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Aerial View of Akko Aerial View of Akko (Acre)

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Avraham Gracier - Wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0

Name Table

Transliterated Name Source Name
Acre English
Akko Hebrew עַכּוֹ
Ako Hebrew עַכּוֹ
Akka Arabic عكّا
Ákē Greek Ἄκη
Ptolemaïs Koine Greek - Ptolemaic Empire Πτολεμαΐς
Antioch Koine Greek - Seleucid Empire Ἀντιόχεια
Antiókheia tôs en Ptolemaΐdi Koine Greek - Syrian Ἀντιόχεια τῆς ἐν Πτολεμαΐδι,
Antiochia Ptolemais Koine Greek Ἀντιόχεια Πτολεμαΐς
Antiochenes Koine Greek - Seleucid Empire
Ptolemaïs Latin
Ptolemais in Phoenicia Romans
Germaníkeia tôs en Ptolemaΐdi Romans - Claudius Γερμανίκεια τῆς ἐν Πτολεμαΐδι
Colonia Claudii Caesaris Ptolemais Roman Colony
Colonia Claudia Felix Ptolemais Garmanica Stabilis Roman Colony
Colonia Ptolemais Roman Colony
Sainct-Jehan-d'Acre Crusades - Frankish
Acre Crusades - Frankish
Saint-Jean-d'Acre Modern French
Saint John of Acre English
San Juan de Acre Spanish
Sant Joan d'Acre Catalan
Akre Josephus
Talbush Aramaic - Babylonian Talmud תלבוש
Akka Egyptian hieroglyphs - execration texts from around 1800 BC (possible association)
Aak tribute lists of Thutmose III (1479–1425 BCE)
Akka Akkadian cuneiform Amarna letters (14th century BCE)
Akko Elba Texts (2400-2250 BCE)
Tel Acco
Tell el-Fukhar
Napoleon's Hill

Identification and History

The ancient city of Acco is to be identified with Tel Acco (Tell el-Fukhar, the Mound ofPotsherds) on the Mediterranean coast, about 13 km (8 mi.) north of Haifa. The name Acco appears in various forms in the most ancient sources as well as in modern ones, leaving no doubt as to its identification. Acco is one of the few coastal cities in Israel located next to a natural bay. The mouth of the Acco River also served as an anchorage for the city. In antiquity, Acco was located at the junction of two important routes--the Via Maris (the coastal highway) and a lateral road leading to the Mediterranean Sea from Syria and Transjordan--and as a result became one of the country's principal coastal cities as early as the beginning of the second millennium BCE onward.

The first mention of Acco probably occurs in the Execration texts of the Egyptian Middle Kingdom. The king of Acco, who bore the West Semitic name Turi-Ammu, appears as one of the local rulers threatening Egyptian rule on the coast of Canaan. A scarab found at Tel Acco before the site was excavated also belongs to the Twelfth Dynasty. Acco is mentioned frequently in Egyptian documents from the Late Bronze Age. Thutmose III includes it in his roster of conquered cities, and it is mentioned thirteen times in the el Amarna letters. From these letters it is evident that Acco played a major role in the feuds among the cities in Canaan. The city was subsequently conquered by Seti I and Ramses II. Its conquest by the latter pharaoh is commemorated in a relief in the Karnak temple. Acco at that time was a principal port city, as is attested by Ugaritic and Akkadian documents in which it is listed among the cities of Canaan. The city is also referred to in one of the letters found at Aphek, which probably dates to the thirteenth century BCE.

