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Tell Balâṭah/Ancient Shechem Aerial view of Tell Balâṭah/Ancient Shechem

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Dr. Avishai Teicher - Wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0


Transliterated Name Source Name
Sekem Hebrew שְׁכֶם
Shechem Hebrew שְׁכֶם
Sichem Hebrew שְׁכֶם
Šăkēm Samaritan Hebrew
Sekem Ancient Greek Συχέμ
Tell Balâṭah Arabic تل بلاطة

Ancient Shechem, located at the hub of a major crossroad in the hill country of Ephraim, 67 km (40 mi.) north of Jerusalem was an important cultic and political center. Biblical and classical references to the site converge to place it between Mount Ebal and Mount Gerizim in the central hill country. Vespasian's foundation of Neapolis, or "new city," in 72 CE, at the western opening to the same pass yielded the Arabic name Nablus, and many have sought the ruins of ancient Shechem there. However, what covers ancient Shechem is the village and mound named Balâṭah, at the eastern end of that pass. The slightly elevated 15-a. mound of Balâṭah is sited on the lowest flanks of Mount Ebal. It rises some 20 m above the 500 m contour passing through the village at the lowest point of the valley. Abundant water comes from springs emerging all along the north and east flanks of Mount Gerizim. It looks out upon a fertile plain to the east and south - one of the most pleasant in the central hills and one that constitutes a natural system of ancient settlement. The modern village runs up onto the southern one-third of the ancient mound, but the open two-thirds remains accessible for research.

The road system from Jerusalem on the spine of the hill country divides at Balatah to circumvent Mount Ebal. Its western arm gives access to the Coastal Plain and north to Samaria/Sebaste and Dothan. The eastern arm gives access to the Jordan River via Wadi Far'ah and north past Tell el Far'ah (North) to Dothan.

H. Thiersch is credited with finding Tell Balatah. In 1903, he observed a stretch of an exposed fortification wall at the west of the mound and a heavy scattering of sherds. He put that together with the location of the weli called Qubr Yusef (Joseph's Tomb) at the eastern edge of the modern village, to confirm the identification. Not much farther east is the traditional location of Jacob's Well, connected with the story in John 4:1-42. Looming over the site is Tell er-Ras, on a forward salient of Mount Gerizim (q.v.), which contains the ruins of a temple dedicated to Zeus Olympus. The Hellenistic remains that constitute the uppermost strata at Tell Balatah indicate the location of Shechemin Hellenistic times. It remains an open question how the name Sychar in John 4 fits with all of this, especially because there is a modern village called 'Askaron a Hellenistic and Roman ruin just to the north of Balatah on Mount Ebal. Excavation has established, in any case, that Neapolis = Nablus) flourished in Roman times, whereas pre-Roman Shechem was at Tell Balatah.


