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1016 CE Collapse of the Dome of the Rock

[27 August 1016 CE]

by Jefferson Williams









Introduction & Summary

The Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem collapsed in A.H. 407 (10 June 1016 - 29 May 1017 CE) for reasons unknown according to the historical sources. Ambraseys (2009) dated this to 27 August 1016 CE.

Textual Evidence

Text (with hotlink) Original Language Biographical Info Religion Date of Composition Location Composed Notes
Letter V from Fragments from the Cairo Geniza in the Freer Collection Hebrew Anonymous - an important person in Jerusalem Jewish ca. 1016 CE The writer of the letter states that incidentally it is said that a certain “glorious place” in Jerusalem has collapsed.
Ibn al-Athir Arabic Ibn al-Athir spent most of his life in Mosul and claimed to be a private scholar (Keany, 2013:83). He was present at Saladin's military campaigns against the Crusaders. Keany (2013:82) notes that he wrote much of The Complete History (al-Kamil fi at-Tarikh) at the turn of the [12th] century, supposedly as a personal reference, abandoned it to write a history of the Zangids, and then returned to the Kamil at the end of his life. The Complete History was completed in 1231 CE and consists of 11 volumes. He is also reported to have lived in Aleppo and Damascus. Sunni Muslim ~ 1200 - 1231 CE Mosul Ambraseys (2009) provided an excerpt - In 407, the great Dome fell down upon the Rock [as- Sakhrah] in Jerusalem. A.H. 407 equates to 10 June 1016 CE - 29 May 1017 CE.
Ibn al-Jawzi Arabic Ibn al-Jawzi was a 20th generation descendant of caliph Abu Bakr, the father-in-law of the prophet Muhammad (de Somogyi, 1932:51). He was born in Baghdad around 1115 CE and died there in 1200 CE (de Somogyi, 1932:52). A true bibliophile, he is reported to have spent most of a considerable inherited fortune in purchasing books (de Somogyi, 1932:52). He was a preacher and a prolific author whose output numbers at least in the hundreds of volumes and may have reached, as he claimed, a thousand (de Somogyi, 1932:54). Hanbali Sunni Muslim 2nd half of the 12th c. CE Baghdad Ambraseys (2009) relates that al-Jawzi dates the Dome collapse to A.H. 407 (10 June 1016 CE - 29 May 1017 CE ) and notes that the qadi of Jerusalem could not find out the true [reason for] its collapse, even for rebuilding it.
al-Dhahabi Arabic al-Dhahabi was an Arab theologian, lawyer, professor, and historian who was born in Damascus or Mayyafarikin in 1274 CE and died in Damascus in either 1348 or 1352/1353 CE (en Cheneb and De Somogyi in Encyclopedia of Islam v. 2, 1991:214-216). He traveled and studied extensively with a long sojourn in Cairo. en Cheneb and De Somogyi in Encyclopedia of Islam v. 2 (1991:214-216) characterize his written works as that of a compiler like practically all the post-classical Arab authors whose works are distinguished by careful composition and constant references to his authorities. His most notable work is Great History of Islam (Ta'rikh al-Islam al-Kabir) which begins with the genealogy of Muhammad and ends in the year A.H. 700 (1300/1301 CE). It follows the template of Kitab al-muntazam by Ibn al-Jawzi. Great History of Islam had continuators including al-Dhahabi himself and also appears many times as abridged editions - including abridgments made by al-Dhahabi (en Cheneb and De Somogyi in Encyclopedia of Islam v. 2, 1991:214-216). Muslim Early 14th century CE Damascus Ambraseys (2009) relates that al-Dhahabi (Ibar, iii. 96) provided details regarding the collapse of the Dome of the Rock.
al-Yafi'i Arabic Guidoboni and Comastri (2005) described al-Yafi'i as a Shafiae historian, known for his Sufism, who was born in Yemen around 1300 CE, settled at Mecca, went on journeys to Jerusalem and Damascus, and died in 1367 CE. Guidoboni and Comastri (2005) report his full name as Abdallah ben As'ad b. 'Ali b. Uthman b. Falah al-Shafri. His book Rawd al-rayahin contains biographies of about 500 saints and Sufis while Mir at al-janan is no more than a compilation ( Guidoboni and Comastri, 2005). Sufi Muslim before 1367 CE Mecca Ambraseys (2009) relates that al-Yafi'i (Mirat, xii. 20) provided details regarding the collapse of the Dome of the Rock.
Ibn Kathir Arabic Ibn Kathir was a historian and traditionist born around 1300 CE in Bosra. He moved to Damascus in 1306 CE and died there in 1373 CE (H. Laoust in Encyclopedia of Islam v. 3, 1991:817-818). His most notable work The Beginning and the End (Al-Bidaya wa'l-Nihaya) was written in 14 volumes (H. Laoust in Encyclopedia of Islam v. 3, 1991:817-818). The earthquake account may be in Volume 12. Muslim Before 1373 CE Damascus Ambraseys (2009) relates that Ibn Kathir (xii. 5) provided details regarding the collapse of the Dome of the Rock.
Mujir al-Din Arabic Mujir al-Din al-’Ulaimi was born in Jerusalem in 1456 CE. He studied there from a young age until he moved to Cairo at the age of eighteen to pursue further studies for about 10 years before returning to Jerusalem. He worked as a public servant and was appointed qadi (Shari’a judge) of Ramla in 1484 CE. He became the chief Hanbali qadi of Jerusalem in 1486 CE and held that position for nearly 3 decades until he retired in 1516 CE. He wrote several books but only one - The glorious history of Jerusalem and Hebron (al-Uns al-Jalil bi-tarikh al-Quds wal-Khalil) - was published (wikipedia). Hanbali Sunni Muslim ca. 1495 CE Jerusalem Mujir al-Din dates the Dome collapse to A.H. 407 (10 June 1016 CE - 29 May 1017 CE ) and states that in Jerusalem, the great dome which covers the Sakhrah had collapsed. I could not verify the accuracy of the fact concerning the fall of the dome of the Sakhrah and its reconstruction; but it is probable that only a part of it collapsed and that it did not fall entirely.
Text (with hotlink) Original Language Biographical Info Religion Date of Composition Location Composed Notes
Letter V from Fragments from the Cairo Geniza in the Freer Collection