In the Bible, Acco is mentioned in Judges 1:31: "Asher did not drive out the inhabitants of Acco, or the inhabitants of Sidon." According to 1 Kings 9:11-13, Solomon granted twenty cities in the Galilee to Hiram, king ofTyre. In David's time (Joab's census, 2 Sam. 24:7), the northern border of the Israelite kingdom extended as far as the fortress of Tyre. From these references it can be inferred that, at least during the reign of David and the early part of Solomon's reign, Acco belonged to the United Monarchy. In the Iron Age II, in the eighth and seventh centuries BCE, Acco was an important Phoenician city. Assyrian documents indicate that it rebelled against Assyria and was conquered by Sennacherib. Esarhaddon mentions the city and Ashurbanipal states that it was conquered and razed and its inhabitants expelled.

From the time ofCambyses, according to Greek sources, Acco was one of the military and administrative centers of the Persian Empire, playing an important strategic role in the wars between Persia and Egypt. Henceforth, Greeks lived in the city and, from the middle of the fourth century BCE, it was known by its Greek name, Ake.

Acco's prosperity in the Persian period continued following its surrender, without resistance, to Alexander the Great in 332 BCE. In the time of the Diadochi, it changed hands several times; it remained under Ptolemaic rule from the time of the reign of Ptolemy II. It was he who turned it into a polis and named it Ptolemais. According to the papyri of Zenon and other documents of the third century BCE, it became a Seleucid city that was briefly known as Antiochia Ptolemais. During the reign of Alexander Balaas, it served as the king's fortress and second capital. At the time of the Maccabean revolt, Acco was hostile to the Jews, but neither Simon the Maccabee's attack on the city, nor Alexander Jannaeus' subsequent siege, succeeded in capturing the city. In the first century BCE, the city went from hand to hand several times; it was only under Pompey, in 63 BCE, that it became autonomous and subject to the suzerainty of the Roman proconsul in Syria.

Julius Caesar visited Acco in 47 BCE, and from that date until the time of Alexander Severus (229-230 CE), the city counted its years by an era beginning with Caesar's reign. In 39 BCE, King Herod landed at Acco and made it the starting point for his campaign of conquest of the territories granted him by the Romans. The emperor Claudius refounded the city and improved upon its port. In the time of Nero, the city became a Roman "colony" in which soldiers

During the First Jewish War (66-70 CE), the inhabitants of Acco were again hostile to the Jews. Josephus Flavius reports the massacre there of about two thousand Jews. In the second year of the revolt, Vespasian made the city his military base. He set out from Acco to suppress the rebellion in Galilee.

Christianity spread early among the inhabitants of Acco. Paul spent a day there during his third voyage. The city's first known bishop was Clarus (190 CE).

In Talmudic and Mishnaic times, Acco served as the Galilee's harbor, and ships belonging to the head of the Sanhedrin set out from here with its goods. It was the port that received many rabbis as visitors and, even though the city was considered outside the boundaries of the Holy Land for the returnees from the Exile in Babylon, several rabbis settled here.

Acco surrendered to the Arabs in 636 and resumed its ancient Semitic name. In its shipyards, which had existed since the Byzantine period, the first Umayyad caliph Mu'awiya (661-680) built a fleet to invade Cyprus and for his expeditions to North Africa. In the ninth century, Ibn Tulun ruled Acco and rebuilt the port, which was later taken by the Crusaders. Its remains survive to the present time. In 1104, the Crusader king Baldwin I captured the city with the help of the Genoese fleet. In 1187, the city fell to Saladin but was retaken in 1191 by Richard the Lion-Heart and Philip Augustus, king of France, during the Third Crusade. From that time until 1291, it was the capital of the Latin kingdom because Jerusalem was not restored to Crusader rule. The city was under the direct rule of the king; a high official (a viscount) governed it in his name. The military orders had their headquarters and monasteries here in their own quarters: the Order of Saint John (the Hospitallers) in the center of the city; the Knights Templar at the southern end (near the present lighthouse); the Teutonic Knights in the east; and the Order of Saint Lazarus at the northern end, in the suburb of Montmusart. The Italian colonies (Venetian, Genoese, and Pisan) were settled around the harbor. Much merchandise passed through the port of Acco on its way to and from the Near and Far East. The city prospered, and its population grew to some fifty thousand inhabitants.