Prior to excavation, Shechem was known from texts that seem clear enough but require interpretation. Egyptian references in the later set of Execration texts and the Khu-Sebek inscription, both from the nineteenth century BCE, seem to designate both a city and a territory - in short, a city-state - in the Middle Bronze Age IIA. A number of the mid-fourteenth century BCE Amarna letters point to a city-state center at Shechem ruled by Lab'ayu - a center that had an impact on Megiddo, Jerusalem, Gezer, the Hebron region, and Pella across the river, via the passes to the Jordan Valley. Biblical passages mentioning Shechem relate Abraham (Gen. 12:6), Jacob (Gen. 33:18-20, 35:1-4), Jacob's whole family (Gen. 34), and Joseph (Gen. 37:12-17) to the old city, but these stories are filled with curious ingredients and leave open many questions about the city. The same is true of the reference in Genesis 48:22 to "one Shechem" which Israel (=Jacob) is said to have taken by force from the Amorites. Then there are references to the city or its setting in Deuteronomy 27 and in the Deuteronomistic histories in Joshua 8:30-35, Judges 9, Joshua 24:32, Joshua 24:1, and I Kings 12. Taken together, these passages make at least some things clear: that in Israelite lore Shechem was a prominent sanctuary center related to Israel's heritage through the patriarchs and hence was a place to return to; that covenant making and renewing were powerful ingredients in the religious significance of Shechem; that Canaanites and Israelites encountered one another here, but the encounter does not seem to have resulted in military conflict - at least at the time of the Joshua "conquest" (cf. Gen. 34); and that Shechem was so prominent that it was the place to go to establish one's right to rule the region (Abimelech in Jg. 9; Rehoboam and Jeroboam in I Kg. 12). It is thought to have been the capital of Solomon's first district (I Kg 4:8) and is named as the city Jeroboam built and occupied (I Kg. 12:25), the first capital of the Northern Kingdom. Reminiscences of its prominence are found in Hosea 6:9 and Jeremiah 41:5. It was a city of refuge (Jos. 20:7) and as such part of the Levitic allotment (Jos. 21:21), and it is a key marking point on the boundary between Ephraim and Manasseh (Jos. 17:7). Mentioned as one of the districts that provisioned Samaria in the Samaria ostraca, presumably from the first half of the eighth century BCE, it appears in a cluster of names in Joshua 17:2 that closely approximate the roster on the ostraca and define Manasseh's allotment. Evidence that Shechem returned to prominence in the Hellenistic period comes from Ecclesiasticus 50:26 and from a critical assessment of Josephus' various references to the city and to Mount Gerizim, most notably in Antiquities (XI, 340 ff.), where it is said to be the chief Samaritan city.


Because the texts mentioning Shechem speak of the environs as well as the city, there has been an impulse to explore the region around Shechem, as well as the city ruin itself. G. Welter excavated a Middle Bronze Age II structure on the slopes of Gerizim above Balatah at Tananir (1931) and the Church of Mary Mother of God (Theotokos) on the summit of Mount Gerizim (1928). The American Joint Expedition studied the rock-cut tombs in Shechem's cemetery on the flanks of Mount Ebal, and modern road expansion has revealed others, one of them the cave tomb T-3 excavated by C. Clamer. The number of tombs identified is now about seventy. R. Boling of the American expedition reexcavated Tananir in 1968, and R. Bull excavated ell er-Ras from 1964 to 1968. In 1964, the American Joint Expedition began a more systematic regional survey, intended to examine the Shechem basin as a system. Fifty-four sites were explored in this effort, and 29 more were explored by German and Israeli teams, notably by the Deutsche Evangelische Institut, prior to 1967; by the Israel Survey in 1967-1968; and by I. Finkelstein and A. Zertal since. In addition, a series of chance discoveries in Nablus have been salvaged archaeologically in the past fifteen years, filling out the archaeological history of the pass in Roman times. I. Magen is at work on the major Hellenistic settlement on Mount Gerizim, which spreads south and west from the summit, and various sites in Roman Neapolis, and Zertal has excavated a probable Iron Age sanctuary and altar at el-Burnat on Mount Ebal (q.v.). The result has been to understand Shechem as a regional center, recognizing how the various points of access to the basin were guarded, how secure the population must have been to spread out into villages around the valley's flanks - where military posts and secondary market towns may be located - and what relationship Shechem may have had to such cities as Tappuah, Tirzah, Tubas, and Samaria.


The Austro-German Expedition

E. Sellin began a systematic excavation at Tell Balatah in the fall of 1913. He returned in the spring of 1914. He focused first on the outcrop of fortification wall that Thiersch had noticed ten years earlier, tracing it northward to the northwest gate and south to where it gave out. He then found a second circumvallation inside the first and traced it to the gate. Sellin used long, 5-m-wide trenches from the mound's edge toward its center, to test the overall stratigraphy. He discerned four major periods in the site's history in the stratified buildings his narrow trenches revealed. He first dated them as Hellenistic, Late Israelite, Early Israelite, and Canaanite. In fact, they turned out to be Hellenistic, Israelite, Middle Bronze, and earlier - the earliest phase being equivalent to what he had found at Jericho, the Early Bronze and Chalcolithic periods. Sellin returned in 1926 and 1927 for four campaigns. He used his long, narrow trenches to explore the city's interior in the southeast and from the eastern perimeter inward. The former area, trench K, followed up on a remarkable chance discovery made by Balatah villagers in 1908: bronze weaponry, including a sickle sword. From this trench also came two cuneiform tablets, one a witness list and the other a text W. F. Albright deciphered as a teacher's appeal for remuneration. The other trench, designated L, revealed fortifications on the east side of the city, which were traced to the east gate. Sellin had by now seen that the fortification system was in several phases and would be a complex puzzle to work out.