The Hebrew word genizah is variously translated to safe-keeping, hiding, archive, treasury, or hiding-place. It is a depository where worn-out, heretical, or disgraced books, written or printed, useless documents and letters, or other objects of pious solicitude, are stored. ( Gottheil and Worrel, 1927:xi) The documents of the Cairo Geniza were kept in the Ben Ezra synagogue of Fustat in Old Cairo.

In Letter V from Fragments from the Cairo Geniza in the Freer Collection we can read in an English translation by Gottheil and Worrel (1927:27)

Apparently Jacob had left Jerusalem some time before, bearing a commission from Solomon Ben Khalaf al-Bukl in Jerusalem to his wife in Fustat. Solomon had given Jacob two gold-pieces with which to pay her way to Jerusalem. Evidently he expected trouble, for he gave to Jacob a statement of his possessions in his house at Fustat and directions to take possession of these. The only response that came was another messenger, Nathan or Hibah by name, son of Zachariah, who arrived in Jerusalem with a protest from the wife that Solomon had no grounds for his action. Nathan next undertook to carry to the wife in Fustat a letter of divorce, which he promised to deliver to her in the presence of a certain Abraham the Hazzan.

Nathan appears with all the documents and with Solomon’s statement that it was in the house of the writer that Jacob had sworn to carry the original message to the wife. The writer is equally certain that nothing of the kind ever took place under his roof, nor had he heard of the affair at all. He now writes in great haste to Jacob and tells him that he is sending by a Spaniard, al-Azhar, a copy of the wife’s protest, which is to be delivered to Abraham, the intended witness of the divorce proceedings. Incidentally it is said that a certain “glorious place” in Jerusalem has collapsed.
Gottheil and Worrel (1927:26) provided some background
This letter was written to a Ga’on Jacob Ben Joseph ha-Hasidh, perhaps the Jacob Ben Joseph Ab-Beth-Dln who as rabbi signed documents at Fustat in A.D. 1016 and 1018, and did the same at Aleppo in 1028. Cf. Mann, op. cit., vol. i, pp. 37, 150. The writer of the letter is an important person in Jerusalem. At the time when this Jacob was in Fustat the chief dignitary in Jerusalem was Josiah Ga’on. Cf. Mann, op. cit., vol. i, pp. 71 ff. His letters are not unlike this in their opening words. The “glorious place” which collapsed was probably a synagogue; and the cause may have been the earthquake of A.D. 1016. Cf. Mann, op. cit., vol. i, pp. 72, 156.
Online Versions and Further Reading

Gottheil, R. and Worrel, W.H. (1927). Fragments from the Cairo Genizah in the Freer Collection, No. 5 Macmillan. New York

The Complete History by Ibn al-Athir

الكامل في التاريخ by علي عز الدین بن الاثیر الجزري

Aliases Arabic
Ibn al-Athir
Ali 'Izz al-Din Ibn al-Athir al-Jazari علي عز الدین بن الاثیر الجزري
Abu al-Hassan Ali ibn Muhammad ibn Muhammad ash-Shaybani
Ibn al-Athir spent most of his life in Mosul and claimed to be a private scholar (Keany, 2013:83). He was present at Saladin's military campaigns against the Crusaders. Keany (2013:82) notes that he wrote much of The Complete History (al-Kamil fi at-Tarikh) at the turn of the [12th] century, supposedly as a personal reference, abandoned it to write a history of the Zangids, and then returned to the Kamil at the end of his life. The Complete History was completed in 1231 CE and consists of 11 volumes.

