Go to top

Solar Eclipse Quake

24 November 29 AD

by Jefferson Williams









Introduction & Summary

In some earthquake catalogs, seismic damage or shaking in Bithynia, Nicea, and/or Pontus (all in modern day northern Turkey) is also listed as occurring in Judea in 30 or 33 CE. This is a mistake that has propagated from earlier earthquake catalogs but the source of the error goes back more than a millenia. Phlegon of Tralles, whose work is lost and only exists as quoted by later authors, apparently recorded an earthquake in Bithynia, Nicea, and Pontus which coincided with a Solar Eclipse. This conjunction of events was erroneously conflated by later apologetic authors with the Passion narrative where an earthquake and midday darkness is reported in some of the Gospel accounts1 on the day that Jesus died. A solar eclipse was not possible on the day that Jesus died as Jesus died during a full moon (14 or 15 Nisan) when solar eclipses are impossible. Furthermore, ~1200 km. separates Judea from Bithynia, Nicea, and Pontus, which means that an earthquake experienced in Judea would not have created seismic effects in this part of Anatolia or vice-versa. If Phlegon described a real earthquake coincident with a solar eclipse, the epicenter of this earthquake would have been in Northern Anatolia and the inclusion of Pontus along with Bithynia and Nicea may suggest a rupture along the North Anatolian fault. A total solar eclipse which passed over Northern Anatolia from around this time may date this earthquake. NASA dates this eclipse to 24 November 29 CE while imcee dates it to 22 November 29 CE. Guidoboni et. al. (1994) dated the Solar Eclipse Quake to 24 November 29 CE while Ambraseys (2009) dated it to 32 CE.
Footnotes

1 Matthew is the only gospel which records an earthquake on the day that Jesus died. Matthew and Mark report darkness from noon to 3 pm (from the 6th to 9th hour) on that same day as does Luke however Luke uses the word εσκοτισθη (eclipsed) to describe how the sun stopped shining. Some translations do not reflect this wording so an interlinear translation of Luke 23.45 is presented below

τοῦ ἡλίου ἐκλιπόντος; ἐσχίσθη δὲ τὸ καταπέτασμα τοῦ ναοῦ μέσον The Sun eclipsed; was torn then the veil of the Temple in the middle.
εσκοτισθη (eclipsed) is translated variously as to leave out, leave off, and by implication to cease. Hence although an eclipsed Sun in English clearly means a solar or lunar eclipse, it is not entirely clear this is what is meant in Luke as the verb eclipse could merely describe a cutting off of the light.

Textual Evidence

Text (with hotlink) Original Language Biographical Info Religion Date of Composition Location Composed Notes
Olympiads by Phlegon of Tralles as quoted by Eusebius and Syncellus Greek
Biography of Phlegon of Tralles

Phlegon was a pagan Greek writer and freedman of the emperor Hadrian. His primary work was the Olympiads, a historical compendium in sixteen books written in the second century CE, from the 1st to the 229th Olympiad (776 BC to AD 137). No longer extant, several chapters are preserved in Chronicon by Eusebius, Chronographia by George Syncellus, and Photius.

Biography of Eusebius

Eusebius of Caesarea (c.260/265 - 339 CE) also known as Eusebius Pamphilus is regarded as one of the most learned Christians of late antiquity (4th-6th centuries CE). He wrote numerous works of great value to historians including a History of the Church (aka Ecclesiastical History) which earned him a reputation as the "Father" of Church History. Despite this reputation, his works are not necessarily historically accurate and some scholars have accused him of dishonesty. Nevertheless, his writings are of great value due to both the volume of output and Eusebius' habit of quoting earlier works - many of which have been lost. Eusebius was born in Syria or Palestine, probably in Palestine close to Caesarea where he lived from a young age. Sometime before ~300 CE, he completed the first editions of two influential works - a History of the Church and Chronicon - a universal calendar of events from "Creation" until Eusebius' own time. In ~313 CE, Eusebius became Bishop of Caesarea. He also became an adviser to Emperor Constantine (r. 306-337 CE) and wrote a biography of the Emperor titled "In Praise of Constantine". A dedicated bibliophile, Eusebius managed or had access to the large library in Caesarea yet despite achieving fluency in Syriac and Greek, he apparently never mastered Latin. Eusebius wrote Chronicon in two parts. Although the original Greek text has been lost, later Chroniclers preserved significant parts of the manuscript. Jerome translated all of the second part (Book 2) into Latin.

Biography of George Syncellus

In 808 CE, George Syncellus began work on a Chronicle intending to cover "Creation" until his own times. By 810 CE, Syncellus had written up to 285 CE when Diocletian became Emperor. Syncellus's incapacitation or demise in 810 CE meant that this is where his Chronicle ends. Before he died, however, he convinced his friend Theophanes to finish the Chronicle - which he did. Theophanes took Syncellus's apparently large collection of source material and extended it to 813 CE. How much Theophanes's extended Chronicle was based on Syncellus' source material is a matter of debate (Neville, 2018:56). How much editing or redaction Theophanes performed on Syncellus' work up to 285 CE may also be unknown.

George Syncellus seemed to have had an obsession with time. He believed that Christ's Incarnation at the beginning of A.M.a 5501 and his Resurrection in A.M.a 5534 both occurred on 25 March, the same day as the day of creation (Tuffin and Adler, 2002:xxix). Syncellus and his descendant Theophanes used an older method the count years - the Alexandrian Anno Mundi system - A.M.a - which had at its basis a search for the date of Creation and the date of Easter. The end result of this quest, however, may be significant chronological uncertainty in the work of Theophanes/Syncellus. Both present multiple time markers in the combined text which are frequently inconsistent or inaccurate.

Not much is known about Syncellus' life. His date and place of birth seem to be unknown. Because Syncellus mentions having personally visited various sites in Palestine, there is some speculation that he may have lived for some time in a monastery near Bethlehem before moving to Constantinople but this is not known for sure (Neville, 2018:57 and Tuffin and Adler, 2002:xxx). At some point in time he was appointed as to the high ranking ecclesiastical position of syncellus (literally "cell-mate") to Tarasios the Patriarch of Constantinople. He started writing his Chronicle after he retired from this position although presumably he would have been gathering source material before he began writing.

Some of George Syncellus' sources include Julius Africanus (c.160-240 CE), Eusebius of Caesarea (c. 260/265-339 CE), and the monks Panodoros and Annianos, both early 5th century monks from Alexandria who developed the Alexandrian version of Anno Mundi reckoning. Syncellus, like Theophanes, was strongly opposed to the iconoclasm of his time and may have suffered due to his outspoken views on the subject.