Much of the rest of Sellin's work was concentrated on the west of the mound, in what would prove to be the acropolis. Just inside the arc of the city wall, he discerned what he called the palace, extending on either side of the northwest gate, and the massive structure of the Migdal Temple and its forecourt, altars, and pillar sockets, enclosed within what he termed the temenos wall (wall 900). Work within the elbow of the temenos wall brought the Germans to the uppermost of a series of courtyard complexes; some soil in the interiors of rooms was scooped out, but work was carried no deeper. Welter was appointed to replace Sellin as director, but only produced some plans, although excellent ones, and explored Mount Gerizim, as noted above. The expedition failed to record find spots carefully, to report stratigraphy in any detail, and to bring the account of the work to a synthetic presentation. Sellin regained the directorship and mounted a final season in 1934. He worked on his final report until l943. His records and his manuscript, along with many artifacts, were destroyed in Berlin during World War II.

The American Expedition

The Joint Expedition to Shechem began in 1956 as the cooperative effort of Drew University in Madison, New Jersey and McCormick Theological Seminary, in Chicago, under the direction of G. E. Wright and B. W. Anderson. Conceived as a teaching excavation for young American, Canadian, and European scholars, it took into the field teams of as many as thirty researchers, a well-conceived recording system, and a plan to combine the soil deposition technique being perfected by K. M. Kenyon at Jericho with comparative ceramic knowledge based on W. F. Albright's work. A major aim was to recover as much as possible from the materials unearthed by Sellin and Welter and to tie the mound's story together. Methods became more and more sophisticated as the expedition continued and many more institutions became partners. The excavation at Shechem was the first to introduce cross-disciplinary research, including an association with geologist R. Bullard. The expedition, chiefly through its director, G. E. Wright, kept to the task of relating textual evidence to archaeological finds. The expedition entered the field with a reconnaissance season in 1956, and worked in 1957, 1960, 1962, 1964, 1966, and 1968. In the fall of 1968, Boling reexcavated Tananir, and in 1969 J.D. Seger tied the acropolis stratigraphy to an area of fine houses just to the north of the acropolis (field XIII). Salvage and clean-up work in 1972 and 1973 were carried out by W. G. Dever, who made several important discoveries in Sellin's "palace" precinct. Work reached bedrock in two locations and identified a total of twenty-four distinct strata, from the Chalcolithic to the Late Hellenistic period. Four major periods of abandonment were interspersed.

Maps, Aerial Views, and Plans
Maps, Aerial Views, and Plans

Maps and Aerial Views

  • Fig. 7 - Map of the Nablus region from Bull and Campbell (1968)
  • Fig. 13 - Map of the Shechem environs from Bull and Campbell (1968)
  • Roads and cities during the Israelite period, 12th to 7th century BC from
  • Tel Balatah Archaeological Park in Google Earth
  • Tel Balatah Archaeological Park on


Normal Size

  • Plan of the mound of Tell Balatah from Stern et al (1993 v.4)


  • Plan of the mound of Tell Balatah from Stern et al (1993 v.4)


Tell Balatah

American Joint Expedition

Khirbet ed-Dharih Phasing

Stern et al (1993)

Crisler (2003)

New Courville—Tentative Correlation of Shechem strata with BC dates and events:

Date, c



150-107 BC


last city on tell, destroyed by John Hyrcanus

190-150 BC



225-190 BC



250-225 BC



300-250 BC



331-300 BC



537-331 BC


Israelite & Persian occupation

587-538 BC

6a & b

Nebuchadnezzar resettles land; “Assyrian Palace Ware” (i.e., Babylonian)

604-587 BC


Destruction by Nebuchadnezzar

731-604 BC


First Assyrian deportation and occupation of Israel

783-732 BC


Rebuilding of city; grain warehouse built over LB temple

850-783 BC


Destroyed by the earthquake of Uzziah’s day, c. 783

The Iron Age in the Southern Levant

8th century BCE Earthquake ?