Ambraseys (2009) provided an excerpt.
In 407 the great Dome fell down upon the Rock [as- Sakhrah] in Jerusalem. (Ibn al-Athir, ix. 209)
Chronology
Year Reference Corrections Notes
10 June 1016 - 29 May 1017 CE A.H. 407 none Calculated using CHRONOS
Sources

Keany (2013:82) notes that in the earlier part of Ibn al-Athir’s History, he relies on al-Tabari without isnads and with minimal editing, making his “perhaps the most conservative of all the major universal chronicles.”

Online Versions and Further Reading

The Book on Rightly ordered Things and the Collection of Necessary Things dealing with the History of the Kings and the Nation by Ibn al-Jawzi

Kitab al-muntazam by ابن الجوزي

Aliases Arabic
Ibn al-Jawzi ابن الجوزي
al-Jauzi ابن ال
Jamaladdin Abul-Faraj 'Abdarrahman ibn abil-Hasan ibn 'Ali ibn Muhammad ibn al-Jauzi al-Qurashi at-Taymi al-Bakri
ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. ʿAlī b. Muḥammad Abu 'l-Faras̲h̲ b. al-Jawzī
Ibn al-Jawzi was a 20th generation descendant of caliph Abu Bakr, the father-in-law of the prophet Muhammad (de Somogyi, 1932:51). He was born in Baghdad around 1115 CE and died there in 1200 CE (de Somogyi, 1932:52). A true bibliophile, he is reported to have spent most of a considerable inherited fortune in purchasing books (de Somogyi, 1932:52). He was a preacher and a prolific author whose output numbers at least in the hundreds of volumes and may have reached, as he claimed, a thousand (de Somogyi, 1932:54). His most famed and important work is The Book on Rightly ordered Things and the Collection of Necessary Things dealing with the History of the Kings and the Nation (Kitab al muntazam wa multaqat al-multazam fi akhbar wal-umam) which is usually referred to as Kitab al-muntazam. This text is arranged in chronological order starting from "Creation" until A.H. 574 (1178/1179 CE) and appears to have been completed shortly before his death in 1200 CE (de Somogyi, 1932:55). de Somogyi (1932:55) states that the work originally consisted of sixteen volumes, but the copyists of later times divided it into parts.

Ambraseys (2009) relates that Ibn al-Jawzi dates the Dome collapse to A.H. 407 (10 June 1016 CE) and notes that the qadi of Jerusalem could not find out the true [reason for] its collapse, even for rebuilding it.

Chronology
Year Reference Corrections Notes
10 June 1016 CE - 29 May 1017 CE A.H. 407 none Calculated using CHRONOS.
Sources
Sources according to de Somogyi (1932)

from de Somogyi (1932:64-68)

V. The Authorities of the "Kitab al-muntazam"

The Kitab al-muntazam gives evidence of the many-sided erudition of Ibn al-Jauzi. In writing such an extensive work, he had to consult many authorities. But, unlike at-Tabari and Ibn al-Athir, Ibn al-Jauzi is not satisfied with giving the name of his authority ; in addition, he gives the complete isnad of the traditionists through whom his direct authority received his information. His elaborate and long isnads - being in the majority of the cases longer than the matn - are a peculiarity of Ibn al-Jauzi, the more so as at his time quoting of isndds in their whole length, as was customary at the time of at-Tabari, had been abandoned.1

Only Ibn al-Jauzi's main work of reference is an exception to this rule, that is ay-Tabari's work. Except in a few cases,2 he does not refer to the Ta'rikh ar-rusul wal-mulukt since its general use by all the later Arab historians was a well-known fact. But as soon as his narrative differs from that of av-TakarI, he never neglects to name the authority from whom he received an additional or a new tradition.

It may be seen from the Kitab al-muntazam that Ibn al Jauzi knew many prominent scholars of his city and read their works as well. The most remarkable of these Baghdad scholars was no doubt Abu Mansur 'Abdarrahman ibn Muhammad al-Qazzaz whom he may have well known personally and have read his books, none of which has been left to us. Excluding at-Tabari, it is he from whom Ibn al-Jauzi received most of his information on events of both general, political, and local character, and more especially for his biographical notices. There is hardly any page in the Kitab al-muntazam on which his name - quoted as either 'Abdarrahman ibn Muhammad or Abu Mansur al-Qazzaz - is not mentioned. The only reference to this scholar is to be found in the abstract entitled " Muntaqi al-'Ibar " of adh Dhahabi's chronicle made by Abu Bakr ibn Ahmad ibn Qadi Shuhba (died in a.h. 851),3 where he is said to have died in the year 535/1140-1, and to have been a disciple of al-Khatib al-Baghdadi and an eminent traditionist.

