ignored the earlier walls of Stratum C-2 (Fig. 12.16).

In the area of Building CH and the apiary in Squares T–Z/1–2, Stratum C-1b units were founded right on top of Stratum C-3 structures of Iron IB, and even reused walls and floors from this period. This seems to have occurred due to the intentional removal of building remains of Stratum C-2 by the builders of the apiary, who sought to establish it on a lower level than the rest of the buildings in the area to its west (CG and CH) and north (CM).

The differentiation between Strata C-1b and C-1a (general Strata V and IV) was clear in some cases and unclear in others. These two stratum numbers refer to the same city that underwent local destruction and rebuilding in certain places. A major feature of Stratum C-1b was the incorporation of wooden beams in the foundations of walls and floors. Often these beams were laid directly on top of Stratum C-2 structures. Buildings CJ, CF, CW, CQ1, CQ2 and CG, as well as the room in Square R/4, were founded, in our view, in Stratum C-1b, and continued to be in use with only few or no changes in Stratum C-1a. In contrast, Building CH and the apiary were used only in Stratum C-1b and, following a severe destruction, were replaced by Building CL. Building CD of Stratum C-1b went out of use and was replaced by an open area in Stratum C-1a. Likewise, Building CM was destroyed at the end of C-1b and was replaced by Piazza 2417 in C-1a. In the southeastern block, Building CZ of Stratum C-1b went out of use and was replaced in Stratum C-1a by two new buildings (CQ3, CX). As discussed in detail above, the possibility that Building CZ could be attributed to Stratum C-2 was considered, particularly due to the similarity of its levels to those of the remains under Building CQ1 to its south that we ascribed to Stratum C-2. If this was the case, then Building CQ3 and CX too would have been established in Stratum C-1b and continued unchanged into Stratum C-1a, although there is no tangible evidence for this, such as wooden foundations (except in their thresholds) or floor raisings. Ultimately, we rejected this possibility and prefer to attribute Building CZ to Stratum C-1b. To its south, Building CP of Stratum C-1a was a rebuild of an earlier building of Stratum C-1b, although this early stage is insufficiently known due to lack of excavation.

In a few instances, an extra phase was discerned, demonstrating the complexity of the stratigraphy in the three main Iron IIA levels. For example, an earlier phase of Building CR (Squares Y–Z/6) in Stratum C-1b was detected above the well-preserved remains of C-2 Building CT. A later phase was identified in the remains east of Stratum C-2 Building CB (Squares Y–Z/4). Additional phases in the courtyard devoted to cooking activity in Square T/4 were a typical feature of such an open area. This diversity indicates that each building had its own history; some continued with no change from Stratum C-1b to C-1a and others underwent modifications of varying degrees. The clearest change between these two strata was in the vicinity of the apiary and its surroundings in the southeastern part of Area C.

Destruction Episodes

No evidence for violent destruction was found at the end of Strata C-3 and C-2, and therefore most of the floors of these levels were found virtually lacking complete vessels (except in the case of Locus 1555b in Square R/4). There were some indications for severe damage to Stratum C-2 buildings by an earthquake, including layers of complete fallen bricks, but this was not a sudden collapse of the buildings which would have buried vessels, and perhaps human bodies, below a massive layer of debris. Rather, it could have been an earthquake that was strong enough to cause severe damage to the houses, resulting in their abandonment, with the inhabitants able to evacuate their possessions and return shortly afterwards to rebuild the new city of Stratum C-1b.

Evidence of severe destruction by fire in Stratum C-1b was found in the apiary and in Buildings CH, CG (the southern room), CM, CF and CE. In Building CG, it remained unclear whether the destruction of the northern rooms should be attributed to Stratum C-1b or C-1a. All of these buildings, except for CF and CE, contained large amounts of in situ pottery and other objects. Notably, these structures were located along a north-south axis running through the center of Area C, while buildings to the east and west of this `belt’, as well as Stratum V buildings in other excavation areas, did not show signs of destruction or burning. Perhaps the heavy destruction noted in these buildings was caused by a local event, such as deliberate or unintentional burning by human agency, or by an earthquake. The latter possibility is suggested in Chapter 54, based on paleomagnetic testing.

