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Archeological References









Chronology

Stern et al (1993)

Age Dates Comments
Early Bronze IA-B 3300-3000 BCE
Early Bronze II 3000-2700 BCE
Early Bronze III 2700-2200 BCE
Middle Bronze I 2200-2000 BCE ‎EB IV - Intermediate Bronze
Middle Bronze IIA 2000-1750 BCE
Middle Bronze IIB 1750-1550 BCE
Late Bronze I 1550-1400 BCE
Late Bronze IIA 1400-1300 BCE
Late Bronze IIB 1300-1200 BCE
Iron IA 1200-1150 BCE
Iron IB 1150-1100 BCE
Iron IIA 1000-900 BCE
Iron IIB 900-700 BCE
Iron IIC 700-586 BCE
Babylonian & Persian 586-332 BCE
Early Hellenistic 332-167 BCE
Late Hellenistic 167-37 BCE
Early Roman 37 BCE - 132 CE
Herodian 37 BCE - 70 CE
Late Roman 132-324 CE
Byzantine 324-638 CE
Early Arab 638-1099 CE Umayyad & Abbasid‎
Crusader & Ayyubid 1099-1291 CE
Late Arab 1291-1516 CE Fatimid & Mameluke‎
Ottoman 1516-1917 CE

Meyers et al (1997)

Phase Dates Variants
Early Bronze IA-B 3400-3100 BCE
Early Bronze II 3100-2650 BCE
Early Bronze III 2650-2300 BCE
Early Bronze IVA-C 2300-2000 BCE Intermediate Early-Middle Bronze, Middle Bronze I‎
Middle Bronze I 2000-1800 BCE ‎Middle Bronze IIA
Middle Bronze II 1800-1650 BCE ‎Middle Bronze IIB‎
Middle Bronze III 1650-1500 BCE ‎‎Middle Bronze IIC
Late Bronze IA 1500-1450 BCE
Late Bronze IIB 1450-1400 BCE
Late Bronze IIA 1400-1300 BCE
Late Bronze IIB 1300-1200 BCE
Iron IA 1200-1125 BCE
Iron IB 1125-1000 BCE
Iron IC 1000-925 BCE Iron IIA‎
Iron IIA 925-722 BCE Iron IIB‎
Iron IIB 722-586 BCE ‎Iron IIC
Iron III 586-520 BCE Neo-Babylonian‎
Early Persian 520-450 BCE
Late Persian 450-332 BCE
Early Hellenistic 332-200 BCE
Late Hellenistic 200-63 BCE
Early Roman 63 BCE - 135 CE
Middle Roman 135-250 CE
Late Roman 250-363 CE
Early Byzantine 363-460 CE
Late Byzantine 460-638 CE
Early Arab 638-1099 CE
Crusader & Ayyubid 1099-1291 CE
Late Arab 1291-1516 CE
Ottoman 1516-1917 CE

Walmsley (2007) based on D. Whitcomb - Islamic

Age Dates Comments
Early Islamic I 600-800 CE
Early Islamic II 800-1000 CE
Middle Islamic I 1000-1200 CE
Middle Islamic II 1200-1400 CE

Nabatean Fineware Pottery - Schmidt (1995)

Source : Schmid (1995)

Chronology of Nabatean finewares Figure 8

Chronology of Nabatean finewares

Schmid (1995)


Typology and chronology of the Nabataean fine ware Figure 9

Typology and chronology of the Nabataean fine ware.

Schmid (1995)


Source : Dolinka (2006) citing Schmid (2000)

Typo-chronology for the NPFW bowls Figure 1.3

Typo-chronology for the NPFW bowls developed by Schmid (2000: abb. 98)

Dolinka (2006)


Nabatean Periods and Monarchs

Source : Dolinka (2006)

Nabataean monarchs and their regnal dates Figure 2.3

List of the Nabataean monarchs and their regnal dates

Dolinka (2006)


Iron Age of Israel

Source : Mazar in Levy, T. and T. Higham (2014). The Bible and Radiocarbon Dating: Archaeology, Text and Science, Taylor & Francis.