In 1292, the Mameluke sultan el-Malik el-Ashraf captured the city and razed it. The Druze emir, Fakhr ed-Din, rebuilt part of the city at the beginning of the seventeenth century. In the eighteenth century, the city was ruled by Dhaher el-'Amr (1750-1775) and Ahmed el-Jazzar(l775-1804). Dhaher el-'Amr rebuilt the city wall, which is the present inner wall. Jazzar Pasha built the Great Mosque (1781) and the Turkish bath (Hlammam el-Basha). Both these rulers and Jazzar's successor, Suleiman Pasha, built a "citadel" in the center of the city above the ruins of the large Hospitallers' convent from the Crusader period.

Various Sites

Tel Akko


The mound of Tel Acco (map reference 1585.2585) is situated about 700 m from the Mediterranean Sea on the northern bank of the Na'aman River (Belus). It covers an area of about 50 a., and its highest point is about 35 m above sea level. Bedrock is 12 to 15 m above sea level. The river's course probably shifted in antiquity, so that the riverbed originally was closer to the mound. The southern part of the mound was destroyed in the last few centuries by the construction of the modern city west of the mound, where the city was located from the Persian period onward. Other parts of the mound were also severely damaged when their buildings were plundered or as a result of intensive agricultural activities.


There was no systematic excavation at the site of Acco before 1973. Between 1973 and 1989, twelve campaigns were conducted, first as a joint project of the Center for Maritime Studies and the Department of the History of Maritime Civilizations at Haifa University, with the cooperation of the Israel Department of Antiquities and Museums and the Israel Exploration Society. The excavations were directed by M. Dothan, with the assistance of A. Raban and M. Artzy. The later seasons were conducted as a joint project of the Center for Maritime Studies, the University of Marburg (Germany), and the Israel Exploration Society. Nine areas were examined on the mound (A, B, AB, C, F, G, H, K, and S), directed by D. Conrad; one at the foot of the mound (N); and several in the new city (D, E, E1, L, and M), under the direction of A. Ritterspach and N. A. Silberman.

The Modern City


During the first seasons of excavation on the mound, several trial soundings and salvage excavations were also carried out in the modern city of Acco, under the direction of M. Dothan, assisted by N. A. Silberman.

The Persian Garden


In 1971, during the quarrying of kurkar near the Persian Garden (el-Bahja), north of Acco (map reference 1591.2610), a Late Bronze Age cemetery was discovered with five undisturbed graves and several grave groups that had been partially damaged during modern construction work or in earlier periods. That same year excavations were carried out at the site by G. Edelstein, assisted by Y. Ben-Yosef, on behalf of the Israel Department of Antiquities. The graves had been dug at a depth of0.2 to 1.2 m below surface level, and the bodies were laid in an extended position in a pit dug into the sand. Three graves contained a single burial and one contained two burials. Another grave, with the richest contents, contained three superimposed burials. Near the bodies were numerous funerary offerings, including jewelry and cylinder seals. To mark the burial, a large storage jar, in several cases covered with a bowl, was placed higher up in the grave. Rings were laid near the deceased's fingers, pottery was strewn around the body, and personal possessions, such as cylinder seals, were placed near the chest.


The form of the graves and the homogeneous nature of the finds in all the burials indicate that the cemetery was in use for only a short time. The pottery found dates to the fourteenth century BCE: the Cypriot ware belongs to whiteslip II and base-ring II of the Late Cypriot IIA-B period and the Mycenean pottery is the Late Helladic IIIA1-2 type. The scarab set in the ring and the clay bead, bearing the name of Amenhotep III provide a terminus post quem for the graves, which belong to the same period.