2nd century CE. Carrier (2011-2012:191) says that Phlegon's work is usually dated between 120 and 140 CE. Later authors (e.g., Eusebius and Syncellos) report that Phlegon recorded an earthquake in northern Anatolia which coincided with a Solar Eclipse. As the date of these two events was close in time to when Jesus died, these later authors (e.g., Eusebius and Syncellos) mistakenly conflated Phlegon's account with an earthquake and midday darkness reported in some of the Gospel accounts on the day Jesus died. Phlegon is reported by the later authors to have reported seismic shaking in Bithynia, many collapsed structures Nicea, and serious earthquake damage in Pontus (for Pontus see Appolonius Grammaticus).
Thallus as quoted by Syncellos through the intermediary of Julius Africanus Greek
Biography of Thallus

Thallus (Greek: Θαλλός) was an early historian who wrote in Koine Greek. He wrote a three-volume history of the Mediterranean world from before the Trojan War to the 167th Olympiad, 112–108 BC, or perhaps to the 217th Olympiad, AD 89-93. Most of his work has been lost, although some of his writings were quoted by Sextus Julius Africanus (c.160 - c.240 CE) in his History of the World - which has also been lost but is quoted by later authors such as George Syncellus. It is not known when Thallus lived and wrote but one estimate is that he wrote sometime in the 2nd century CE (Carrier, 2011-2012:188-189). Others say he wrote in 52 CE.

Biography of Julius Africanus

Sextus Julius Africanus was a traveler and Christian historian of the late 2nd and early 3rd centuries CE. Little of his life is known. Julius claimed to be a native Jerusalemite. His work Africanus Chronographiai is a five volume history of the world from "Creation" to 221 CE. This history which was a type of apologetic literature is no longer extant but is quoted by later authors such as Eusebius, Syncellus, Cedrenus, and Chronicon Paschale. to the year AD 221

Biography of George Syncellus

In 808 CE, George Syncellus began work on a Chronicle intending to cover "Creation" until his own times. By 810 CE, Syncellus had written up to 285 CE when Diocletian became Emperor. Syncellus's incapacitation or demise in 810 CE meant that this is where his Chronicle ends. Before he died, however, he convinced his friend Theophanes to finish the Chronicle - which he did. Theophanes took Syncellus's apparently large collection of source material and extended it to 813 CE. How much Theophanes's extended Chronicle was based on Syncellus' source material is a matter of debate (Neville, 2018:56). How much editing or redaction Theophanes performed on Syncellus' work up to 285 CE may also be unknown.

George Syncellus seemed to have had an obsession with time. He believed that Christ's Incarnation at the beginning of A.M.a 5501 and his Resurrection in A.M.a 5534 both occurred on 25 March, the same day as the day of creation (Tuffin and Adler, 2002:xxix). Syncellus and his descendant Theophanes used an older method the count years - the Alexandrian Anno Mundi system - A.M.a - which had at its basis a search for the date of Creation and the date of Easter. The end result of this quest, however, may be significant chronological uncertainty in the work of Theophanes/Syncellus. Both present multiple time markers in the combined text which are frequently inconsistent or inaccurate.

Not much is known about Syncellus' life. His date and place of birth seem to be unknown. Because Syncellus mentions having personally visited various sites in Palestine, there is some speculation that he may have lived for some time in a monastery near Bethlehem before moving to Constantinople but this is not known for sure (Neville, 2018:57 and Tuffin and Adler, 2002:xxx). At some point in time he was appointed as to the high ranking ecclesiastical position of syncellus (literally "cell-mate") to Tarasios the Patriarch of Constantinople. He started writing his Chronicle after he retired from this position although presumably he would have been gathering source material before he began writing.

Some of George Syncellus' sources include Julius Africanus (c.160-240 CE), Eusebius of Caesarea (c. 260/265-339 CE), and the monks Panodoros and Annianos, both early 5th century monks from Alexandria who developed the Alexandrian version of Anno Mundi reckoning. Syncellus, like Theophanes, was strongly opposed to the iconoclasm of his time and may have suffered due to his outspoken views on the subject.

It is not known when Thallus lived and wrote but one estimate is that he wrote sometime in the 2nd century CE (Carrier, 2011-2012:188-189). Others say he wrote in 52 CE. It seems unlikely that Thallus' original words are accurately quoted by Syncellos and the context of Thallus' original account also seems to be lost. At its core, it appears that Thallus wrote about a solar eclipse. Whether this eclipse coincided with an earthquake and when or where this eclipse occurred is unknown but the attention paid to it by later apologetic writers suggests that Thallus wrote about an eclipse around the time that Jesus died (26-36 CE). Syncellos did not quote Thallus directly, Instead, he accessed Thallus through the intermediary of Julius Africanus who was also an apologetic writer seeking to make a case for Jesus' divinity. While discussing the midday darkness reported on the day of the Crucifixion (reported by 3 of the 4 canonical gospels), Syncellos notes that Thallus claimed that this was a Solar Eclipse. Whether Thallus made such a claim or reported an unrelated solar eclipse is not known. Syncellos discounted this supposed statement by Thallus by noting that solar eclipses are impossible during a full moon and Jesus died on the day of a full moon. Syncellos went on to state that the midday darkness reported on the day of the crucifixion was supernatural in origin.
History Against the Pagans by Orosius Latin
Biography

Paulus Orosius (c. 380 - c.420) was a Roman Priest who wrote several books but his most famous is History Against the Pagans which was completed in ~416/417 CE. Orosius, who may have been born in Spain, spent time in North Africa as a student of Augustine of Hippo and in Palestine where he collaborated with Jerome (Fear, 2010:2-4). History Against the Pagans is a history of the secular world written from a Christian perspective (Fear, 2010:7). Fear (2010:7) notes that the Histories, though well written, do show signs of misunderstanding of their source material, and while, as will be seen, some of these ‘misunderstandings’ are deliberate, others are not.

Christian ~416-417 CE Palestine and/or Gallaecia (northwest Hispania) and/or places between. Orosius claimed that a universal earthquake occurred when Jesus was crucified and that the earthquake demolished many cities of Asia. He also claimed that there was a universal darkness at the same time which was attested in Christian scripture as well as several books of the Greeks.
Commentariorum In Esaiam by Jerome Latin
Biography

Jerome (Hieronymus in Latin) was a Christian Priest who authored and translated many works including an influential translation of the Old and New Testaments from Hebrew and Greek into Latin creating most of what is known as the Vulgate - a text which was used by the Catholic Church for over 1500 years. He was born in Stridon in the Roman province of Dalmatia between 342 and 347 CE. He lived in a monastery in Bethlehem starting in 382 CE and died there in 420 CE.