Divisions of the Iron Age in Israel Table 2.1

Divisions of the Iron Age in Israel

Mazar in Levy and Higham (2014)


Synchronic Table of Main Iron Age Sites in Israel Table 2.2

Synchronic Table of Main Iron Age Sites in Israel

Mazar in Levy and Higham (2014)


Finkelstein’s Low Chronology

Summarized by Mazar in Levy, T. and T. Higham (2014). The Bible and Radiocarbon Dating: Archaeology, Text and Science, Taylor & Francis. This is likely unfair as Mazar is perhaps the most prominent critic of this chronology but this summary will have to do for now.

Finkelstein’s Low Chronology (LC)

Since 1996, Finkelstein (1995, 1996) went one step further by suggesting the wholesale lowering by 50 - 80 years of archaeological assemblages traditionally attributed to the 12th—10th centuries BC E. His first point was the date of the appearance of the local Mycenaean IIIC or ‘Philistine Monochrome’ pottery. Following Ussishkin (1985), he suggested lowering the appearance of this pottery by 50 years until after the end of the Egyptian presence in Canaan. This subject is beyond the scope of the present discussion, but it should be mentioned that several recent studies and discoveries, such as those at Ashkelon, negate this approach; in fact, none of the excavators of Philistia find this suggestion acceptable. It also creates unsolvable problems in correlating the archaeology of Philistia with that of Cyprus (Dothan and Zukerman 2003 ; Mazar 1985 and forthcoming; Sherratt and Master [Chapters 9 and 20, this volume;). 14C dates for this period are not of much help, due to the many wiggles and complicated shape of the calibration curve for the 11th and 12th centuries BCE . Consequently, Finkelstein suggested lowering the dates of late Iron Age I assemblages from the late 11th century to the 10th century BCE and the lowering of traditional 10th century BCE assemblages to the 9th century BCE. His view became known as the ‘Low Chronology’ for the Iron Age of Israel. This suggestion empties the 10th century BCE of its traditional contents. Sites and strata that were traditionally dated to the late 11th century BCE, such as Megiddo VIA, are dated to the 10th century BCE, until Shishak’s campaign (Finkelstein 1998a, 1998b, 1999b, 2002a, 2002b, 2004, and Chapters 3 and 17, this volume). In a separate study based on 14C dates from Tel Dor, Ayelet Gilboa and Ilan Sharon suggest an even lower chronology from that suggested by Finkelstein (see below).

Encyclopedias

Stern

Stern, E., et al. (1993). The New Encyclopedia of Archaeological Excavations in the Holy Land, Israel Exploration Society & Carta. Volume 1 - Abila to Elusa.. 1

Stern, et al. (1993). The New Encyclopedia of Archaeological Excavations in the Holy Land, Israel Exploration Society & Carta. Volume 2 - Emmaus to Jerusalem.. 2

Stern, et al. (1993). The New Encyclopedia of Archaeological Excavations in the Holy Land, Israel Exploration Society & Carta. Volume 3 - Jokneam to Pella.. 3

Stern, et al. (1993). The New Encyclopedia of Archaeological Excavations in the Holy Land, Israel Exploration Society & Carta. Volume 4 - Petra to Ziqim.. 4

Stern, et al. (2008). The New Encyclopedia of Archaeological Excavations in the Holy Land, Israel Exploration Society & Carta. Volume 5 Supplement - Tell Abu Hawam to Tel Zipor.. 5

Meyers

Meyers, É. M. (1997). The Oxford encyclopedia of archaeology in the Near East. New York, N.Y.; Oxford, Oxford University Press.. O

Avi-Yonah

Avi-Yonah, M. (1975). The Encyclopedia of Archaeological Excavations in the Holy Land, Israel Exploration Society and Massada Press. English Version.

Volume I - Abu Ghosh to Dothan.. I
Volume II - Eboda to Jerusalem.. II
Volume III - Jisr Banat Ya'aqub to Nassana.. III
Volume IV - Or Ha-Ner to Tel Zeror.. IV


Negev

Negev, A. and S. Gibson (2005). Archaeological encyclopedia of the Holy Land, Bloomsbury Publishing. N

Negev, A. and N. A. Silberman (1990). The Archaeological Encyclopedia of the Holy Land 3rd Edition , Prentice Hall Press. N

Negev, A.(1980). The Archaeological Encyclopedia of the Holy Land 2nd Edition , Prentice Hall Press.. N

Negev, A. (1972) Archaeological encyclopedia of the Holy Land 1st Edition.