No settlement dating to the fourteenth century BCE has been found so far in the vicinity; Tel Acco is about 11 km (7 mi.)away. The large amount of luxury goods and imported objects accompanying the burials is evidence of the wealth of the deceased, but the graves themselves are simply pits dug in the sand. Only the grave containing the larnax-a type of coffin commonly found in graves in Crete-is of a different character. Of special significance are the weapons, which suggest that some of the individuals interred here were soldiers. The large amount of stone weights may indicate that there are also merchants buried among them. The objects from the Aegean islands, Cyprus, Egypt, and Syria that were found alongside local objects strengthens this assumption. It is possible that the deceased were traveling merchants, guarded by soldiers on their journeys, who met with sudden death. Although the homelands of the deceased are unknown, their grave goods reflect the international culture and close trade relations existing among countries in the Near East in the fourteenth century BCE.

Maritime Akko


From the Persian period onward, Acco's port was located in the part of the bay that today also serves as its harbor. Prior to this period, the lower part of the Na'aman River functioned as its harbor. This can be inferred from statements made by Pliny and Josephus that the Na'aman was the source of the sand used in glass production and that the sand was loaded onto ships that entered the river channel. The earliest city built on Tell el-Fukhar (Tel Acco) was undoubtedly located close to the harbor, which was the basis of its economic prosperity. Geomorphological studies reveal that, in the Bronze Age, seawater penetrated from the south, southeast, and west into the lowlying area at the foot of the mound. At that time the area was a peninsula with a bay to its west (at least up to the junction of the Acco-Safed road), an estuary in a submerged riverbed to its south, and a lagoon connected to this inlet to its east. With the city's gradual expansion to the west, toward the peninsula on which the Old City of Acco stands today, maritime activities were transferred to the bay on the east.

Underwater Exploration

The buildings of the port preserved above the water course (the Tower of the Flies and the southern breakwater) have been mentioned in documents and depicted in paintings and on maps since the Middle Ages. In the mid-nineteenth century, a bathometric survey of the harbor's sea bottom was made by Mansel, for the British Royal Navy. He marked the submerged rampart between the Tower of the Flies and the northern shore. The first archaeological underwater survey of the area was conducted by members of the Israel Undersea Exploration Society in the summer of 1964, under the direction of E. Linder. In 1965, during construction of the new breakwater, trial soundings were made by this group in preparation for a detailed mapping of the building remains under water. Exploration of the harbor continued into the following year, with special emphasis on examining the foundations of the Tower of the Flies. The expedition also searched for shipwrecks in the area outside the harbor. From 1976 to 1978, several seasons of underwater excavations were conducted (while Tell el-Fukhar was being excavated) on behalf of the Center for Maritime Studies at Haifa University and the Undersea Exploration Society, also under Linder's direction. The foundations of the structure beneath the Tower of the Flies were partly exposed and trial trenches were dug in the rampart between the tower and the north shore. A trench was dug across the tip of the southern breakwater, and remains of a shipwreck from the time ofNapoleon's siege were discovered at the entrance to the harbor. In 1983, when the port was being deepened, remains of the cargo of two ancient boats were discovered: one from the fourth or fifth century BCE and the other from the first century CE

The Harbor


In November 1992 and June 1993, the port of Acco was deepened to enable the servicing of boats with a draft of several meters. The work was executed under close archaeological inspection (under the direction of E. Galili and Y. Sharvit) and the material raised from the bottom of the harbor was examined. A crane with a grab dredged the sediments containing the archaeological material from the bed of the harbor, and deposited them onto a barge with a bottom that could be opened. The material was dumped into the open sea and checked by divers. The harbor was divided into three main areas: area A—the western part of the eastern basin, east of the modern port; area B—the entrance to the western basin; and area C—the inner part of the western basin. The following description of the findings was written in collaboration with N. Bahat-Zilberstein, Y. Sharvit, E. J. Stern, G. Finkielsztejn, and R. Kool, all of the Israel Antiquities Authority; Y. Kahanov of the University of Haifa, Department of Maritime Civilizations; and D. Zvieli of the University of Haifa, Geography Department.