As opposed to this, Stratum C-1a came to an end in a sudden violent destruction that involved a fierce conflagration, evidenced in each of the excavated buildings revealed just below topsoil. The temperature must have been more than 500 degrees, since it caused partial firing of the brick courses and the mud plaster in many of the walls. In several cases, pottery vessels cracked and became distorted, with much calcification; for example, the large pottery crate in Building CF was so distorted by the fire that it was extremely difficult to restore. The incredible quantity of pottery vessels and other objects found in the houses indicates the sudden destruction, although a human skeleton was found in only one place. There was no activity in this area following the destruction, except one deep pit (6498 in Square Y/6) which cut through most of the Iron IIA strata, and possibly, a gray fill, devoid of finds, in Square Z/1 above part of Building CL.

An interesting question concerning site formation is what happened to the layers of brick debris and collapse of the buildings of Stratum C-1a? The walls of this stratum were preserved 0.7–1.0 m above the floors and their tops were discovered flat and leveled, just a few centimeters below topsoil. While many fallen bricks and ceiling material were found inside the destroyed buildings, it would seem that there would have been a larger quantity if they had stood to a normal height of ca. 1.8–2.0 m and perhaps even had second floors. We suggest that the disappearance of masses of brick debris resulted from severe erosion in this highest part of the lower mound. Layers of collapse and fallen bricks were probably washed to the southeast towards the gulley that separates the upper from the lower mound. A less feasible explanation would be that bricks were deliberately removed from the walls of the destroyed lower city by the inhabitants of the upper city, perhaps when they built the fortification wall in Area B (see Chapter 8).

Urban Planning

Area C was densely built in all three Iron Age IIA strata, C-2, C-1b and C-1, with houses attached to one another in what can be defined as pre-planned insulae, separated by only a few open spaces.

Open Spaces

An open space in Squares S–T/3–4 in Stratum C-2 was at least partly occupied by Building CM in Stratum C-1b (although the eastern part of this area remained unexcavated). In Stratum C-1b, an open area was located south of Building CD, above Building CB of Stratum C-2. In Stratum C-1a, this latter area was expanded and to its east, beyond Building CG, another piazza was created, with a 3.0-m-wide street leading into it from the east, and a somewhat irregular alley from the south. These open spaces seem not to have been related to an individual unit, but rather served as small piazzas surrounded by several buildings. Few installations were located in these open courtyards, for example, ovens found in the cooking area in Square T/4, which was in use throughout all three strata, and a stone formation in the center of Piazza CK in Stratum C-1a.

Central Planning and Orientation

Evidence for central urban planning can be seen mainly in the plan of Strata C-1b and C-1a. Two major walls traverse the entire area from south to north in a straight line: on the west was Wall 1413, which ran along 19.8 m and continued both to the south and the north of the excavated area. In the eastern part of the area (along the line of Squares A/20, 1–6), Walls 9453/9406+6408+6497 created a continuous straight line, intersected by the street in Squares Z, A–C/4. These two long backbone walls were not parallel to one another: the western one ran on a northwest–southeast alignment, while the eastern wall was due north–south. The distance between them (outer faces) was 19 m on the south and 21.5 m along the northern line of Squares R–Z, A/4, ca. 20 m to the north.

The blocks of houses in all three strata were oriented along virtually the same lines: almost exactly east–west and north–south, with minor deviations in the western part of the area, causing trapezoidshaped spaces in the seam between the eastern and western parts, such as the alley between Walls 2413 and 1438 in Squares T–Y/1–2 in Stratum C-1a or the passage from the open area in Squares S–T/2–3 to the north, towards the cooking area in Squares S– T/4 in Stratum C-1b. Evidence of central planning is also seen in the sharing of walls and the back-toback construction of many units, as discussed in the next section.

Fortifications

No evidence for the existence of fortifications was found along the western perimeter of the mound in Areas C and D, nor along the northern perimeter, where a probe was excavated in Square Y/9. The westernmost structures of all Iron IIA strata continued into Squares Q/4–5 of Area D (defined there as Strata D-1a, D-1b and D-2), located on the upper slope of the mound, where they disappeared with the erosion line. Although the slope of the mound suffered from severe erosion, as shown by the fact that the eastern sides of the buildings in Area D were missing, it is improbable that an entire city wall was eroded away, and we thus concluded that the city remained unfortified during this entire period.

