|Khirbet Qadish||Arabic||كهيربيت قاديسه|
Fischer et al (1984) examined a Temple at Kadesh which, based on inscriptions and architectural decorations, was presumed to have been in use in the second and third centuries CE. Noting that there were indications that the Temple appeared to have been destroyed by an earthquake, they speculated that the Temple was damaged by the northern Cyril Quake.
Some of the masonry courses of the east facade are clearly shifted out of line (PI. 27: I), and a similar disturbance is evident in the keystones above the two side entrances. This could have been caused by an earthquake some time in the past. One likelihood is the devastating earthquake of May 19, 363 C.E. that affected the entire region, from northern Galilee to Petra and from the Mediterranean coast to the Jordan Valley (Russel 1980; Hammond 1980).Schweppe et al (2017) reiterated that
Although it is still difficult to determine when the temple was abandoned, there are indications that it was destroyed by an earthquake, possibly the one that struck the region on May 19, 363 C.E
Fischer et al.  suggest that the temple was destroyed by an earthquake on May 19, 363 C.E.. They further stated that
unearthed ceramics and coins show that the temple was abandoned after the earthquake.This last quote does not refer to any part of Fischer at al (1984) and its source or whether it is a paraphrase is unknown.
it is not possible to differentiate with certainty which damage is of anthropogenic or of natural cause.However, some archeoseismic evidence does appear to remain which is described below
The wall in Figure 3aSchweppe et al (2017) performed numerical simulations and estimated that a PGA of 6 m/s2 was required to topple the currently remaining Temple structure under conditions of a dominant frequency of 1 Hz. and shaking in an EW direction. This produced an estimated upper limit for strength of shaking experienced at the site - at least since around 363 CE. They additionally simulated a number of historical earthquakes thought to have affected Kedesh after 363 CE and none were shown to have toppled what remains of the Temple. They did not simulate a hypothesized 363 CE earthquake which may have led to or contributed to initial abandonment of the structure.shows horizontal shifts and gaps between the ashlars which indicate that, at least in part, dynamic shaking has ruined the Kedesh Temple. In particular, we interpret the gaps between the ashlars in the northern section and its bend as the consequence of earthquake ground motions.Figure 3
- View from west towards the remains of the Roman Temple of Kedesh. The northern and southern sections have heights of 7.26 m and 3.59 m, respectively. The door-jamb at the southern section is 4.4 m high.
- View from the south to the northern section showing the gap between the two shells.
- Photo showing the current state of the southern section of the ruin (Photos: Schweppe).
- Photo by Kitchener from ‘The Survey of Western Palestine’ [Conder and Kitchener 1882]. The red highlighted ashlars are missing today.
Schweppe et al (2017)
|Displaced Masonry Blocks||
Schweppe et al (2017)
horizontal shifts and gaps between the ashlars( Schweppe et al, 2017)
Schweppe et al (2017)
|bend in the wall||VII+|
Masonry Tomb at Kades
Masonry Tomb at Kades [aka Kedesh] - levels re-balanced by Williams
Conder and Kitchner (1882:228-229)
Conder and Kitchner (1882:228-229) took a photo described as
Masonry Tomb at Kades [aka Kedesh]which shows a dropped keystone in a N-S trending arch
Schweppe, G., et al. (2017). "The Ruin of the Roman Temple of Kedesh, Israel; Example of a Precariously Balanced Archaeological Structure Used as a Seismoscope." 2017 60(4).
Fischer, M., et al. (1984). "The Roman Temple at Kedesh, Upper Galilee: A Preliminary Study." Tel Aviv 11(2): 146-172.
Krencker, D. and Zschietzschmann, W. 1938. Romische Tempel in Syrien, I-II Berlin.
Conder, C. R. and H. H. Kitchner (1882). The Survey of Western Palestine, II Samaria. London: Palestine Exploration Fund, pp. 3760. - Kedesh is listed as Kades and is discussed on pages 226-230 (266-279 in the pdf)
Photos that show archaeoseismic evidence (e.g. displaced blocks) at the Roman Temple can be seen at this link at www.biblewalks.com