Plain of Akko


The fertile Acco Plain, crossed by important roads throughout history, contained numerous settlements in antiquity. This entry deals with two partially excavated mounds in this area: Tel Ma'amer and Tel Regev. (See the separate entries for Tell Abu Hawam, Beth ha-'Emeq, Tel Bira, and Tell Keisan.)

Tel Ma'Amer

Tel Ma'amer (Tel Geba-Shemen, Tell el-'Amr) is situated on a natural ridge (c. 250 m long) in the narrow passage between the Jezreel Valley and the Acco Plain (map reference 159.237). A fortress, whose fortifications are visible on the surface, stood at the north end of the ridge. About one acre of the mound was fortified. The Kishon River passes at the foot of the eastern and northern slopes and then turns westward.

In 1922, excavations were conducted on the mound under the direction of J. Garstang, on behalf of the British School of Archaeology in Jerusalem. The excavators cut five sections in an attempt to locate the gateway of the stronghold and investigate the fortifications. The depth of the archaeological strata did not exceed 2.5 m. In several places, Iron Age remains were discovered on the surface of the rock. The pottery found dates to the Middle Bronze Age II, the Late Bronze Age I, the Iron Age (ninth and eighth centuries BCE), and the Hellenistic period. In 1959, A. Druks, on behalf of the Israel Department of Antiquities, excavated shaft tombs on the southern slope of the ridge, where he discovered abundant pottery from the Middle Bronze Age II (corresponding to Megiddo, strata XIV-XIII).

Tel Regev

Tel Regev (Tell el-Harbaj), situated north of Kefar Hassidim, about 400 m west of the foothills of the lower Galilee hills, rises 12 m above the plain (map reference 158.240). Its area is about 8 a. The Zippori Valley passes the foot of its southern slope; its catchment area is the Beth Netofa Valley. The Kishon River flows north of the mound. J. Garstang, on behalf of the British School of Archaeology in Jerusalem, conducted trial excavations both on the mound and in the cemetery east of it. On the strength of the pottery finds, the fortifications, and other remains, the settlement can be ascribed to the Early Bronze Age III, Middle Bronze Age I, Late Bronze Age I-II, and Iron Age I. In a later survey, Hellenistic pottery was also found on the surface of the mound.

The Hospitaller's Compound


In 1104, five years after the capture of Jerusalem, Acco was besieged by land and sea by Baldwin I, king of Jerusalem, with the help of the Genoese fleet, and the city was taken by the Crusaders. In the early years of Crusader rule in Acco, the Hospitallers were the recipients of property in the city. The first reference to this property appears in documents from the year 1110, which mention that King Baldwin I permitted the Hospitallers to retain ownership of buildings received as gifts north of the Church of the Holy Cross. In 1135, some of the order’s buildings were damaged during the church compound’s expansion to the north. As a result, the Hospitallers quit the area and embarked on the construction of a new compound in the northwestern sector of the city, adjoining Acco’s twelfth-century northern city wall. This complex represents the Hospitallers’ Compound as it is known today. It is first mentioned in a document from the time of Queen Melisande (1149), which reports the construction of the Church of St. John in the Hospitallers’ Quarter south of the new compound. In 1169, the pilgrim Theodoric visited Acco and described the Hospitallers’ Compound in Acco as an impressive fortified building that was equaled only by the Templar’s fortress.