Christian 405-420 CE Bethlehem Ambraseys (2009) provided a brief quote from Jerome which lacks context but states that Jerome claimed, based on scripture, that there was an eclipse of the sun, Bithynia was shaken by an earthquake, and in the city of Nicea many houses collapsed.
Appolonius Grammaticus Greek
Biography

Guidoboni et. al. (1994:427) note that a number of different writers are known by the name of Apollonius Grammaticus making it difficult to identify his personage.

Guidoboni et. al. (1994:186) wrote that Apollonius Grammaticus was Phlegon's source and records an earthquake in Pontus at the time of Tiberius (r. 14-37 CE).
Other Sources
Eclipse Path NASA dates the total eclipse in North Anatolia to 24 November 29 CE while imcee dates it to 22 November 29 CE.
Text (with hotlink) Original Language Biographical Info Religion Date of Composition Location Composed Notes
Olympiads by Phlegon of Tralles

Background and Biography

Biography of Phlegon of Tralles

Phlegon was a pagan Greek writer and freedman of the emperor Hadrian. His primary work was the Olympiads, a historical compendium in sixteen books written in the second century CE, from the 1st to the 229th Olympiad (776 BC to AD 137). No longer extant, several chapters are preserved in Chronicon by Eusebius, Chronographia by George Syncellus, and Photius.

Biography of Eusebius

Eusebius of Caesarea (c.260/265 - 339 CE) also known as Eusebius Pamphilus is regarded as one of the most learned Christians of late antiquity (4th-6th centuries CE). He wrote numerous works of great value to historians including a History of the Church (aka Ecclesiastical History) which earned him a reputation as the "Father" of Church History. Despite this reputation, his works are not necessarily historically accurate and some scholars have accused him of dishonesty. Nevertheless, his writings are of great value due to both the volume of output and Eusebius' habit of quoting earlier works - many of which have been lost. Eusebius was born in Syria or Palestine, probably in Palestine close to Caesarea where he lived from a young age. Sometime before ~300 CE, he completed the first editions of two influential works - a History of the Church and Chronicon - a universal calendar of events from "Creation" until Eusebius' own time. In ~313 CE, Eusebius became Bishop of Caesarea. He also became an adviser to Emperor Constantine (r. 306-337 CE) and wrote a biography of the Emperor titled "In Praise of Constantine". A dedicated bibliophile, Eusebius managed or had access to the large library in Caesarea yet despite achieving fluency in Syriac and Greek, he apparently never mastered Latin. Eusebius wrote Chronicon in two parts. Although the original Greek text has been lost, later Chroniclers preserved significant parts of the manuscript. Jerome translated all of the second part (Book 2) into Latin.

Biography of George Syncellus

In 808 CE, George Syncellus began work on a Chronicle intending to cover "Creation" until his own times. By 810 CE, Syncellus had written up to 285 CE when Diocletian became Emperor. Syncellus's incapacitation or demise in 810 CE meant that this is where his Chronicle ends. Before he died, however, he convinced his friend Theophanes to finish the Chronicle - which he did. Theophanes took Syncellus's apparently large collection of source material and extended it to 813 CE. How much Theophanes's extended Chronicle was based on Syncellus' source material is a matter of debate (Neville, 2018:56). How much editing or redaction Theophanes performed on Syncellus' work up to 285 CE may also be unknown.

George Syncellus seemed to have had an obsession with time. He believed that Christ's Incarnation at the beginning of A.M.a 5501 and his Resurrection in A.M.a 5534 both occurred on 25 March, the same day as the day of creation (Tuffin and Adler, 2002:xxix). Syncellus and his descendant Theophanes used an older method the count years - the Alexandrian Anno Mundi system - A.M.a - which had at its basis a search for the date of Creation and the date of Easter. The end result of this quest, however, may be significant chronological uncertainty in the work of Theophanes/Syncellus. Both present multiple time markers in the combined text which are frequently inconsistent or inaccurate.

Not much is known about Syncellus' life. His date and place of birth seem to be unknown. Because Syncellus mentions having personally visited various sites in Palestine, there is some speculation that he may have lived for some time in a monastery near Bethlehem before moving to Constantinople but this is not known for sure (Neville, 2018:57 and Tuffin and Adler, 2002:xxx). At some point in time he was appointed as to the high ranking ecclesiastical position of syncellus (literally "cell-mate") to Tarasios the Patriarch of Constantinople. He started writing his Chronicle after he retired from this position although presumably he would have been gathering source material before he began writing.

Some of George Syncellus' sources include Julius Africanus (c.160-240 CE), Eusebius of Caesarea (c. 260/265-339 CE), and the monks Panodoros and Annianos, both early 5th century monks from Alexandria who developed the Alexandrian version of Anno Mundi reckoning. Syncellus, like Theophanes, was strongly opposed to the iconoclasm of his time and may have suffered due to his outspoken views on the subject.

Quoted in Chronicon by Eusebius
Eusebius wrote Chronicon in two parts in the early 4th century AD. Although the original Greek text has been lost, later Chroniclers preserved significant parts of the manuscript. Jerome translated all of the second part (Book 2) into Latin.

Excerpts
English translation from Jerome's Latin translation of Eusebius Chronicon Book Two

  • Eusebius Chronicon Book Two translated by Jerome
  • 4th year of the 202nd Olympiad (page 256/258)
  • from tertullian.org
  • apparently multiple differing manuscripts exist
Jesus Christ, according to the prophecies, which had been spoken about him beforehand, came to the Passion in the 18th year of Tiberius, at which time also we find these things written verbatim in other commentaries of the gentiles: an eclipse of the sun happened, Bithynia shaken by earthquake, and in the city of Nicaea many buildings collapsed: all of which agree with what occurred in the Passion of the Saviour. Indeed Phlegon, who is an excellent calculator of Olympiads, also writes about this, in his 13th book writing thus:
However in the fourth year of the 202nd Olympiad, an eclipse of the sun happened, greater and more excellent than any that had happened before it; at the sixth hour, day turned into dark night, so that the stars were seen in the sky, and an earthquake in Bithynia toppled many buildings of the city of Nicaea.
These things the aforementioned man (says).