Next to al-Qazzaz, the authority most frequently quoted by Ibn al-Jauzi is Abul-Fadl Muhammad ibn Nasir al-Hafiz as-Sallami, often called Muhaddith al-'Iraq, who according to adh-Dhahabl,4 died in 550/1155. His contemporary and Ibn al-Jauzi's third important authority was Abul-Qasim Isma'il ibn Ahmad ibn as-Samarqandi, who according to adh Dhahabi5 died in 536/1141-2, and is said to have been, together with al-Qazzaz, a disciple of al-Khatib al-Baghdadi, and equally an eminent traditionist.6

The master of these scholars, Abu Bakr Ahmad ibn 'Ali ibn Thabit, commonly called al-Khatib al-Baghdadi (died in 403/1071) is also referred to in several passages of the Kitab al-muntazam. We may assume that Ibn al-Jauzi, in writing his obituary notices, made wide use of his Tarikh Baghdad, a voluminous history of learned men,7 the more so as he readily accepted the ideas of al-Khatib al-Baghdadi in ruthlessly purifying the hadiths.8

The other authorities quoted by Ibn al-Jauzi are as follows (the years in the narratives of which they are mentioned are put in brackets)9 : -
  • Ibrahim ibn Dinar al-Faqih (a.h. 381).
  • Ibrahim an-Nakha'i (a.h. 75). See Fihrist, vol. i, p. 183.
  • 'Abdalmalik ibn Qurayb al-Asma'i died in 216/831 (a.h. 131).
  • al-Arabi (a.h. 280).
  • Muhammad ibn 'Ali ibn Babat (a.h. 75).
  • Muhammad ibn abi Tahir al-Bazzar (a.h. 99,151, 262, 279).
  • Abu Mansur al-Bazzaz (a.h. 158
  • Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Yahya as-Suli, died in 335/946 (a.h. 132, 158, 256, 269, 286).
  • Abu 'Ali Muhassin ibn 'Ali at-Tanukhi, died in 384/994 (a.h. 391).
  • 'Amr ibn Bahr al-Laythi al-Jahiz, died in 255/869 (a.h. 158).
  • Jabala ibn Muhammad (a.h. 132).
  • Ibn Hajib (a.h. 370). He is probably Abul-Husayn 'Abdal 'aziz ibn Ibrahim ibn Hajib an-Nu'man, scribe at the time of Mu'izz addaula.
  • al-Hakim ibn 'Abdallah ibn Muhammad, died in 405/1014 : " Ta'rikh Nisabur " (a.h. 230).
  • Abul-Hasan al-Jarrahi (a.h. 260).
  • al-Hasan ibn Ja'far 'Ali (a.h. 132).
  • Abul-Hasan ibn 'Ali al-Kaukabi (a.h. 382).
  • Abul-Hasan ibn 'Ali ibn al-Ma'ali (a.h. 367, 422).
  • Abul-Hasan ibn 'Ali ibn Muhammad ibn 'Abdalwahid al Hashimi (a.h. 132, 279).
  • Abul-Husayn ibn Muhammad ibn 'Abdalwahhab ad-Dabbas (a.h. 93). See Fihrist, vol. i, p. 208.
  • Ibn Halaf (a.h. 151).
  • Muhammad ibn 'Abdalmalik al-Hamdanl, died in 521/1127 (a.h. 279, 381).
  • Khalid ibn 'Aylan (a.h. 132).
  • 'Ali ibn 'Umar ad-Daraqutni, died in 385/995 (a.h. 376).
  • Abu Bakr ibn abi Dunya, died in 281/894 (a.h. 105).
  • Zahir ibn Tahir ibn Muhammad, died in 533/1138 (a.h. 99, 230).
  • as-Sahhaq (a.h. 158).
  • Sa'id ibn 'Ali abu 'Abdallah Muhammad ibn Asad al-Katib al-Qari al-Bazzaz al-Baghdadi, died in 410/1019 (a.h. 408).
  • Abu Sa'id al-Himyari (a.h. 132).
  • Shahak (a.h. 86). See Fihrist, vol. ii, p. 168 ; Ibn Shahak as-Sindi.
  • 'Abdallah ibn Hasan (a.h. 132).
  • 'Abdalwahhab ibn al-Mubarak (a.h. 96, 99).
  • 'Abdalwahhab ibn Muhammad (a.h. 158)
  • 'Ali ibn 'Ubaydallah (a.h. 132). He is perhaps identical with 'All ibn 'Ubaydallah ibn Babawaih, author of a " Fihrist", see Br. Mus. Suppl., Nr. 635.
  • 'Umar ibn al-Hafiz (a.h. 101).
  • Abu 'Amr ibn al-'Ala (a.h. 158), the philologist of Basra, died probably in 159/776.10
  • Ibn abil-Fawaris (a.h. 376).
  • Abul-Hasan ibn 'Ali ibn Muhammad ibn Habibal-Mawardi, died in 450/1058 (a.h. 238, 240, 242).
  • al-Mubarak ibn 'Ali as-Sayrafi (a.h. 100).
  • Mahfuz ibn Ahmad (a.h. 86).
  • Muhammad ibn 'Abdalbaqi abu Bakr al-Ansari, died in 535/1140 (a.h. 256, 271, 279, 322, 329, 334, 335). See Br. Mus. Suppl., No. 622 ; he is mentioned by Ibn Nuqta as having received traditions from al-Hasan ibn 'Ali al-Jauhari.
  • Muhammad ibn 'Abdalhaytham (a.h. 75).
  • al-Mada'ini Abul-Hasan 'All ibn Muhammad, died about 840/225 (a.h. 91).
  • Ibn al-Mu'tazz (a.h. 286, 289).
  • Hibatalldh ibn al-Hasan al-Lalaqa'I, died in 418/1027 (a.h. 125).
  • Hibatallah ibn 'Abdassalam al-Katib (a.h. 422).
  • Hilal ibn al-Muhassin as-Sabi, died in 448/1056 (a.h. 353, 413).
Footnotes