Negev, A. (1986). Nabatean archaeology today. New York, New York Univ. Press.

Others

Steiner, M. and A. Killebrew (2014). The Oxford Handbook of the Archaeology of the Levant c.8000–332 BCE.. O

Potts, D. T. (2012). A Companion to the Archaeology of the Ancient Near East, Wiley.. C

Magness, J. (2012). The Archaeology of the Holy Land: From the Destruction of Solomon's Temple to the Muslim Conquest, Cambridge University Press.. J

Adams, Russell (ed.) Jordan An Archeological Reader.. JAR

Levy, T. E. (1998). Archaeology of Society in the Holy Land, Bloomsbury Academic.. L

References

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (2nd ed.).. D

Dictionary of Artifacts.. A

Archeology: Theories, Methods, and Practice.. A

Digital Atlases

Interactive Maps from IAA

MEGA Jordan - GIS inventory of archeological sites in Jordan

Digital Archeological Atlas of the Holy Land

Medietrranean Archaeological Network (MedArchNet)

Online Journals and Publications

Annual of the Department of Antiquities Jordan

Studies in the History and Archeology of Jordan

Publications - Department of Antiquities - Jordan

Hadashot Arkheologiyot - Excavations and Surveys in Israel

Hadashot Arkheologiyot - Extended Reports

Atiqot - past issues

Atiqot on JSTOR - goes back to the 1990's

IAA List of Publications

Hadashot Arkheologiyot - List of References

Palestinian Exploration Quarterly Back Issues.. PEQ

ACOR Publications

ACOR - Archaeology in Jordan

American Journal of Archaeology (AJA) Archive

Council for British Research in the Levant (CBRL) Publications

Archaeology & History in Lebanon

Chronique archéologique en Syrie Vol. 2-6, 1998-2012 (open access)

The New Encyclopedia of Archaeological Excavations in the Holy Land (BAS Library)

List of Open Access Journals in Ancient Studies

Online Journal and Research Databases.. SHALT

Orient Lab - Open Access Near East Archaeological Publications (includes ICAANE)

Aerial Images

Aerial Photographic Archive for Archaeology in the Middle East (APAAME)

National Archives (UK)

biblewalks.com - lots of great imagery of archaeological sites in Israel

Inscriptions

Inscriptiones Latinae Selectae (ILS) vol. 1

Inscriptiones Latinae Selectae (ILS) vol. 2 part 1

Inscriptiones Latinae Selectae (ILS) vol. 2 part 2

Inscriptiones Latinae Selectae (ILS) vol. 3

Other References

IAA archives - 1919-1948

Institut Francais du Proche-Orient

www.persee.fr

www.persee.fr - Archaeology

www.persee.fr - Arts (History of art, Architecture)