Ambraseys (2009) wrote Crisler considers that ‘The destruction of Samaria [Shechem] was probably due to Uzziah’s earthquake of 783 BC1’ (Crisler 2003; 2004).


1 JW: that earthquake struck around 760 BCE

Notes and Further Reading

Excavation Reports

E. Sellin, Anzeiger der Kaiserliche Akademie der Wissenschqften in Wien, Philologisch-historische Klasse 51 (1914), 35-40, 204-207; id., ZDPV 49 (1926), 229-236, 304-320; 50 (1927), 205-211, 265-274; 51 (1928), 119-123;

E. Sellin and H. Steckeweh, ibid. 64 (1941), 1-20; G. Welter, Archaeologischer Anzeiger (1932), 289-314.

G. E. Wright, Shechem: The Biography of a Biblical City, New York 1965 - can be borrowed with a free account from

D.P. Cole, Shechem I: The Middle Bronze IIB Pottery, Winona Lake, Ind. 1984 - can be borrowed with a free account from

E. F. Campbell, Shechem II: Portrait of a Hill Country Vale, Atlanta 1991. - can be borrowed with a free account from

A. Zertal, TA 13-14 (1987), 105-165 [el-Burnat].

Bibliography from Stern et al (1993 v. 4)

Reports of the Austrian and German expeditions

E. Sellin, Anzeiger der Kaiserliche Akademie der Wissenschqften in Wien, Philologisch-historische Klasse 51 (1914), 35-40, 204-207; id., ZDPV 49 (1926), 229-236, 304-320; 50 (1927), 205-211, 265-274; 51 (1928), 119-123;

E. Sellin and H. Steckeweh, ibid. 64 (1941), 1-20; G. Welter, Archaeologischer Anzeiger (1932), 289-314.

Reports of the American expeditions

Main publications

G. E. Wright, Shechem: The Biography of a Biblical City, New York 1965

D.P. Cole, Shechem I: The Middle Bronze IIB Pottery, Winona Lake, Ind. 1984

E. F. Campbell, Shechem II: Portrait of a Hill Country Vale, Atlanta 1991.

Other studies

G. E. Wright et al., BASOR 144 (1956), 9-26; 148 (1957), 11-28

L. E. Toombs and G. E. Wright, ibid. 161 (1961), 11-54; 169 (1963), 1-60

L. E. Toombs, ADAJ 17 (1972), 99-110;

R. J. Bull (et al.),BASOR ISO (1965), 7-41; id. (and E. F. Campbell), ibid. 190(1968), 2-41

E. F. Campbell etal., ibid. 204 (1971), 2-17

J.D. Seger, ibid. 205 (1972), 20-35

G. R. H. Wright, ZDPV89 (1973), 188-196

W. G. Dever, BASOR 216 (1974), 31-52

R. Boling, BASOR Supplementary Studies 21 (1975), 25-85.

Reports of Israeli excavations

A. Zertal, TA 13-14 (1987), 105-165 [el-Burnat].

Ceramic and artifact studies

F. W. Freiherr von Bissing, Mededelingen der Koniklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen, Amsterdam, Afd. Letterkunde 62/B (1926), 1-24