1 See Brockelmann, Das Verhaltnis, etc., p. 0.

2 See Br. M. Suppl., No. 460, fol. 986, I. 14 ; fol. 177, 1. 4.

3 Br. M. Or., No. 3006, fol. 276, margin.

4 Do., MS., fol. 287a; see also as-Sam'ani: Kitab ansab, ed. D. S. Margoliouth, London-Leyden, 1912, fol. 320a.

5 Do., MS., fol. 277a.

6 adh-Dhahabi in his Ta'rikh al-islam also mentions these three men as masters of Ibn al-Jauzi, see Br. M. Or., Nr. 52, fol. 119.

7 See Br. M. Or., Nr. 303, fol. 1166, 1. 24.

8 Especially in his Al-kifdya fi ma'rifat usul 'ilm ar-riwaya, see Goldziher, Muh. St., vol. ii, p. 183.

9 As I have not yet been able to inspect the MSS. of the Constantinople libraries, the above data refer only to the narratives contained in the MSS. of the European libraries (British Museum, Oxford, Gotha, Berlin). As reference-works, I have made use of Brockelmann, Geschichte der arabischen Litteratur, the Fihriat and Haji Khalfa, ed. Flugel.

10 This date of his death seems more probable than 154/770, which is generally accepted. See Ibn Khallikan, ed. de Slane, vol. ii, p. 402.

Online Versions and Further Reading Notes
Ibn al-Jawzi vs. Sibt Ibn al-Jawzi

Ibn al-Jawzi lived in Baghdad and completed Kitab al-muntazam shortly before his death in 1200 CE. The work is arranged chronologically from "Creation" until A.H. 574 - 1178/1179 CE (de Somogyi, 1932:55).

Sibt ibn al-Jawzi (ca. 1185 - 1256 CE) was the grandson of Ibn al-Jawzi and was raised by Ibn al-Jawzi in Baghdad (Keany, 2013:83). Sibt in Arabic means grandson through one of the grandfather's daughters. After his grandfather's death, Sibt ibn al-Jawzi moved to Damascus where he was a Preacher as well as a Historian (Keany, 2013:83). Sibt ibn al-Jawzi wrote Mirror of time in histories of the notables (Mir’at al-Zamān fī Tawarīkh al-'Ayān - مرآة الزمان في تواريخ الأعيان) in 23 volumes in the 13th century CE.

Great History of Islam by al-Dhahabi

تاريخ الإسلام by الذهبي

Aliases Arabic
Shams ad-Dīn adh-Dhahabī شمس الدين الذهبي
Shams ad-Dīn Abū ʿAbdillāh Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad ibn ʿUthmān ibn Qāymāẓ سهامس ادءدين ابو عابديللاه موحامماد يبن احماد يبن عوتهمان يبن قايماظ يبن عابديللاه اتءتوركوماني الءفاريقي ادءديماسهقي (?)
ʿAbdillāh at-Turkumānī al-Fāriqī ad-Dimashqī عابديللاه اتءتوركوماني الءفاريقي ادءديماسهقي (?)
al-Dhahabi was an Arab theologian, lawyer, professor, and historian who was born in Damascus or Mayyafarikin in 1274 CE and died in Damascus in either 1348 or 1352/1353 CE (en Cheneb and De Somogyi in Encyclopedia of Islam v. 2, 1991:214-216). He traveled and studied extensively with a long sojourn in Cairo. en Cheneb and De Somogyi in Encyclopedia of Islam v. 2 (1991:214-216) characterize his written works as that of a compiler like practically all the post-classical Arab authors whose works are distinguished by careful composition and constant references to his authorities. His most notable work is Great History of Islam (Ta'rikh al-Islam al-Kabir) which begins with the genealogy of Muhammad and ends in the year A.H. 700 (1300/1301 CE). It follows the template of Kitab al-muntazam by Ibn al-Jawzi. Great History of Islam had continuators including al-Dhahabi himself and also appears many times as abridged editions - including abridgments made by al-Dhahabi (en Cheneb and De Somogyi in Encyclopedia of Islam v. 2, 1991:214-216). The (unabridged?) work comprises 50 volumes.