After the defeat of the Crusaders in the Battle of Hattin in 1187, Acco was captured by the Muslims and its Christian inhabitants fled the city, returning only four years later (1191) when the city was retaken during the Third Crusade. On the return of the Hospitallers to Acco, the twelfth-century buildings no longer satisfied their needs (and have not survived to the present, see below), Acco having now become the capital of the Crusader kingdom after the order lost its chief fortress and headquarters in Jerusalem. Guy de Lusignan (1192) and Henry of Champagne (1193), the new rulers of the Crusader kingdom, renewed the Hospitallers’ rights in Acco, permitting them to extend their compound to the street running along the city wall in the north. New construction was undertaken to house the head of the order and its headquarters in Acco. The building activities, commenced at the end of the twelfth century and continuing into the thirteenth century, extended the Hospitallers’ property, and new wings and additional stories were added to the old complex. The Hospitallers also erected new buildings in the new quarter (Montmusard), expanding the city’s limits on the north side and constructing a new wall by the year 1212.

History of Research

Studies of the Crusader period in Acco began with the documentation of the ruins of the Crusader city by the numerous pilgrims who visited the city from the fourteenth to the eighteenth centuries. Two of the most important pilgrims are the Dutchman Cornelis de Bruyn, who visited Acco in 1679 and sketched the Hospitallers’ buildings, and Garbor d’Orcieres, who meticulously rendered the city panorama from the sea in the year 1685. The main buildings of the ruined city were also identified at that time. The Crusader city was deserted in those years, its buildings razed, and some of it buried under sand. In the eighteenth to twentieth centuries, in the time of Dhahar al-‘Amr (1750–1775), Ahmad al-Jazzar (1775–1804) and their successors, a new city was erected that concealed the remains of the Crusader city beneath it.

From 1955 to 1964, excavations in the Crusader remains in the Hospitallers’ Quarter, initiated by the eminent scholar of the Crusader period, J. Prawer, were carried out. These excavations uncovered halls 1–3, a narrow corridor in the Pillared Hall, and the Vaulted Hall (a refectory, erroneously called the “Crypt”). In 1990, after cracks that endangered the Pillared Hall were discovered in the Crusader remains, exploratory excavations were conducted in the exercise yard of the Mandatory prison to relieve the pressure of the earth fill on the Crusader remains. Large-scale excavations by the Israel Antiquities Authority, funded by the Ministry of Tourism (Acco Development Company), followed from 1992. They were directed by E. Stern and M. Avissar in 1992–1996 and by E. Stern from 1997 onwards.

Maps, Aerial Views, Plans, and Photos
Maps, Aerial Views, Plans, and Photos

Misc. Maps, Aerial Views, Plans, and Photos

  • Map of the Acco region from Stern et al (1993 v. 1)
  • Fig. 1 - Location Map from Killebrew et. al. (2023)
  • Excavation areas on the mound and in the city from Stern et al (1993 v. 1)
  • Akko in Google Earth
  • Akko on
  • Fig. 1 - Geological sketch of the eastern Mediterranean from Shtienberg et al (2020)
  • Map of North-Western Israel
  • Location map of Akko from Morhange et. al. (2016)
  • Location of cores from Morhange et. al. (2016)
  • Palaeogeographic reconstruction until 3000 years BP from Morhange et. al. (2016)
  • Ancient engraving of Haifa Bay from Morhange et. al. (2016)

Akko Harbor

  • Plan of Acco harbor from Stern et al (1993 v. 1)
  • Acco harbor excavation areas from Stern et al (2008)

Crusader Akko

Normal Size

  • Plan of the Crusader city from Stern et al (1993 v. 1)
  • Acco city location map from Stern et al (2008)
  • Plan of the Hospitallers’ Compound from Stern et al (2008)


  • Plan of the Crusader city from Stern et al (1993 v. 1)
  • Plan of the Hospitallers’ Compound from Stern et al (2008)

Tel 'Akko

  • Fig. 1 - Location Map from Killebrew et. al. (2023)
  • Fig. 2 - Plan of Tel ‘Akko excavation areas from Killebrew et. al. (2023)
  • Fig. 3 - Plan of excavated squares in Areas A and Z from Killebrew et. al. (2023)
  • Fig. 4 - Plan of Tel ‘Akko Stratum A6 from Killebrew et. al. (2023)
  • Fig. 5 - Photo of Stratum A6 NW Complex from Killebrew et. al. (2023)
  • Fig. 7 - Plan of Tel ‘Akko Stratum A5 from Killebrew et. al. (2023)