Jerome's Latin translation of Eusebius Chronicon Book Two

  • Eusebius Chronicon Book Two translated by Jerome
  • 4th year of the 202nd Olympiad (page 256/258)
  • from tertullian.org
  • apparently multiple differing manuscripts exist
lesus Christus secundum prophetius quae de eo fuerant praelocutae ad passionem venit anno Tiberii decimo octavo, quo tempore etiam in aliis ethnicorum commentariis haec ad verbum scripta repperimus "solis facta defectio. Bithynia terrae motu concussa, et in urbe Nicaea aedes plurimae corruerunt", quae omnia his congruunt quae in passione Salvatoris acciderant. Scribit vero super his et Flego, qui 1...] ita dicens:
quarto autem anno ducentesima secundae magna et excellens inter omnes quae ante earn acciderant defectio solis facta; dies hora sexta eta in tenebrosam noctem versus ut stellae in caelo visae sint terraeque motus in Bithynia Nicae[n]ae urbis multas aedes subverterit

English translation from Jerome's Latin translation of Eusebius Chronicon Book Two - embedded

  • see 4th year of the 202nd Olympiad (page 256/258)
  • Eusebius Chronicon Book Two translated by Jerome
  • from tertullian.org
  • apparently multiple differing manuscripts exist


Chronology

This is a case of a forced synchronicity. Eusebius conflates the North Anatolian Earthquake reported by Phlegon with the Passion narrative which Eusebius probably thought occurred in in the 4th year of the 202nd Olympiad.
Year Reference Corrections Notes
1 July 32 CE to 30 June 33 CE the fourth year of the 202nd Olympiad none Calculated with CHRONOS
Seismic Effects Locations Online Versions and Further Reading
Quoted in The Chronography by George Syncellus
George Syncellus wrote the Chronography from 808-810 CE ( Adler and Tuffin, 2002:lxx) using Eusebius and Julius Africanus as his primary sources.

Excerpts
English from Adler and Tuffin (2002)

AM 5533

Year 33 of the divine Incarnation

This year AM 5533 was our Saviour's thirty-third year of age according to the flesh, the 213th year of the eleventh revolution of the 532-year cycle, in the nineteenth year of Tiberius Caesar.
...
although blameless, he was crucified on the 27th of the month of Phamenoth
...

From Africanus concerning the events associated with the passion of the Saviour and the life-bringing Resurrection1

Concerning each of his deeds and his cures, both of bodies and souls, and the secrets of his knowledge, and his Resurrection from the dead, this has been explained with complete adequacy by his disciples and the apostles before us. A most terrible darkness fell over all the world, the rocks were torn apart by an earthquake, and many places both in Judaea and the rest of the world were thrown down2.

In the third book of his Histories, Thallos dismisses this darkness as a solar eclipse.3 In my opinion, this is nonsense. For the Hebrews celebrate the Passover on Luna 14, and what happened to the Saviour occurred one day before the Passover4. But an eclipse of the sun takes place when the moon passes under the sun. The only time when this can happen is in the interval between the first day of the new moon and the last day of the old moon, when they are in conjunction5. How then could one believe an eclipse took place when the moon was almost in opposition to the sun? So be it. Let what had happened beguile the masses, and let this wonderful sign to the world be considered a solar eclipse through an optical (illusion).

Phlegon records that during the reign of Tiberius Caesar there was a complete solar eclipse at full moon from the sixth to the ninth hour; it is clear that this is the one6. But what have eclipses to do with an earthquake, rocks breaking apart, resurrection of the dead, and a universal disturbance of this nature?1a

Certainly an event of such magnitude has not been recalled for a long time. But it was a darkness created by God, because it happened that the Lord experienced his passion at that time. And reason proves that the seventy weeks of years mentioned in Daniel were completed in this time.

...

From Eusebios Pamphilou concerning the same matter7

In accordance with the prophecies about him, Jesus Christ, the son of God, our Lord, went forth to his passion in the nineteenth year of the reign of Tiberius.8 At that time, we have found the following events recounted verbatim in other Greek historical records as well: 'There was a solar eclipse. Bithynia was shaken by an earthquake. Many sites in Nikaia collapsed.' These reports also correspond with the events associated with the passion of our Saviour. Phlegon, who composed a record of the Olympiads, also writes about these same events in his 13th book, with the following words: 'In the fourth year of the 202nd Olympiad, there was an eclipse of the sun, greater than any that had been previously known. And night fell at the sixth hour of the day, so that the stars appeared in the sky. A great earthquake occurring throughout Bithynia overturned many sites in Nikaia.9 This is the witness of the man just mentioned.
Footnotes

1 Routh, fr. 5o. This excerpt from Africanus comprises three segments:

  1. an exposition of the meaning of the miraculous events narrated by Matthew at the time of Jesus' crucifixion (Matt. 27.45-54) see also Kedr. i. 331.9-332.15
  2. an extended chronological interpretation of the 7o-week prophecy of Dan. 9.24-7; see also Eus. DE 8.2.45-54
  3. a summary of Africanus' 5531-year chronology from Adam up to the time of Jesus' crucifixion.


2 Matt. 27.45, 51. In the discussion that follows, Africanus challenges a widespread effort by Christian chroniclers and apologists to validate Matthew's story of the darkness and the earthquake from pagan historians, chiefly Phlegon's account of a great earthquake and solar eclipse during the reign of the Roman emperor Tiberius; for proponents of this view, see Origen, Contra Celsum 2.33; Eus. 2.1744 (= Synk. 394.1-22); Joh. Mal. 240.17-22; Chi-on. pasch. 412.7-15; 417.9-15. Africanus' chief argument is that Jesus' crucifixion occurred during the celebration of the Passover, that is around the middle of the month of Nisan, when the sun and moon are in opposition. Since solar eclipses only occur when the sun and moon are in conjunction, the darkness at noon described in Matthew was not a naturally occurring and predictable astronomical phenomenon; it was rather an extraordinary event, 'created by God'. Africanus was not the only Christian writer to express doubts that the darkness over the earth at the time of the crucifixion was a solar eclipse; see Origen, Scholia in Matthaeum (PG 17.309); Joh. Philop. De opif. mundi 2.21.