Building Plans, Size and Function

Throughout all three main Iron IIA strata, a notable characteristic is the uniqueness of the architecture. Not only are the buildings quite unlike most of the typical Iron Age structures known from proximate, as well as more distant regions, but they also do not resemble each other. While certain technical features are repeated, such as size and type of bricks and the use of double walls, each unit was unique in its plan, except for three very similar buildings (CQ1, CQ2, CQ3).

In the discussion of individual buildings, we presented several parallels: Building CF was compared to part of Building 2081 at Megiddo Stratum VA–IVB, and Buildings CQ1, CQ2 and CQ3 were compared to several buildings from 13th–11th centuries BCE contexts at Hazor Stratum XIII, Tell Abu-Hawam Stratum IV, Tel Batash Stratum VI and Aphek Stratum X11. Building CA was compared to part of Building 200 at Hazor Strata X–IX, and Building CY (and to some extent, also Building CZ) to a type of building with a central space flanked by rooms on two sides, known from Hazor, Samaria and Megiddo in the Iron Age II.

Although individual parallels such as these may be cited, the general concept of the architecture, in both building techniques and plans, as well as in architectural details, deviates from the common architecture in Iron Age II Israelite cities. Notably, none of these buildings recall the so-called ‘Four-Room’ or ‘Three-Room’ houses or pillared buildings that were so typical. No stone pillars were found and wooden posts were used only in the case of Building CX and seen in scant remains of Stratum C-2 under Building CZ.

An unresolved question is whether the buildings had a second story. The double walls, up to 1.1 in width, could easily have supported a second story, but even the narrow walls of 0.6 m width could have been used for such a purpose. Evidence for staircases was not found, except perhaps in the case of the eastern part of Building CY of Stratum C-2. In other buildings, wooden ladders could have led to upper stories or to the roofs, where daily activities could have taken place, such as in the case of Building CP, where large grinding stones were found fallen from a second story or a roof.

Table 12.26 compares the external dimensions and floor space of the buildings excavated in Area C, showing the diversity, which might have had social and cultural implications. The larger buildings, CF and CP, had an average floor space of ca. 62 sq m, while Buildings CQ1, CQ2 and CQ3 had an average floor space of ca. 20 sq m. Building CX contained 34 sq m. In case of the existence of a second story, these numbers should be potentially doubled.

The number of persons that such houses could accommodate can only be guessed, based on various analyses. Narroll’s (1962) often-cited coefficient of 10 sq m per person would suggest two to five inhabitants in such houses if they had one story and four to ten persons if they had two. Yet, there are different variables that should be considered, and it is doubtful whether Narroll’s coefficient can be taken for granted. Thus, Schloen (e.g., 2001: 180) suggested a coefficient of 8.0 sq m per person in Israelite houses; following a detailed discussion, he estimated that the average Israelite “jointfamily” included seven to ten persons (Schloen 2001: 135–183). It seems that the larger houses, such as Building CY in Stratum C-2, as well as Buildings CW, CF and CP in Stratum C-1a, were inhabited by families of eight to twelve persons, while the smaller houses, such as Building CA in Stratum C-2 and CQ1, C2 and CQ3 in Stratum C-1a, served much smaller units, perhaps nuclear families or other social groups. It should be noted, however, that the function of these buildings as regular dwellings is not obvious; several of the buildings, such as CA in Stratum C-2 and CF and CP in Strata C-1a–b, may have had special functions, based on their plans and assemblages of finds. Building CF could have been an elite residence that incorporated administrative, domestic and cultic activities. Building CP in Stratum C-1a may have served specific functions related to religious rituals, such as shared meals/feasts and perhaps, the activity of a “man of god”, such as the biblical Elisha. The possible special functions of Buildings CF and CP are further discussed in Chapter 4 and Mazar 2015: 103–117. The small buildings, CQ1, CQ2 and CQ3, and perhaps also CX, may have belonged to groups or families of special status, perhaps related to or under the control of the elites in Buildings CF and CP. It should be noted that all these buildings yielded large numbers of finds, including an incredible amount of pottery vessels, considering the size of the buildings. In each building there was at least one loom and one or more grinding installations. Yet, cooking facilities were found only in Buildings CF and CP, as well as in the open piazza to the west. This, again, may emphasize the different status of the residents of the small houses, such as CQ1, CQ2 and CQ3.

Several buildings in Area C certainly served functions other than dwelling. Thus, Stratum C-2 Building CB, with its large hall, could have had some public function. Building CG in Stratum C-1 is interpreted as a granary, and Building CL as a storage facility or an or industrial structure, possibly servicing other buildings in the eastern quarter.