Plain of 'Akko


  • Biosedimentology of core AK 8 from Morhange et. al. (2016)
  • Biosedimentology of core AK 9 from Morhange et. al. (2016)
  • Biosedimentology of core AK 2 from Morhange et. al. (2016)
  • Biosedimentology of core AK 5 from Morhange et. al. (2016)
  • Biosedimentology of core AK 6 from Morhange et. al. (2016)


Tel Akko

Area A

Table 1 Stratigraphic Sequence in Area A





Description of main features




(Figs. 4–6)

Iron IIB/C

Mid-8th–mid-7th c. BCE

Two complexes, in the NW and SE, were excavated and partially removed by the Dothan expedition. Beaten-earth surfaces with restorable vessels were recovered in the previously unexcavated areas.




(Figs. 7–10)

Iron IIC

Mid-7th–late 7th/early 6th c. BCE

The NW and SE complexes continued the general plan of A6. The Stratum A5 debris layers and surfaces were mainly excavated and removed by the Dothan expedition. Two stratigraphic sub-phases have been discerned in some places. Restorable vessels were recovered on the previously unexcavated surfaces


Early Persian



Late Iron and Early Babylonian

Late 7th–early 6th c. BCE

A series of backfills and renovations reshaped and supported the upper inner slope of the Middle Bronze Age ramparts
Not defined
(Figs. 11–15)
Babylonian and Persian
Early 6th–late 4th c. BCE
Structures, mostly excavated by the Dothan expedition, included characteristic features, such as “pier and rubble” walls, cobble and pebble floors, flat-lying sherd build-ups and crushed kurkar floors. Two main stratigraphic sub-phases (b, a) were identified. Massive amounts of iron slag and several smithing installations




(Fig. 16)

Early Hellenistic

 Late 4th–3rd c. BCE

Fragmentary architectural remains characterized by plaster floors and painted plaster


Early Hellenistic


(Fig. 17)

Late Hellenistic

2nd–early 1st c. BCE

Very fragmentary architectural remains
Late Hellenistic
(Figs. 18, 19)
Post- Hellenistic
Post-Hellenistic pits and 1948 war trenches




Modern plow zone (topsoil) and post-1948 disturbances, including activities associated with Dothan’s backfill of the excavation and the construction of a municipal park
Not defined

Stratum VI Destruction - Iron IIC - Mid-8th–mid-7th c. BCE

Plans and Photos

Plans and Photos

  • Fig. 1 - Location Map from Killebrew et. al. (2023)
  • Fig. 2 - Plan of Tel ‘Akko excavation areas from Killebrew et. al. (2023)
  • Fig. 3 - Plan of excavated squares in Areas A and Z from Killebrew et. al. (2023)
  • Fig. 4 - Plan of Tel ‘Akko Stratum A6 from Killebrew et. al. (2023)
  • Fig. 5 - Photo of Stratum A6 NW Complex from Killebrew et. al. (2023)
  • Fig. 7 - Plan of Tel ‘Akko Stratum A5 from Killebrew et. al. (2023)


Killebrew et. al. (2023) encountered a destruction layer in Stratum VI of the SE Complex of Area A on the Tel
The SE complex was partially excavated by Dothan. The TATAP team continued excavating this complex, uncovering additional rooms in Sqs PP1, PP20, QQ20 and RR20. Excavations in Sq OO20 revealed a destruction layer (DS2171, DS2188) on surfaces associated with Stratum A6. In this limited area, several in situ restorable vessels, dated to the mid-eighth–mid-seventh centuries BCE, were recovered. Stratigraphically, this assemblage was found resting above the unexcavated ninth-century BCE mudbrick architecture of Stratum A7.