3 Thallos, FGrH 256 F I.

4 Exod. 12.6; John 19.31.

5 Text: [Greek Text] Cf. Kedr. i. 331.24: [Greek Text] ('new moon') instead of [Greek Text].

6 Phlegon, FGrH 257 F 16. This sentence is full of inconsistencies. It is hard to imagine why, after previously discounting the solar eclipse explanation, Africanus suddenly embraces Phlegon's eclipse as 'clearly' the same one described in Matthew. Phlegon's dating of the eclipse is also at odds with Africanus' own chronology of Jesus' ministry. According to Eusebios (2.1744 = Synk. 394.8-15), Phlegon dated the solar eclipse in the '4th year of the 202nd Olympiad (quarto ... anno CCII olympiadis)', corresponding to 18 Tiberius. Since Jesus' ministry commenced in 15 Tiberius (see Luke 3.1), Eusebios concluded that Phlegon's report established that 'Jesus preached for a period of 3 years'. But as Synk. states repeatedly, Africanus assigned only one year (5530/1) to Jesus' ministry; see below, pp. 471, 472, 473 (= Moss. 393.28-30; 394.25-7; 395.19-22). That would mean that Jesus' crucifixion occurred in 16, not 18, Tiberius. Finally, the description of the eclipse that Africanus ascribes to Phlegon conflicts with Eusebios'. According to the latter writer, Phlegon stated only that 'there was an eclipse of the sun greater than any previously known, and it became night on the sixth hour of the day.' There is no suggestion here about a three-hour solar eclipse at full moon. Routh (478 n. ad loc.) thus suggests that the above sentence might be an editorial corruption either by Synk. or an intermediary. In any case, the eclipse intended must be that of 24 November 29 = 01. 202.1; at some point, before or after Phlegon, A' was corrupted to Δ'.

1a Text. [Greek Text]. Following Di. and Routh, [Greek Text] emended to [Greek Text].
Lit. 'What is the connection between eclipses and an earthquake, rocks breaking apart', etc. But since in the preceding discussion Africanus attempts to prove that the events described in Matt. 27 were not evidence of a solar eclipse, the translation given above better conveys Africanus' argument.

7 Eus. 2.174d

8 Cf. Eus. 2.174.16 (18 Tiberius). Synk.'s date, also attested in the Armenian version of the Canons (2.213Arm), is the preferable reading. In this same excerpt, Eusebios puts Jesus' crucifixion in 01. 202.4 (= 19 Tiberius). Jerome's version perhaps emended the 19th year to the 18th year, in order to conform with the accepted chronology of Jesus' ministry (three years, beginning in 15 Tiberius).

9 Phlegon, FGrH 257 F 16.

Greek (partial)

Καθ ολου του κοσμου σκοτος επηγετο φοβερωτατον, σεισμω τε αι πετραι διερρηγνυντο και τα πολλα Ιουδαιας και της λοιπης γης κατερριφθη. τουτο το σκοτος εκλειψιν του ηλιου Θαλλος αποκαλει εν τριτη των ιστοριων, ως εμοι δοκει, αλογως. Εβραιοι γαρ αγουσι το πασχα κατα σεληνην ι̅δ̅, προ δε μιας του πασχα τα περι τον σωτηρα συμβαινει. εκλειψις δε ηλιου σεληνης υπελθουσης τον ηλιον γινεται· αδυνατον δε εν αλλω χρονω, πλην εν τω μεταξυ μιας και της προ αυτης κατα την συνοδον αυτην αποβηναι. πως ουν εκλειψις νομισθειη κατα διαμετρον σχεδον υπαρχουσης της σεληνης ηλιω; εστω δη, συναρπαζετω τους πολλους το γεγενημενον και το κοσμικον τερας ηλιου εκλειψις υπονοεισθω εν τη κατα την οψιν. Φλεγων ιστορει επι Τιβεριου Καισαρος εν πανσεληνω εκλειψιν ηλιου γεγονεναι τελειαν απο ωρας εκτης μεχρις ενατης, δηλον ως ταυτην. τις δ η κοινωνια σεισμω και εκλειψει, πετραις ρηγνυμεναις, και αναστασει νεκρων τοσαυτη τε κινησει κοσμικη;

Chronology

This is a case of both a forced synchronicity and chronological inconsistency. Syncellos conflates the North Anatolian Earthquake reported by Africanus with the Passion narrative. None of the dates provided below are to be trusted.
Year Reference Corrections Notes
25 Mar. 40 to 24 Mar. 41 CE A.M.a 5533 none Calculated with CHRONOS
25 March 41 to 24 March 42 CE Year 33 of the divine Incarnation none Calculated with CHRONOS
? 213th year of the eleventh revolution of the 532-year cycle none
17 Sept. 32 to 16 Sept. 33 CE nineteenth year of Tiberius Caesar none Calculated with CHRONOS. Tiberius' rule started on 17 Sept. 14 CE.
Seismic Effects Locations Online References and Further Reading

Thallus as quoted by Syncellos through the intermediary of Julius Africanus

Background and Biography

Biography of Thallus

Thallus (Greek: Θαλλός) was an early historian who wrote in Koine Greek. He wrote a three-volume history of the Mediterranean world from before the Trojan War to the 167th Olympiad, 112–108 BC, or perhaps to the 217th Olympiad, AD 89-93. Most of his work has been lost, although some of his writings were quoted by Sextus Julius Africanus (c.160 - c.240 CE) in his History of the World - which has also been lost but is quoted by later authors such as George Syncellus. It is not known when Thallus lived and wrote but one estimate is that he wrote sometime in the 2nd century CE (Carrier, 2011-2012:188-189). Others say he wrote in 52 CE.

Biography of Julius Africanus

Sextus Julius Africanus was a traveler and Christian historian of the late 2nd and early 3rd centuries CE. Little of his life is known. Julius claimed to be a native Jerusalemite. His work Africanus Chronographiai is a five volume history of the world from "Creation" to 221 CE. This history which was a type of apologetic literature is no longer extant but is quoted by later authors such as Eusebius, Syncellus, Cedrenus, and Chronicon Paschale. to the year AD 221

Biography of George Syncellus

In 808 CE, George Syncellus began work on a Chronicle intending to cover "Creation" until his own times. By 810 CE, Syncellus had written up to 285 CE when Diocletian became Emperor. Syncellus's incapacitation or demise in 810 CE meant that this is where his Chronicle ends. Before he died, however, he convinced his friend Theophanes to finish the Chronicle - which he did. Theophanes took Syncellus's apparently large collection of source material and extended it to 813 CE. How much Theophanes's extended Chronicle was based on Syncellus' source material is a matter of debate (Neville, 2018:56). How much editing or redaction Theophanes performed on Syncellus' work up to 285 CE may also be unknown.