H. W. Muller, Der Waffenfund von Balata-Sichem und die Sichelschwerter, Munich !987 [weapon hoard]

F. M. T. Bohl, ZDPV 49 (1926) 320-327

W. F. Albright, BASOR 86 (1942), 28-31 [cuneiform tablets]

F. M. Cross, Jr., ibid. 167 (1962),14-15

A. Zeron, TA 6(1979), 156-157[/mbn seal]

S. H. Horn,JNES2i (1962), 1-14;25 (1966) 48-56; 32(1973), 281-289 [scarabs]

0. R. Sellers, BA 25 (1962), 87-96 [coins]

G. E. Wright, BASOR 167 (1962), 5-13 [seals]

G. R. H. Wright, PEQ 97 (1965), 66-84; 101 (1969), 34-36 [fluted columns]

V. Kerkhof, BASOR 184 (1966), 20-21 [inscribed stone weight]

M. H. Wieneke, JNES 35 (1976), 127-130 [clay sealings]

S. Geva, ZDPV 96 (1980), 41-47 [tridacna shell]

P. W. Lapp, BASOR 172 (1963), 22-35 [stamped jar handles]

id., Palestinian Ceramic Chronology, 200 BC-AD 70, New Haven 1961,41-49 and passim

N. L. Lapp, BASOR 175 (1964), 14-26 [Hellenistic pottery]

P. W. Lapp, Archiiologie und A/tes Testament (K. Galling Fest.), Tiibingen 1970, 179-197

N. L. Lapp, BASOR 257 (1985), 19-43 [Persian pottery]

J. S. Holladay, Magnolia Dei: The Mighty Acts of God (G. E. Wright Fest., eds. F. M. Cross, Jr., etal.), Garden City, N.Y. 1976, 253-293 [Iron II pottery]

R. S. Boraas, The Archaeology of Jordan and Other Studies (S. H. Horn Fest.), Berrien Springs, Mich. 1986, 249-263 [Iron I pottery]

D. P. Cole, Shechem I: The Middle Bronze IIB Pottery, Winona Lake, Ind. 1984

G. R. H. Wright, Opuscula Atheniensia 7 (1967), 47-75 [Cypriot and Aegean pottery]

S. H. Horn, Jaarbericht ex Oriente Lux 20 (1968), 71-90 [1913-1914 objects]

S. H. Horn and L. G. Moulds, AUSS 7 (1969), 2-46 [1913-1914 pottery]

V. Kerkhof, Oudheidkundige Mededelingen uit het Rijksmuseum van Oudheden te Leiden 50 (1969), 38-109 [artifacts from the Austro-German expeditions].

Interpretive studies

F. M. T. Bohl, De Opgraving van Sichem, Zeist, Netherlands 1927

E. Sellin, ZAW 50(1932), 303-308

R. J. Bull, BA 23 (1960), 110-119

R. J. Bull and G. E. Wright, Harvard Theological Review 58 (1965), 234-237

E. F. Campbell and J. F. Ross, BA 26 (1963), 2-27

E. F. Campbell, Magnolia Dei: The Mighty Acts of God (G. E. Wright Fest., eds. F. M. Cross, Jr., etal.), Garden City, N.Y. 1976,39-54

id., The Word of the Lord Shall Go Forth (D. N. Freedman Fest.), Winona Lake, Ind. !983, 263-271

id., The Answers Lie Below (L. E. Toombs Fest.), Lanham, Md. 1984 67-76

S. H. Horn, Jaarbericht Ex Oriente Lux 18 (1965), 284-306

G. E. Wright, Archaeology and Old Testament Study, London 1967, 355-370

J. F. Ross and L. E. Toombs, Archaeological Studies in the Holy Land, New York 1967, 119-127

G. R. H. Wright, ZDPV83 (1967), 199-202

id., ZAW80 (1968), 1-35; 82 (1970), 275-278; 87 (1975) 56-64

id., PEQ 103 (1971), 17-32

id., Zeitschriftfiir Assyriologie 74 (1984), 267-289

id., ZDPV 101 (1986),1-8

J.D. Seger, Levant 6 (1974), 117-130

id., EI 12 (1975), 34*-45*

K. Jaros, Sichem, Gottingen 1976

K. Jaros and B. Deckert, Studien ziir Sichem-Area, Giittingen 1977

L. E. Toombs, ASOR Symposia, 69-83

id., Put Your Future in Ruins (R. J. Bull Fest.), Briston, Ind. 1985, 42-60

M.D. Fowler, PEQ 115 (1983), 49-53

R. G. Boling and E. F. Campbell, Archaeology and Biblical Interpretation (D. Glenn Rose Fest.), Atlanta 1986, 259-272

D. Dorsey BASOR 268 (1987), 57-70.

Bibliography from Stern et al (2008)

Main publications

Shechem III: The Stratigraphy and Architecture of Shechem/Tell Balâtah (Tell Balâtah Shechem Archaeological Excavations; ASOR Reports 6), 1: Text, by E. F. Campbell

2: The Illustrations, by G. R. H. Wright, Boston, MA 2002

ibid. (Reviews) AJA 108 (2004), 119–120. — BASOR 335 (2004), 93–96.