Ambraseys (2009) relates that al-Dhahabi (Ibar, iii. 96) provided details regarding the collapse of the Dome of the Rock.

Online Versions and Further Reading
References

Ta'rikh al-Islam al-Kabir in Arabic - online - open access

Encyclopedia of Islam v. 2 (1927) open access - archive.org - online

Encyclopedia of Islam v. 2 (modern and updated) subscription site - online

Brockelmann, II, 46-8; S II, 45-7 (with enumeration of the Oriental references and the manuscripts)

G. Sarton, Introduction to the history of science, iii, the fourteenth century, Baltimore 1947-8, 963-7

Fr. Rosenthal, A history of Muslim historiography, Leiden 1952, 30 (n. 8), 129-30

J. de Somogyi, The Ta*rikh al-islam of adh-Dhahabi, in JRAS 1932, 815-55

idem, Ein arabisches Kompendium der Weltgeschichte. Das Kitdb duwal al-islam des ad-Dahabi, in Islamica 1932, 334-53

idem, A Qasida on the destruction of Baghdad by the Mongols, in BSOS 1933, 41-8

idem, Adh-Dhahabi's Ta'rikh al-isldm as an authority on the Mongol invasion of the Caliphate, in JRAS 1936, 595-604

idem, Ein arabischer Bericht uber die Tataren im Ta*rify al-isldm des ad-Dahabi, in Islamica 1937, 105-30

idem, Adh-Dhahabi's record of the destruction of Damascus by the Mongols in 699-700/1299-1301, in Ignace Goldziher Memorial Volume I, Budapest 1948, 353-86.

Mirat al-Jinan by al-Yafi'i

Mirat al-Jinan by اليافع

Aliases Arabic
Al Yafei اليافع
Al Yafi'i اليافع
Guidoboni and Comastri (2005) described al-Yafi'i as a Shafiae historian, known for his Sufism, who was born in Yemen around 1300 CE, settled at Mecca, went on journeys to Jerusalem and Damascus, and died in 1367 CE. Guidoboni and Comastri (2005) report his full name as Abdallah ben As'ad b. 'Ali b. Uthman b. Falah al-Shafri. His book Rawd al-rayahin contains biographies of about 500 saints and Sufis while Mir at al-janan is no more than a compilation ( Guidoboni and Comastri, 2005).

Ambraseys (2009) relates that al-Yafi'i (Mirat, xii. 20) provided details regarding the collapse of the Dome of the Rock.

The Beginning and the End by Ibn Kathir

Al-Bidāya wan Nihāya by ابن كثير

Aliases Arabic
Ibn Kathir ابن كثير
Abu al-Fiḍā ‘Imād Ad-Din Ismā‘īl ibn ‘Umar ibn Kathīr al-Qurashī Al-Damishqī إسماعيل بن عمر بن كثير القرشي الدمشقي أبو الفداء عماد
Abū l-Fidāʾ Ismāʿīl ibn ʿUmar ibn Kaṯīr أبو الفداء إسماعيل بن عمر بن كثير
Imād ad-Dīn عماد الدين
Ibn Kathir was a historian and traditionist born around 1300 CE in Bosra. He moved to Damascus in 1306 CE and died there in 1373 CE (H. Laoust in Encyclopedia of Islam v. 3, 1991:817-818). His most notable work The Beginning and the End (Al-Bidaya wa'l-Nihaya) was written in 14 volumes (H. Laoust in Encyclopedia of Islam v. 3, 1991:817-818). The earthquake account may be in Volume 12.

Ambraseys (2009) relates that bn Kathir (xii. 5) provided details regarding the collapse of the Dome of the Rock.

Sources
Sources

H. Laoust in Encyclopedia of Islam v. 3 (1991:817-818) describes Ibn Kathir's sources as follows

His history of the caliphate makes use, among other sources, of al-Tabari, Ibn 'Asakir, Ibn al-Djawzi, Ibn al-Athir, Sibt Ibn al-Djawzi, Kutb al-Din al-Yunini, al-Dhahabi, etc. The Biddya ends with a chronicle of the history of Damascus, which owes much to the Ta'rikh of al-Birzali (d, 739/1338-9) and his Mu'djam.