George Syncellus seemed to have had an obsession with time. He believed that Christ's Incarnation at the beginning of A.M.a 5501 and his Resurrection in A.M.a 5534 both occurred on 25 March, the same day as the day of creation (Tuffin and Adler, 2002:xxix). Syncellus and his descendant Theophanes used an older method the count years - the Alexandrian Anno Mundi system - A.M.a - which had at its basis a search for the date of Creation and the date of Easter. The end result of this quest, however, may be significant chronological uncertainty in the work of Theophanes/Syncellus. Both present multiple time markers in the combined text which are frequently inconsistent or inaccurate.

Not much is known about Syncellus' life. His date and place of birth seem to be unknown. Because Syncellus mentions having personally visited various sites in Palestine, there is some speculation that he may have lived for some time in a monastery near Bethlehem before moving to Constantinople but this is not known for sure (Neville, 2018:57 and Tuffin and Adler, 2002:xxx). At some point in time he was appointed as to the high ranking ecclesiastical position of syncellus (literally "cell-mate") to Tarasios the Patriarch of Constantinople. He started writing his Chronicle after he retired from this position although presumably he would have been gathering source material before he began writing.

Some of George Syncellus' sources include Julius Africanus (c.160-240 CE), Eusebius of Caesarea (c. 260/265-339 CE), and the monks Panodoros and Annianos, both early 5th century monks from Alexandria who developed the Alexandrian version of Anno Mundi reckoning. Syncellus, like Theophanes, was strongly opposed to the iconoclasm of his time and may have suffered due to his outspoken views on the subject.

Quoted in The Chronography by George Syncellus
George Syncellus wrote the Chronography from 808-810 CE ( Adler and Tuffin, 2002:lxx) using Eusebius and Julius Africanus as his primary sources.

Excerpts
English from Adler and Tuffin (2002)

AM 5533

Year 33 of the divine Incarnation

This year AM 5533 was our Saviour's thirty-third year of age according to the flesh, the 213th year of the eleventh revolution of the 532-year cycle, in the nineteenth year of Tiberius Caesar.
...
although blameless, he was crucified on the 27th of the month of Phamenoth
...

From Africanus concerning the events associated with the passion of the Saviour and the life-bringing Resurrection1

Concerning each of his deeds and his cures, both of bodies and souls, and the secrets of his knowledge, and his Resurrection from the dead, this has been explained with complete adequacy by his disciples and the apostles before us. A most terrible darkness fell over all the world, the rocks were torn apart by an earthquake, and many places both in Judaea and the rest of the world were thrown down2.

In the third book of his Histories, Thallos dismisses this darkness as a solar eclipse.3 In my opinion, this is nonsense. For the Hebrews celebrate the Passover on Luna 14, and what happened to the Saviour occurred one day before the Passover4. But an eclipse of the sun takes place when the moon passes under the sun. The only time when this can happen is in the interval between the first day of the new moon and the last day of the old moon, when they are in conjunction5. How then could one believe an eclipse took place when the moon was almost in opposition to the sun? So be it. Let what had happened beguile the masses, and let this wonderful sign to the world be considered a solar eclipse through an optical (illusion).

Phlegon records that during the reign of Tiberius Caesar there was a complete solar eclipse at full moon from the sixth to the ninth hour; it is clear that this is the one6. But what have eclipses to do with an earthquake, rocks breaking apart, resurrection of the dead, and a universal disturbance of this nature?1a

Certainly an event of such magnitude has not been recalled for a long time. But it was a darkness created by God, because it happened that the Lord experienced his passion at that time. And reason proves that the seventy weeks of years mentioned in Daniel were completed in this time.

Footnotes

1 Routh, fr. 5o. This excerpt from Africanus comprises three segments:

  1. an exposition of the meaning of the miraculous events narrated by Matthew at the time of Jesus' crucifixion (Matt. 27.45-54) see also Kedr. i. 331.9-332.15
  2. an extended chronological interpretation of the 7o-week prophecy of Dan. 9.24-7; see also Eus. DE 8.2.45-54
  3. a summary of Africanus' 5531-year chronology from Adam up to the time of Jesus' crucifixion.


2 Matt. 27.45, 51. In the discussion that follows, Africanus challenges a widespread effort by Christian chroniclers and apologists to validate Matthew's story of the darkness and the earthquake from pagan historians, chiefly Phlegon's account of a great earthquake and solar eclipse during the reign of the Roman emperor Tiberius; for proponents of this view, see Origen, Contra Celsum 2.33; Eus. 2.1744 (= Synk. 394.1-22); Joh. Mal. 240.17-22; Chi-on. pasch. 412.7-15; 417.9-15. Africanus' chief argument is that Jesus' crucifixion occurred during the celebration of the Passover, that is around the middle of the month of Nisan, when the sun and moon are in opposition. Since solar eclipses only occur when the sun and moon are in conjunction, the darkness at noon described in Matthew was not a naturally occurring and predictable astronomical phenomenon; it was rather an extraordinary event, 'created by God'. Africanus was not the only Christian writer to express doubts that the darkness over the earth at the time of the crucifixion was a solar eclipse; see Origen, Scholia in Matthaeum (PG 17.309); Joh. Philop. De opif. mundi 2.21.

3 Thallos, FGrH 256 F I.

4 Exod. 12.6; John 19.31.

5 Text: [Greek Text] Cf. Kedr. i. 331.24: [Greek Text] ('new moon') instead of [Greek Text].

6 Phlegon, FGrH 257 F 16. This sentence is full of inconsistencies. It is hard to imagine why, after previously discounting the solar eclipse explanation, Africanus suddenly embraces Phlegon's eclipse as 'clearly' the same one described in Matthew. Phlegon's dating of the eclipse is also at odds with Africanus' own chronology of Jesus' ministry. According to Eusebios (2.1744 = Synk. 394.8-15), Phlegon dated the solar eclipse in the '4th year of the 202nd Olympiad (quarto ... anno CCII olympiadis)', corresponding to 18 Tiberius. Since Jesus' ministry commenced in 15 Tiberius (see Luke 3.1), Eusebios concluded that Phlegon's report established that 'Jesus preached for a period of 3 years'. But as Synk. states repeatedly, Africanus assigned only one year (5530/1) to Jesus' ministry; see below, pp. 471, 472, 473 (= Moss. 393.28-30; 394.25-7; 395.19-22). That would mean that Jesus' crucifixion occurred in 16, not 18, Tiberius. Finally, the description of the eclipse that Africanus ascribes to Phlegon conflicts with Eusebios'. According to the latter writer, Phlegon stated only that 'there was an eclipse of the sun greater than any previously known, and it became night on the sixth hour of the day.' There is no suggestion here about a three-hour solar eclipse at full moon. Routh (478 n. ad loc.) thus suggests that the above sentence might be an editorial corruption either by Synk. or an intermediary. In any case, the eclipse intended must be that of 24 November 29 = 01. 202.1; at some point, before or after Phlegon, A' was corrupted to Δ'.