The clustering of the buildings in Stratum C-1a is a notable feature. An interesting configuration is the group of small buildings, CQ1, CQ2 and CQ3, and Building CW, flanking an east–west street, as well as the location of larger buildings, CF and CP, adjoining and beyond this cluster. This arrangement may reflect social ranking of some sort.

Levels

Differences in the founding levels of various buildings in the different strata were noted. In Stratum C-2, Wall 8467 in Building CY in the northeastern corner of the area was founded at 85.00 m, while the southwesternmost wall (1470) was founded at 85.57 m. The westernmost wall (1563 in Square R/4) was founded at 85.61 m and the easternmost wall (8467 in Square C/6), at 85.00 m. In Stratum C-1b, the foundations of all the buildings, except the apiary and Building CZ, ranged between 85.90 m in the northeastern corner of the area to 86.50 m in the southwestern corner, over a distance of 39 m. In Stratum C-1a, there was a 1.0 m difference between the foundation level of the northeastern wall (8424; 86.10 m) as opposed to the southwestern wall (1431; 87.10 m), and a 1.6 m difference between the westernmost wall (1413; 87.60 m) and the easternmost wall (10490; 86.00 m) along Squares S–Z, A–C/2. The difference in level of almost 1.7 m between Buildings CG, CH, CM and the apiary was a deliberate choice, as discussed in detail above.

A tilt from west to east/southeast was defined in all strata at Tel Rehov, and may have been the result of both the natural topography and seismic or tectonic activity during historical periods, causing tilts even inside structures.

Construction and Building Features

Double Walls

In many cases, adjacent buildings had their own outer walls, even when they were attached to one another, so that back-to-back double walls were created, with total thickness reaching 1.0–1.1 m. This feature can be seen in many of the units in all three strata, although the buildings in the southeastern block, CQ3, CX, CP and CL, had shared walls of regular width (0.5 m), perhaps reflecting their construction as one integral unit for social or functional reasons. The existence of an individual outer wall for each house, even in cases of attached buildings, may have had practical, as well as symbolic social meaning. Practically, it may represent building phases, indicating that each building was constructed independently, perhaps at a somewhat different time, and then, an adjacent unit was added. Double walls added to the strength of the buildings and their resistivity to earthquakes, as well as facilitating the construction of a second story. Faust (2012: 39–117) noted the rarity of double walls in Israelite domestic architecture and the social significance of this feature: individual walls for each house that create double walls together appear mainly in houses of elite families. This may be the case at Tel Rehov as well, where double walls were much more common than in any other known Iron Age II city

Building Techniques

All the Iron Age IIA buildings were constructed exclusively of bricks, with no stone foundations. This is an unusual feature in the Land of Israel, where most brick walls were laid on stone socles. At Tel Rehov itself, stone socles for brick walls were common in Late Bronze IIB and Iron Age I, and the lack of such foundations in Iron IIA is an unusual feature that remains unexplained.

Most of the bricks were made of brown, gray or yellow clay. In Stratum C-3, all of the walls were constructed with distinct gray bricks of friable consistency, laid with a light-colored mortar between them and covered with a plaster of the same composition as the mortar. In the walls of Strata C-1b and C-1a, a wider variety of bricks was used; in most cases, they were made of light gray-brown clay, and more rarely, of a dark brown soil taken from the nearby colluvium. See Tables 12.27–12.30 for details of brick sizes and materials in most of the walls. The size deviations are small, indicating a great deal of standardization in the size and manufacturing technique, if not the composition, of the bricks.

In some cases, mud plaster was preserved on walls, some 0.02–0.03 m thick and sometimes nicely smoothed. Whitish plaster of higher quality than the mud plaster was used only in the entrance to the southeastern room of Building CP, where the plaster was molded to a rounded profile.