Tell Balâtah

Finkelstein, TA 19 (1992), 201–220

B. Mazar, Biblical Israel: State and People (ed. S. Ah ̣ituv), Jerusalem 1992, 42–54

L. E. Toombs, ABD, 5, New York 1992, 1174–1186

G. R. H. Wright, Obiter Dicta, London 1992

id., AfO 40–41 (1993–1994), 320–327

50 (2003–2004), 324–339

id., Beiträge zur altorientalischen Archäologie und Altertumskunde (B. Hrouda Fest.

eds. P. Calmeyer et al.), Wiesbaden 1994, 321–328

A. Zertal, ABD, 5, New York 1992, 1186–1187

id., Michmanim 9 (1996), 73–82

E. F. Campbell, Jr., BAT II, Jerusalem 1993, 598–605

id., Scripture and Other Artifacts, Louisville, KY 1994, 32–52

P. Dorrell, PEQ 125 (1993), 160–161 (Review)

H. Genz, Die Welt des Orients 24 (1993), 198–200 (Review)

W. Zwickel, Der Tempelkult in Kanaan und Israel (Forschungen zum Alten Testament 10), Tübingen 1994

A. J. Frendo, Orientalia 64 (1995), 479–481 (Review)

A. H. Joffe, JNES 54 (1995), 299–302 (Review)

G. L. Mattingly, BA 58 (1995), 14–25

H. -D. Neef, Ephraim: Studien zur Geschichte des Stammes Ephraim von der Landname bis zur frühen Königszeit (ZAW Beihefte 238), Berlin 1995

L. Nigro, Ricerche sull’architettura palaziale della Palestina nelle eta del bronzo e del ferro (Contributi e materiali di archeologia orientale 5), Roma 1995

id., Contributi e materiali di archeologia orientale 6 (1996), 1–69

id., Archéo 15/2 (1999), 42–52

id., Archeologie dans l’Empire Ottoman autour de 1900: entre politique, economie et science (eds. V. Krings & I. Tassignon), Brussel 2004, 215–229

W. G. Dever, Retrieving the Past, Winona Lake, IN 1996, 37–42

H. G. Niemeyer, Alle soglie della classicita’: il Mediterraneo tra tradizione e innovazione, 1–3 (S. Moscati Fest.

ed. E. Acquaro), Pisa 1996, 881–888

P. Bartoloni, Rivista di Studi Fenici 25 (1997), 97–103

J. D. Seger, OEANE, 5, New York 1997, 19–23

B. G. Wood, To Understand the Scriptures (W. H. Shea Fest.

ed. D. Merling), Berrien Springs, MI 1997, 245–256

id., Giving the Sense: Understanding and Using Old Testament Historical Texts (eds. D. M. Howard, Jr. & M. A. Grisanti), Grand Rapids, MI 2003, 256–282