1a Text. [Greek Text]. Following Di. and Routh, [Greek Text] emended to [Greek Text].
Lit. 'What is the connection between eclipses and an earthquake, rocks breaking apart', etc. But since in the preceding discussion Africanus attempts to prove that the events described in Matt. 27 were not evidence of a solar eclipse, the translation given above better conveys Africanus' argument.

Greek (partial)

Καθ ολου του κοσμου σκοτος επηγετο φοβερωτατον, σεισμω τε αι πετραι διερρηγνυντο και τα πολλα Ιουδαιας και της λοιπης γης κατερριφθη. τουτο το σκοτος εκλειψιν του ηλιου Θαλλος αποκαλει εν τριτη των ιστοριων, ως εμοι δοκει, αλογως. Εβραιοι γαρ αγουσι το πασχα κατα σεληνην ι̅δ̅, προ δε μιας του πασχα τα περι τον σωτηρα συμβαινει. εκλειψις δε ηλιου σεληνης υπελθουσης τον ηλιον γινεται· αδυνατον δε εν αλλω χρονω, πλην εν τω μεταξυ μιας και της προ αυτης κατα την συνοδον αυτην αποβηναι. πως ουν εκλειψις νομισθειη κατα διαμετρον σχεδον υπαρχουσης της σεληνης ηλιω; εστω δη, συναρπαζετω τους πολλους το γεγενημενον και το κοσμικον τερας ηλιου εκλειψις υπονοεισθω εν τη κατα την οψιν. Φλεγων ιστορει επι Τιβεριου Καισαρος εν πανσεληνω εκλειψιν ηλιου γεγονεναι τελειαν απο ωρας εκτης μεχρις ενατης, δηλον ως ταυτην. τις δ η κοινωνια σεισμω και εκλειψει, πετραις ρηγνυμεναις, και αναστασει νεκρων τοσαυτη τε κινησει κοσμικη;

Chronology

This is a case of both a forced synchronicity and chronological inconsistency. Syncellos conflates the North Anatolian Earthquake reported by Africanus with the Passion narrative. None of the dates provided below are to be trusted.
Year Reference Corrections Notes
25 Mar. 40 to 24 Mar. 41 CE A.M.a 5533 none Calculated with CHRONOS
25 March 41 to 24 March 42 CE Year 33 of the divine Incarnation none Calculated with CHRONOS
? 213th year of the eleventh revolution of the 532-year cycle none
17 Sept. 32 to 16 Sept. 33 CE nineteenth year of Tiberius Caesar none Calculated with CHRONOS. Tiberius' rule started on 17 Sept. 14 CE.
Seismic Effects Locations Online References and Further Reading

History Against the Pagans by Orosius

Background and Biography

Background and Biography

Paulus Orosius (c. 380 - c.420) was a Roman Priest who wrote several books but his most famous is History Against the Pagans which was completed in ~416/417 CE. Orosius, who may have been born in Spain, spent time in North Africa as a student of Augustine of Hippo and in Palestine where he collaborated with Jerome (Fear, 2010:2-4). History Against the Pagans is a history of the secular world written from a Christian perspective (Fear, 2010:7). Fear (2010:7) notes that the Histories, though well written, do show signs of misunderstanding of their source material, and while, as will be seen, some of these ‘misunderstandings’ are deliberate, others are not.

Excerpts

Orosius (c.375 - c.418 CE) alludes to Greek sources in his description of Darkness and an Earthquake during the Passion. These Greek sources may have been Phlegon and Thallus. The additional information that Tiberius sent tribute to cities in Asia likely refers to cities damaged by the alleged Anatolian earthquake.
English

In the seventeenth year of this emperor, the Lord Jesus Christ of His own free will submitted to His passion. Nevertheless, it was through their own impiety that the Jews arrested Him and nailed Him to the cross. At that time a very severe earthquake shook the whole world. The rocks upon the mountains were rent, and many sections of the largest cities were overthrown by its unusual violence. On that day, too, at the sixth hour, the sun was also entirely obscured and a hideous darkness suddenly overshadowed the earth; in the words of the poet,
a godless age feared eternal night. [Vergil, Georgics, i. 468]
It is, however, perfectly plain that the sun's light was not cut off either by the moon or by clouds. For we are told that the moon, being fourteen days old at the time, was in the opposite quarter of the heavens, farthest from the sun, and that the stars were shining throughout the entire sky at that hour of the daytime or rather in that awful night. These facts are attested not only by the authority of the Holy Gospels but also by several books of the Greeks.

From the time of the passion of our Lord to this day, the Jews, who had persecuted Him to the extent of their power, have complained incessantly of an unbroken succession of disasters, until finally their nation, drained of its lifeblood and scattered abroad, disappeared from history. For Tiberius dispatched the youth of the Jewish nation to provinces having an unhealthful climate, using their military obligation as a pretext. He also forced the remainder of the Jews, as well as those who practiced similar rites, to leave Rome, threatening to make them slaves for life if they failed to obey. When the earthquake mentioned above demolished many cities of Asia, he remitted their tribute and made a donation to them from his own purse as well. The circumstances of the death of Tiberius led to suspicions that he had been poisoned.

Seismic Effects Locations Sources
Sources according to Fear (2010)

Fear (2010:15-16) described Orosius' sources as follows:

The sources Orosius used were probably not great in number, though a specious lustre of wide reading comes from his secondary use of the fragments of authors found in the notes of Jerome’s Chronicle. His main source for Greek history is Justin’s epitome of Pompeius Trogus’s Philippic History.83 Justin composed his epitome in the second or third century AD, while Trogus’s original work dates from the end of the first century BC. Livy, often at second hand via epitomes, the second-century historian Florus, and late fourth-century writer Eutropius form the main base of Orosius’s passages concerning the Roman Republic. In the Imperial period, Eutropius’s work becomes more prominent along with the now lost fourth century ‘History of the Emperors’ or Kaisergeschichte.84 Orosius also shows knowledge of Caesar, Sallust, Tacitus, and Suetonius. His approach to these sources was by no means naive. While at times he takes material verbatim or with very minor alterations, they are more often approached with a careful eye for selectivity. Instances of failed prophecy are seized upon as demonstrations of the folly of pagan religion,85 while pagan prophecies that seemingly come true are suppressed,86 as are accounts of successful pagan divine intervention.87 At times more open manipulation occurs. Leonidas’s speech to the 300 Spartans at Thermopylae is carefully edited to give it a sense quite different to the original found in Justin.88 Similarly, the sack of the Phoceans’ temples is portrayed as evidence of the impotence of the pagan gods, but Orosius’s source, Justin, presents it as divinely inspired punishment for the Phoceans’ earlier blasphemy.89 Later Orosius tells us that the consul Gurges was defeated after the ‘snake of Aesculapius’ was brought to Rome, leaving the reader to infer that there is a causal link between the two events. In Livy, however, who is Orosius’s source, the two events occur in the opposite order.90 Pagan sources are used to discredit the oracle of Ammon, and Mithridates’ final speech is also recruited to the cause of refuting paganism by a careful misinterpretation of its actual sense.91 This studied editing of the pagan past is intended to leave the reader feeling that Christianity’s critics are refuted by the very authors they would claim as their own.
Footnotes

83 For a discussion of this work see Yardley and Heckel (1997) and Yardley (2003).

84 The existence of the Kaisergeschicte was postulated by Enmann (1883). For modern discussions, see Barnes (1970) and Burgess (1995).

85 e.g. 3.22.3 and 4.13.14.

86 e.g. 4.10.3, where the sacred chickens rightly predict the Roman defeat at the battle of Drepanum.

87 For example, at 2.10, Orosius suppresses Justin’s comments that before Salamis Xerxes had sacked Delphi and hence was waging war on the gods as well as the Greeks, as he has no wish to imply that pagan gods could have been a factor in the Greeks’ victory at Salamis. He also suppresses the Delphic oracle’s comments about the wooden walls of Athens being her salvation.

88 2.9.6.

89 3.12.17; cf. the destruction of the Temple of Vesta at 4.11.9.

90 3.22.5–6; Livy, Per. 11.

91 3.16.13 and 6.14.11–17

Online Versions and Further Reading Notes
Calendars used by Orosius

Fear (2010:18) described Chronological Systems used by Orosius.

Given his wish to show that secular events prove the truth of Christianity, it is perhaps not surprising that Orosius uses the common chronological systems of his day rather than one centred on the incarnation. Such a system was not in fact available: the universal Christian chronology used today was devised some 100 years after Orosius’s death by Dionysius Exiguus.105 However, it is noticeable that Orosius chooses not to date events from the birth of Abraham, as does Eusebius/Jerome’s Chronicle. Rather, prior to the foundation of Rome, Orosius dates events by Olympiads. He then uses, as was common in Roman historiography, the date of Rome’s foundation as the starting point for his chronology.106 Orosius dates the foundation of Rome to 752 years before the birth of Christ, a year which fell in the sixth Olympiad and 414 years after the fall of Troy.107 The date of the foundation of Rome was subject to some dispute in antiquity. The commonest accepted date was that posited by the late republican scholar Varro – 754/3 BC. However, Orosius’s date has official sanction in that it is that which was used by the Capitoline Fasti, the official list of Roman magistrates erected in the forum at Rome, and it may be for this reason that he chose it, as it would once again link his account of the Roman past with the ‘official’ version of the day.
Footnotes

105 See Declercq (2002).

106 Normally such dates are styled AUC (Ab Urbe Condita), ‘from the foundation of the City’.

107 2.4.1; 6.22. Eusebius places Rome’s foundation in the fourth year of the sixth Olympiad, 1264 years after the birth of Abraham.

Commentariorum In Esaiam by Jerome

Background and Biography

Background and Biography

Jerome (Hieronymus in Latin) was a Christian Priest who authored and translated many works including an influential translation of the Old and New Testaments from Hebrew and Greek into Latin creating most of what is known as the Vulgate - a text which was used by the Catholic Church for over 1500 years. He was born in Stridon in the Roman province of Dalmatia between 342 and 347 CE. He lived in a monastery in Bethlehem starting in 382 CE and died there in 420 CE.

Excerpts
English from Ambraseys (2009)

We go back to the word of scripture:

there was an eclipse of the sun, Bithynia was shaken by an earthquake, and in the city of Nicea many houses collapsed.

Chronology

The earthquake was said to have coincided with a Solar Eclipse.

Seismic Effects Locations Online Sources and Further Reading
References

Jerome's Commentariorum In Esaiam, in a section dealing with the region of Moab (V, xv, 1; ed. Migne 1845: 168; ed. Corpus Christianorum, Vol. 73, pars 2, 1963: 176)

Commentariorum In Esaiam in Latin

Marasco, G. (2003). Greek and Roman Historiography in Late Antiquity: Fourth to Sixth Century A.D, Brill.

Apollonius Grammaticus

Background and Biography

Background and Biography

Guidoboni et. al. (1994:427) note that a number of different writers are known by the name of Apollonius Grammaticus making it difficult to identify his personage.

Excerpts
English from Guidoboni et. al. (1994:186-187)

serious earthquake damage also occurred amongst the peoples who lived in Pontus.

Chronology

Guidoboni et. al. (1994:186) reports that Apollonius Grammaticus was Phlegon's source and records an earthquake in Pontus at the time of Tiberius (r. 14-37 CE).

Seismic Effects Locations

Other Sources

Reference Cited By
Psuedo-Dionysus 96/i. 74 Ambraseys (2009)
Malalas 241 Guidoboni et. al. (1994)
Chron. Pasch. 219-222,412,417 Guidoboni et. al. (1994)
Apollon. Gramm. apud Phleg. FGrHist 257 F 36 (XIV) Guidoboni et. al. (1994)
Phleg. FGrHist 257 F 16 a Guidoboni et. al. (1994)
Photius
Michael the Syrian

Eclipse Path

Archeoseismic Evidence

Paleoseismic Evidence

Notes

Paleoclimate - Droughts

References

References

Ambraseys, N. N. (2009). Earthquakes in the Mediterranean and Middle East: a multidisciplinary study of seismicity up to 1900.

Boll (1909). Paulys Real Encyclopediadie der Classischen Altertum Swissenschaft Paulys Real Encyclopediadie der Classischen Altertum Swissenschaft S. V. Finsternisse. 6/2,: col.s 2329-2364.

Carrier, R. (2011-2012). "Thallus and the Darkness at Christ’s Death." Journal of Greco-Roman Christianity and Judaism 8: 185-191.

Guidoboni, E., et al. (1994). Catalogue of Ancient Earthquakes in the Mediterranean Area up to the 10th Century.