www.persee.fr - Classical Studies

Supplementum Epigraphicum Graecum Online

EAMENA - Endangered Archaeology in the Middle East and North Africa

Archeological Maps

Archeo Maps

Judean Desert
Description Image Source
Monasteries in
the Desert of Jerusalem
Early Arab Period
Map - Patrich (2011)
Judean Desert Fig. 1 - Hirschfeld (1993)
Location map of the monastery of Euthymius Fig. 2 - Hirschfeld (1993)
Satellite monasteries around the monastery of Euthymius Fig. 3 - Hirschfeld (1993)
Byzantine/Early Islamic Palestine
Description Image Source
Coastal Palestine 644-800 CE Fig. 1 - Taxel (2013)
Early Islamic Palestine Fig. 1 - Taxel (2019)
Provincial Borders of the ajnad Fig. 3 - Walmsley (2007)
E Mediterranean - early 8th century Fig. 3 - Walmsley (2007)
Judea
Description Image Source
Judean Desert Fig. 10.1 - Taxel et al (2009)
Negev
Description Image Source
Sites along the Incense Road Fig. 1 - Erickson-Gini and Israel (2013)
The Incense Road Fig. 1a - Zohar and Erickson-Gini (2019)
North Incense Road Fig. 4c - Zohar and Erickson-Gini (2019)
Central Incense Road Fig. 4b - Zohar and Erickson-Gini (2019)
South Incense Road Fig. 4a - Zohar and Erickson-Gini (2019)
The region between Sha’ar Ramon and Oboda Fig. 5 - Zohar and Erickson-Gini (2019)
Roman Roads Fig. 2c - Zohar and Erickson-Gini (2019)
The Road to Oboda Fig. 2a - Zohar and Erickson-Gini (2019)
Map of Roman castella and roads Fig. 2 - Dolinka (2007)
Jerusalem Old City and environs
Description Image Source
Jerusalems Historical Basin Emek Shaveh (2017)
The Temple Mount/Haram al-Sharif
Archaeology in a
Political Context
Temple Mount Emek Shaveh (2017)
The Temple Mount/Haram al-Sharif
Archaeology in a
Political Context
Silwan Emek Shaveh (2017)
The Temple Mount/Haram al-Sharif
Archaeology in a
Political Context
Temple Mount Fig. 2 - Gibson (2020)
Silwan Emek Shaveh (2017)
The Temple Mount/Haram al-Sharif
Archaeology in a
Political Context
Haram - Umayyad Period Map 1 - Elad (1995)
Inset to Map 1 Map 1a - Elad (1995)
Legend to Map 1 and 1a Map 1 and 1a Legend - Elad (1995)
Haram - Muslim Pilgrimmage - ~1050 CE Map 2 - Elad (1995)
Inset to Map 2 Map 2a - Elad (1995)
Legend to Map 2 and 2a Map 2 Legend - Elad (1995)
Jerusalem - 638-1099 CE Map 3 - Elad (1995)
Map 3 Legend Map 3 Legend - Elad (1995)
Notes - Elad's Map 1

Map 1

The main problem when preparing a map of the Haram in the Umayyad period is that the majority of the Arabic sources are from later periods and mostly relate to those periods.

Another significant problem is that the names of constructions and their locations have changed in the course of time. The double danger arises, therefore, of mistakenly attributing anachronistic names and dates to buildings found in the Haram to-day but were built at the latest in the later Middle Ages.

On luckier occasions, an early tradition may have been traced relating some details on one monument or another in Jerusalem, of the Umayyad period, but even then it is usually impossible to determine the exact location.

Using the guide lines drawn up here, I was able to assert that the Gate of Repentance (Bab al-Tawba), during the Umayyad period, was in close proximity to Mihrab Maryam. However, the location of the latter place in the south-east corner of the Haram can only be attributed (with reservation) to the end of the 9th century and clearly so to the 10th and 11th centuries. Although the eastern Mihrab Dawud is mentioned by the early (7th-8th century) sources, I was unable to locate it.

The same considerations were important in locating the Dome of the Chain (Bab al-Silsila), the Gate of The Divine Presence (Bab al-Sakina), the Dome of Ascension (Qubbat al-Mi `raj) and other monuments on the Haram from the Umayyad period.

I only used the procedure just described when places or monuments were mentioned in a source that I estimated to date back to the Umayyad period. Not included in this map are monuments mentioned by late sources which allude to their existence during the Umayyad period, such as the mention by al-Muhallabi (mid-10th century) of the Dome of the Scale (Qubbat al-Mizan) and the Dome of the Gathering (Qubbat al-Mahshar). Still, al-Muhallabi does refer to the Dome of Ascension (Qubbat al-Mi `riij) and the Dome of the Prophet (Qubbat al-Nabi), which were both mentioned by much earlier sources in their account of the Umayyad period. Al-Muhallabi's description of the latter monuments may, therefore, serve as additional proof to earlier sources, that these indeed existed in the Umayyad period.

Terms and Definitions

terminus post quem - the earliest possible date for something.
terminus ante quem - the latest possible date for something..
terminus a quo - the earliest possible date for something.
terminus ad quem - the point at which something ends or finishes.

Numismatics

A Quick Guide to Classical Numismatics (video)