Wood Foundations

The use of wood for wall and floor foundations at Tel Rehov is a unique feature. This is a novelty of Stratum C-1b, but there is one such case in Stratum C-2 (Building CU) and isolated cases in Stratum C-1a (e.g., Building CQ3). A similar construction technique was found in two buildings of Stratum B-5 in Area B, as well as in a building in Area G, attributed to Stratum G-1b. Hence, this technique appears to have been utilized contemporaneously in various buildings throughout the city. The purpose of this wood construction is as yet to be clarified. One possible explanation is that it was intended to stabilize the buildings in the event of earthquakes. This might have been the outcome of what we surmise was the cause of the destruction of Stratum C-2, namely, seismic activity. This function of the wood is illustrated mainly by the way circular beams (their charred remains usually no more than .05–0.1 m in diameter) were often laid at intervals of 0.1–0.2 m, perpendicular to the brick wall, below its lowest brick course. In several cases (i.e., Wall 1438), two or more layers of such beams were found. In this way, the wood could serve as a ‘shock absorber’. Prof. David Yankelevsky, head of the National Building Research Institute in the Technion, Haifa, who visited the site, compared this building technique to modern engineering, when steel cylinders are laid below the foundations of massive structures where the danger of damage by earthquakes is at high risk, such as in nuclear plants. This explanation, if accepted, would point to a technological innovation intended to protect structures against the hazards of earthquakes in a location so close to the Syro-African fault, where the threat of such activity was more acute than anywhere else in the country.

Floors

In most cases, floors were composed of beaten earth or clay. In Stratum C-1b, wooden branches and beams were incorporated into the foundation of some floors; these were usually arranged rather haphazardly below the earth floor. The wood itself was embedded into a matrix of soft red clay that was often similar to, or served as, the floor makeup itself. Stone floors were found only in Buildings CQ1 and CQ2, and perhaps Building CJ, all in Stratum C-1a. In a few places, floors incorporated pebbly gravel, such as in the western part of C-1a Building CX, or in the open space in Stratum C-1a Building CW. In Building CP, as well as in two rooms in Building CY of Stratum C-2, a brick construction was found under the red clay floors in a few rooms, while in other rooms, a mud-plaster foundation was laid under these floors.

The distinct composition of the floor of the Stratum C-1b apiary should be mentioned. It was composed of three different matrices, each apparently serving a different purpose, particularly the very hard thick white tufa floor surrounding the hives, most likely meant to be a permeable surface to protect against spillage or to possibly fend off rodents and insects.

Wooden Posts

The use of wooden posts on unworked stone bases was a rare feature that was found only in Building CX of Stratum C-1a, where there was a line of five post-holes above stone bases, and in the Stratum C-2 level under Building CZ.

Various Installations

Benches

Benches built of bricks or terre pisé were found in several instances in Stratum C-1 buildings. In Building CF of Stratum C-1a, they were found along almost all the walls of the three western chambers. In Building CW of Strata C-1a–b, they were located along the walls of the western rooms. Benches ran along some of the walls of the inner rooms of Buildings CQ1 and CQ2, as well as in Buildings CX and CP, where benches were located along the walls of four of the rooms. The benches could be used for sitting, but their main purpose was probably placement of items. A number of vessels were found on Benches 10466 and 10467 in Building CP, including a very large cooking pot. A pottery altar and bowl were found on Bench 10454 in this building.

Silos, Bins and Other Installations

Several storage installations made of packed-clay walls or bricks were found. In Building CP of Stratum C-1a, a corner of Room 9450 was enclosed by two narrow walls, creating a bin (9434) which contained an intact Hippo jar full of grain, as well as other finds. Other storage installations were Silo 7514 in Building CY of Stratum C-2 and plastered Pit 11456 in Building CZ of Stratum C-1b. An exceptional feature was the two rectangular pottery bins, made without a base and standing on their narrow side against the southern wall of Building CP. These bins, found with grain, have no parallels elsewhere.

The installation occupying the western part of the northern room of Building CQ3 in Stratum C-1a (10505) is unusual in its size and shape, although its function could not be determined; it seems that it had some industrial role. Yet another installation with a hard plaster surface was found against the southern wall of the southwestern room in this building, but it was too damaged to determine its function. Other installations include a mud-plastered semi-circle (11452) attached to the wall inside the western entrance to the southeastern room of Building CP in Stratum C-1a, and a brick with a depression on top inside the entrance to Room 2489 in Building CE in Stratum C-1b (2477); both were possibly used as stands for vessels, perhaps for drinking, positioned just inside the entrance to the rooms.