id., Bible and Spade 18/2 (2005), 45–46

A. Giumlia-Mair, Berliner Beiträge zur Archäometrie 15 (1998), 91–94

S. Wimmer, Jerusalem Studies in Egyptology, Wiesbaden, 1998, 87–123

id., BN 109 (2001), 21–26

112 (2002), 33–37

R. S. Boraas, On the Way to Nineveh (G. M. Landes Fest.

ASOR Books 4

eds. S. L. Cook & S. C. Winter), Atlanta, GA 1999, 18–27

L. E. Stager, Realia Dei: Essays in Archaeology and Biblical Interpretation (E. F. Campbell, Jr. Fest.

eds. P. H. Williams, Jr. & T. Hiebert), Atlanta, GA 1999, 228–249

id., BAR 29/4 (2003), 26–35, 66, 68–69

M. Bietak & K. Kopetzky, Synchronisation, Wien 2000, 121–122

C. Duff, ASOR Annual Meeting Abstract Book, Boulder, CO 2001, 27

A. Shapira, JSRS 12 (2003), viii

D. G. Hansen, Wood, Bible and Spade 18/2 (2005), 33–43

C. Saranga, JSRS 14 (2005), xv–xvi.

In Amarna Letters

M. R. Adamthwaite, Abr-Nahrain 30 (1992), 1–19

R. S. Hess, Verse in Ancient Near Eastern Prose (eds. J. C. de Moor & W. G. E. Watson), Kevelaer 1993, 95–111

W. Horowitz, IEJ 46 (1996), 208–218

id., BA 60 (1997), 97–100

id. (et al.), JAOS 122 (2002), 760

N. Na’aman, Nouvelles Assyriologiques Brèves et Utilitaires 1999/2, 26

id., IEJ 54 (2004), 92–99

J. P. Van der Westhuizen, Journal for Semitics 11 (2002), 1–22

Y. Goren et al., Inscribed in Clay, Tel Aviv 2004, 262–265

I. Finkelstein & N. Na’aman, IEJ 55 (2005), 172–193M. R. Adamthwaite, Abr-Nahrain 30 (1992), 1–19

R. S. Hess, Verse in Ancient Near Eastern Prose (eds. J. C. de Moor & W. G. E. Watson), Kevelaer 1993, 95–111

W. Horowitz, IEJ 46 (1996), 208–218

id., BA 60 (1997), 97–100

id. (et al.), JAOS 122 (2002), 760

N. Na’aman, Nouvelles Assyriologiques Brèves et Utilitaires 1999/2, 26

id., IEJ 54 (2004), 92–99

J. P. Van der Westhuizen, Journal for Semitics 11 (2002), 1–22

Y. Goren et al., Inscribed in Clay, Tel Aviv 2004, 262–265

I. Finkelstein & N. Na’aman, IEJ 55 (2005), 172–193


Main publications

Y. Magen, The History and Archaeology of Shechem (Neapolis) in the 1st–4th Centuries A.D. (Ph.D. diss.), Jerusalem 1989 (Eng. abstract)

id., Flavia Neapolis: Shechem in the Roman Period (Judea and Samaria Publications 5), Jerusalem 2005 (Heb.)


R. Barkay, Proceedings of the 1st International Congress of the Société d’Études Samaritaines, Tel Aviv, 11–13.4.1988, Tel Aviv 1991, 83–98

A. Mikolasek, ibid., 79–81

Z. H. Erlich, JSRS 4 (1994), xxi–xxii

F. Mebarki, MdB 90 (1995), 42–45

E. Friedheim, JSRS 7 (1997), xv–xvi

G. Galil, Cathedra 84 (1997), 189; H. Hizmi, ESI 32 (1997), 45*

C. Le Du & H. Taha, Les Dossiers d’Archeologie 240 (1999), 130–137

T. Giles, Near Eastern Archaeology: A Reader (ed. S. Richard), Winona Lake, IN 2003, 413–417

N. Tzameret, JSRS 12 (2003), xix

Y. Elitzur, Ancient Place Names in the Holy Land: Preservation and History, Jerusalem 2004, 32–34

A. Lewin, The Archaeology of Ancient Judea and Palestine, Los Angeles, CA 2005, 106–109.

The Coins

D. Barag, INJ 12 (1992–1993), 1–12

Y. Meshorer, BAT II, Jerusalem 1993, 141–146

id., INJ 14 (2000– 2002), 194–195

J. M. Galst, American Journal of Numismatics 10 (1998), 103–104

Z. A. Stos-Gale, Hacksilber to Coinage: New Insights into the Monetary History of the Near East and Greece (Numismatic Studies 24

ed. M. S. Balmuth), New York 2001, 53–76.

Wikipedia Pages


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