Online Versions and Further Reading
References

Ibn Kathir, al-Bidaya wa’l-nihaya fi ’l-tarikh, 13 volumes, ed. Cairo, 1932–39 (1300–1373) 1351-58.

Ibn Kathir, al-Bidaya wa'l-nihaya, Beirut 1966.

zlib booklist on Ibn Kathir (Indonesian)

Notes
Dependants

H. Laoust in Encyclopedia of Islam v. 3 (1991:817-818) describes some of Ibn Kathir's dependants

The popularity of the Biddya is proved by the great number of historical works for which it, in its turn, was the basis, including those of Ibn Hidjdji (d. 816/1413), Ibn Katfi Shuhba (d. 851/1348) and especially Ibn Hadjar al-'Askalani (d. 852/1449), who wrote a continuation not only of Ibn Kathir but of two of the latter's great teachers, al-Mizzi and al-Dhahabi. Al-'Ayni (d. 855/1451) was also indebted to the Biddya.

The Glorious History of Jerusalem and Hebron by Mujir al-Din

التاريخ المجيد للقدس والخليل (?) by مجير الدين

Aliases Arabic
Mujir al-Din al-’Ulaimi مجير الدين العليمي (?)
al-’Ulaimi العليمي (?)
'Abd al-Rahman ibn Muhammad al-'Ulaymi مجير الدين عبدالرحمن الحنبلي العليمي الشهير بأبن قطينه (?)
Ibn Quttainah يبن قوتتايناه (?)
Mujir al-Din al-’Ulaimi was born in Jerusalem in 1456 CE. He studied there from a young age until he moved to Cairo at the age of eighteen to pursue further studies for about 10 years before returning to Jerusalem. He worked as a public servant and was appointed qadi (Shari’a judge) of Ramla in 1484 CE. He became the chief Hanbali qadi of Jerusalem in 1486 CE and held that position for nearly 3 decades until he retired in 1516 CE. He wrote several books but only one - The glorious history of Jerusalem and Hebron (al-Uns al-Jalil bi-tarikh al-Quds wal-Khalil) - was published (wikipedia).

In an abbreviated French translation by Sauvaire (1876:68-69) we can read:
English

I read in a Chronicle that in the year 407 (started on June 10, 1016 AD), that the sepulchral chapel of El-Hussein, son of Ali, fell prey to flames, following a fire caused by a spark which one of the guards in charge of lighting the lamps let fall without noticing it. We would also have received news that the south corner of the Masdjed-el-Haram (the mosque of Mecca) had cracked; one wall, in front of the tomb of the Prophet, had fallen, and that, in Jerusalem, the great dome which covers the Sakhrah had collapsed. I could not verify the accuracy of the fact concerning the fall of the dome of the Sakhrah and its reconstruction; but it is probable that only a part of it collapsed and that it did not fall entirely. God knows the truth.

French

J'ai lu dans une Chronique qu'en l'année 407 (Comm. 10 juin 1016 de J.-C), la chapelle sépulcrale d'El-Hosayn, fils d' 'Aly, devint la proie des flammes , à la suite d'un incendie occasionné par une étincelle qu'un des gar- diens chargés d'allumer les lampes laissa tomber sans s'en apercevoir. On aurait aussi reçu la nouvelle que le coin méridional du Masdjed-el-Haràm (la mosquée de la Mekke) s'était lézardé; qu'un mur, devant le tombeau du Prophète, était tombé, et que la grande coupole qui re- couvre la Sakhrah, à Jérusalem, s'était écroulée Je n'ai pu vérifier l'exactitude du fait concernant la chute de la coupole de la Sakhrah et sa reconstruction ; mais il est probable qu'il ne s'en écroula qu'une partie et qu'elle ne tomba pas entièrement. Dieu connaît la vérité.
Chronology
Year Reference Corrections Notes
10 June 1016 - 29 May 1017 CE A.H. 407 none Calculated using CHRONOS
Online Versions and Further Reading
References

Sauvaire, H. (1876). Histoire de Jérusalem et d'Hébron depuis Abraham jusqu'à la fin du XVe siècle de J. C: Fragments de la Chronique de Moudjir-ed-Dyn, E. Leroux. - French translations of some parts of Mujr ad-Din

Mujir al-Din al-’Ulaimi (ca. 1495) "The Glorious History of Jerusalem and Hebron" (al-Uns al-Jalil bi-tarikh al-Quds wal-Khalil) (Online - in Arabic)

Elad, A. (1995). Medieval Jerusalem and Islamic Worship: Holy Places, Ceremonies, Pilgrimage, E.J. Brill.