Ovens

Twenty-two ovens were excavated in Area C. Such ovens (tannur, often denoted ‘tabun’) were found in many houses, as well as in open areas. The ovens were always circular, 0.4–0.6 m in diameter; in most cases, only the lower part was preserved. Ovens were constructed with a clay wall ca. 4–5 cm thick, that was, in many cases, coated with pottery sherds on the outside. The most outstanding example is Oven 7428 in Building CU of Stratum C-2, which was completely preserved from base to rim, with an opening at the bottom and an incised mark on its exterior (Fig. 12.13). It was 0.56 m in diameter at its base, 0.56 m tall, with a 0.3 m-wide opening at its top and a small opening at its bottom, used for inserting fuel. It was coated on the outside by large sherds of restorable pottery vessels, a feature found in other ovens, but not as well preserved as this one (Mazar 2011). Ovens were also found in Stratum C-2 Building CY and in the rooms north of Building CA (Stratum C-2) and Building CD (Stratum C-1b), as well as in Buildings CF, CJ, and CP of Stratum C-1a. In several of these cases, the spaces where the ovens were found could have been unroofed areas (e.g., Buildings CY and CU), although this could not be determined with certainty. In certain cases, the location of the oven was quite certainly inside a roofed space (e.g., Building CF). An open space containing a succession of ovens throughout all the Iron IIA strata was found in Square T/4. The lack of ovens in certain buildings should be noted, in particular, Stratum C-1a Buildings CX, CQ1, CQ2 and CQ3. It is assumed that residents of these houses shared ovens located in open spaces, or that they belonged to a specific social organization in which people cooked and ate together, for example, in Building CP, where the evidence points to communal meals.

Stones

In several cases, flat stones were located on the floor or on benches along and close to walls. The latter was the case in Building CY of Stratum C-2, where 13 such stones were found along the walls, and in its successor, Building CW of Stratum C-1a, where eight such stones were found in the western rooms, placed on top of the benches lining the walls. It is difficult to explain them as a constructional feature; perhaps they were used as solid bases for objects such as water or oil jars, leather containers, etc.

Another feature was isolated cases of hard mizi stones of considerable size inside buildings. Examples include the very large stone found in Building CB of Stratum C-2, two large stones found in Building CF (one in the large hall in the eastern wing in Stratum C-1b and the second in the entrance corridor in Stratum C-1a, possibly used as a butcher block), a stone in the southern part of Building CM in Stratum C-1b and stones in Buildings CQ2 and CX of Stratum C-1a. Notable also is a large smoothed-top limestone placed at an angle to the east of the oven in the large northern room of Building CP in Stratum C-1a. Such stones could have served as working surfaces in places where a hard surface was needed. They are outstanding in light of the relatively rare use of stones in Iron Age IIA contexts at the site.

Grinding Tools and Installations

Slab-shaped lower grinding stones, loaf-shaped upper grinding stones, hammerstones, pestles, and mortars were numerous in Area C (see Chapter 43). A notable feature in Stratum C-1a were grinding installations of two basic types. The first comprised a large lower grinding stone enclosed by a low hard-clay rounded parapet; the slab is tilted towards a low area on the edge into which the ground flour could be collected; loaf-shaped upper grinding stones were found in association with it. Two very well-preserved installations of this type were found in Building CF and less well-preserved examples in Buildings CE, CQ1, and CQ2. The second type of grinding installation comprised a similar large lower grinding stone set at a slight angle and directed to a hard clay round receptacle, which was most likely meant to contain the ground flour. In Building CX, where two such installations were found, the better-preserved example had a narrow brick bordering the grinding stone on one side and built against the wall on the other. Upper grinding stones were found in association with the lower stone. In Building CP, very large lower and upper grinding stones were found in the destruction debris, 0.8 m above the floor of Room 11451, most probably fallen from the roof or an upper story of the building. Likewise, a very large stone with a small depression in its top that was smoothed from use, and might have been used as a mortar, was found just under topsoil and above the thick destruction debris in this room, suggesting that it, too, originally had been positioned on the roof or upper story.

Looms

Numerous loom weights, mostly made of stone and less so, of clay, were found in concentrations in most of the Stratum C-1a buildings; many of these contained dozens of loom weights each. Remains of charred wood in proximity to such caches, such as in Buildings CP, CR, CX, CF and CE, indicate the presence of one or two looms in the houses. See details and discussion in Chapter 39.

Notes

  1. The word ‘beam’ refers to a worked piece of wood, often squared, used as a support in construction. In the present chapter, we use it to denote the wood that was commonly found in the wall and floor foundations, mainly in Stratum C-1b, although in many cases, these were tree trunks and branches that did not seem to have been worked.