Elad, A. (1982:36-37) An Early Arabic Source Concerning the Markets of Jerusalem. Cathedra, vol. XXIV (1982), pp. 31-40 (in Hebrew).

Kister, M.J. "A Comment on the Antiquity of Traditions Praising Jerusalem." The Jerusalem Cathedra, voI. I (1981), pp. 185-186.

Schacht, J. The Origins of Muhammadan Jurisprudence. Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1979.

Juynboll, G.H.A. Muslim Tradition. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1983.

Abu '1-Ma'ali, al-Musharraf b. al-Murajja. Fada'il Bayt al-Maqdis wa-'l-Sham wa-'l-Khalil. Ms. Tubingen VI 27.

Abū 'l-Maՙālī al-Musharraf b. al-Murajjā b. Ibrāhīm al-Maqdisī. (1995). Faḍā'il bayt al-maqdis wa al-khatīl wa-faḍa'il al-shām. ed. Ofer Livne-Kafri, Almashreq, Shfaram.

DBpedia contains numerous links to online versions of Mujir al-Din's works

Excerpts and publications

from wikipedia

Mujir al-Din's writings are quoted extensively in the works of 19th century Orientalists and 20th and 21st century scholars alike. It is particularly valuable for what it reveals about the topography and social life of 15th century Jerusalem. A number of copies of manuscripts of al-Uns al-Jalil are kept in libraries in Paris, London and Vienna. El Wahby, a Cairo-based publishing house printed his work in full. A French translation of excerpts of his work with a foreword by Henry Sauvaire was published under the title, Histoire de Jérusalem et d'Hébron depuis Abraham jusqu'à la fin du XVe siècle de J.-C. : fragments de la Chronique de Moudjir-ed-dyn (1876). This compilation was made up of excerpts of his work translated from a manuscript procured in Jerusalem and from the Egyptian edition.

Translated excerpts of al-Uns al Jalil can be found in the work of Joseph Toussaint Reinaud and Joseph von Hammer-Purgstall. Guy Le Strange references the work of Mujir al-Din throughout his book Palestine Under the Moslems: A Description of Syria and the Holy Land from A.D. 650 to 1500 (1890), drawing upon his descriptions of various monuments to determine their state, appearance, and measurements at his time of writing.

Archeoseismic Evidence

Tsunamogenic Evidence

Paleoseismic Evidence

Notes

Ambraseys (2009)

[AD 1016 Aug 27 Jerusalem]

The Dome of the Mosque of the Rock in Jerusalem fell down on 27 August 1016 and it was rebuilt. The sources do not mention an earthquake explicitly, and it seems that the cause was unknown.

Ibn al-Jauzi places this event in a.H. 407 (10 June 1016 to 30 May 1017), and notes that the qadi of Jerusalem 'could not find out the true [reason for] its collapse, even for rebuilding it'. This event is also mentioned by Ibn al-Athir.

See for details al-Dhahabi (Ibar, iii. 96), Ibn Kathir (xii. 5), Mujir al-Din (al-Uns, i. 269), al-Yafi'i (Mirat, xii. 20) and Gottheil and Worrel (1927). (a.H. 407) The great Dome of the Mosque of the Rock Jerusalem collapsed. The Qadi Mujir ad-Din al-'Ulaymi could not find out the true [reason for] its collapse, even for rebuilding it.' (Ibn al-Jauzi, al-Munt. 7/283).

`In 407 the great Dome fell down upon the Rock [as- Sakhrah] in Jerusalem.' (Ibn al-Athir, ix. 209).

Paleoclimate - Droughts

Footnotes

References

Arabic Texts

Ibn al-Athir Izz al-Din ( 1851-76, 1872). (Kitab) al-Kamil fil-tarikh (The Complete History). (C) RHC Hist.Orient. C. J. Tornberg. Leiden, Paris.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ali_ibn_al-Athir
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Complete_History

Dahab. Tarikh: al-Dahabii, Tarikh al-Islam, MS BL Or. 49 and 50; Paris MS Ar. 1581; Kitab al-'ibar fi khabar man ghabara, 5 volumes, ed. S. Munajjid, Kuwait, 1960-66;
Kitab duwa al-Islam al-kabir, MS BM Or. 48-50, with Dhail ed. al-Sakhawi, Hyderabad, 1919; trans. A. Negre, Damascus 1979, p. 13.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Al-Dhahabi
http://ar.wikisource.org/wiki/%D8%AA%D8%A7%D8%B1%D9%8A%D8%AE_%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%A5%D8%B3%D9%84%D8%A7%D9%85

al-Jauzi, Ibn. (1938-41). Kitab al-muntazam fi tarikh al muluk wa'l-uman. Hyderabad.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sibt_ibn_al-Jawzi
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abu%27l-Faraj_ibn_al-Jawz