  2. Locus 2466 was related to Stratum C-2, although its absolute levels corresponded with Locus 2487 in Square S/2, which was related to Stratum C-3. This is because the C-2 walls in Square T/2 continued down, while in Square S/2, the C-3 walls began at this level.

  3. The phenomenon of cut walls was also seen in Stratum C-1b Wall 1464 in Square S/4 and Stratum C-2 Wall 2481 in Square T/3.

  4. An additional two Hippo jars were found in Locus 11425, but were not restored or drawn.

  5. The photos showing the early phase of Building CP appear together with those of its later phase in Stratum C-1a, when the entire building was exposed.

  6. At the time of writing, this bin was not restored.

Partial Collection of Plans and Sections

Plans

  • Figure 12.18 - Plan of Stratum C-1b from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.19 - Plan of Stratum C-1a from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.24 - Plan of Stratum C-1b from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.25 - Plan of Stratum C-1a from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.27 - Plan of Stratum C-1b from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.28 - Plan of Stratum C-1a from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.29 - Building CE, Stratum C-1b; corner of Walls 2454 and 1491 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.33 - Plan of Building CR, early phase of Stratum C-1b from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.34 - Plan of Stratum C-1b from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.35 - Plan of Stratum C-1a from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.36 - Plan of Building CF, Stratum C-1a from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.39 - Plan of Stratum C-1b from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.40 - Plan of Buildings CG, CH, CM and apiary, Stratum C-1b from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.44 - Plan of Building CH and apiary from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.48 - Plan of Building CZ, Stratum C-1b from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.50 - Plan of Stratum C-1a, south-center and southeast from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.51 - Plan of Buildings CQ3 and CX, Stratum C-1a from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.52a - Plan of Building CP, Stratum C-1a from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.52b - Isometric reconstruction, Building CP, Stratum C-1a from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.52c - Plan of sub-floor brick construction in Building CP, Stratum C-1a from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)

Sections

  • Figure 12.55 - Section 1 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.56 - Section 2 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.57 - Section 3 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.58 - Section 4 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.59 - Section 5 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.60 - Section 6 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.61 - Section 7 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.62 - Section 8 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.63 - Section 9 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.64 - Section 10 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.65 - Section 11 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.66 - Section 12 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.67 - Section 13 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.68 - Section 14 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.69 - Section 15 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.70 - Section 16 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.72 - Section 18 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.73 - Section 19 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.74 - Section 20 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.75 - Section 21 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.76 - Section 22 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.77 - Section 23 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.78 - Section 24 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.79 - Section 25 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.80 - Section 26 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.81 - Section 27 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.82 - Section 28 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.83 - Section 29 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.84 - Section 30 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.85 - Section 31 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.86 - Section 32 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.87 - Section 33 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.88 - Section 34 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.89 - Section 35 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.90 - Section 36 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.91 - Section 37 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.92 - Section 38 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.94 - Section 40 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.95 - Section 41 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)
  • Figure 12.97 - Section 43 (Square R/4, looking north) from Mazar et. al. (2020 v.2)

Chapter 15 - Area D: Stratigraphy and Architecture

Figures and Tables
Figures and Tables

  • Table 15.1           Stratigraphy and chronology in Area D, with correlation to Area C from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 17)
  • Table 15.2           Locus and basket numbers from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 17)
  • Figure 15.1           Location of section drawings on superimposed plan of Strata D-11–D-2 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 17)
  • Figure 15.2           Schematic section of Area D from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 17)

Discussions
Chapter 15A - Introduction

Introduction

Figures and Tables
Figures and Tables

  • Table 15.1 - Stratigraphy and chronology in Area D, with correlation to Area C from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 17)
  • Table 15.2 - Locus and basket numbers from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 17)
  • Figure 15.1 - Location of section drawings on superimposed plan of Strata D-11–D-2 from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 17)
  • Figure 15.2 - Schematic section of Area D from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 17)
  • Photo 15.1 - Area D at the end of 1997 season from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 15)
  • Photo 15.2 - Area D at the end of 1998 season from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 15)
  • Photo 15.3 - Area D at the end of 2000 season from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 15)
  • Photo 15.4 - Area D at the end of 2005 season from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 15)
  • Photo 15.5 - Aerial view, end of 2008 season from Mazar et. al. (2020 v. 3: Chapter 15)
  • Photo 15.6 -