The restorable vessels from the destruction debris on Surface 2171 included two bowls (Fig. 6:1, 2) and three storage jars (Fig. 6:4–6); an additional storage jar was found in the destruction debris on Surface 2188 (Fig. 6:3).

... The destruction of Stratum A6 may be associated with the documented destruction of ‘Akko in 644 BCE by Ashurbanipal.

1033 CE tsunami

Morhange et. al. (2016) did not encounter any tsunamogenic deposits from ~1033 CE in their coring campaign in the vicinity of Tel Akko.

Salamon and Di Manna Plot

  • Bounding Envelopes for landslide tsunamis from Salamon and Di Manna (2019)

Notes and Further Reading

Bibliography from Stern et al (1993 v. 1)

Early periods and excavations on the mound

R. Giveon, Studii suit Oriente e /a Bibbia (P. G. Rinaldi Fest.), Genoa 1967, 147-153

id., lmpact of Egypton Canaan, Freiburg 1978, 90-96

id. (and A. Lemaire), Semitica 35 (1985), 27-32

id. (and T. Kertesz), Egyptian Scarabs and Seals from Acco.from the Collection of the Israel Department of Antiquities and Museums, Freiburg 1986

ibid. (Reviews), Bibliotheca Orienta/is 45 (1988), 567-568.~ Discussions in Egyptology 19 (1991), 83

M. Dothan (with D. Conrad), IEJ 23 (1973), 257-258; 24 (1974), 44-49, 276-279; 25 (1975), 163-166; 26 (1976), 207-208; 27 (1977), 241-242; 28 (1978), 264-266; 29 (1979), 148-151, 227-228; 31 (1981), 110-112; 33 (1983), 113- 114; 34 (1984), 189-190; 35 (1985), 81-94; id., RB 82 (1975), 84-86, 566-571; 83 (1976), 274-278; 85 (1978), 92-94; 86 (1979), 441-444

id., BASOR 224 (1976), 1-48

id., Fest. R. Hecht, Jerusalem 1979, 131-141

id. (with A. Raban), BA 43 (1980), 35-39

id., AJA 86 (1982), 262

id., BAlAS (1984-1985), 45-49

id., ES/3 (1984), 1-2

id., Studies in Sardinian Archaeology 2, Michigan 1986, 105-115

id., Society and Economy, 295-303

id., AASOR 49 (1989), 59-70

D. N. Freedman, ASOR Newsletter (Nov. 1976), 5

I. Perlman, 4th Archaeological Conference in Israel, Jerusalem 1976, 15

H. G. Stigers, Near East Archaeological Society Bulletin 7 (1976), 5-38

M. Heltzer, Fest. R. Hecht, Jerusalem 1979, 142-145

M. lnbar and D. Sivan, Paleorient 9 (1983), 85-91

D. Conrad, Michmanim 2 (1985), 19-24

id., 12th Archaeological Conference in Israel, Jerusalem 1986, 33-34

M. Artzy, BASOR 266 (1987), 75-84

id., Report of the Department of Antiquities, Cyprus, 1988/1, 181-186

MdB 56 (1988), 51

A. Raban, Society and Economy, 260-294

Weippert 1988 (Ortsregister)

Hellenistic to Early Arab periods

S. Applebaum, IEJ 9 (1959), 274

M. T. Fortuna, lstituto Lombardo di Accademia di Scienze e Lettere, Rendiconti, Classe Lettere 98 (1964), 171-182

id. et al., ibid. Memorie, Classe Lettere 29 (1966), 441-577

id., Journal of Glass Studies 7 (1965), 17-25; R. Frankel, 'Atiqot 17 ACCO 27 Crusader tombstone: the deceased is seen praying to a saint wearing episcopal garments, perhaps St. Nicholas, 1290. (1985), 134-138

N. Feig and E. Eisenberg, ESI 9 (1989-1990), 16-17

E. Stern, ibid., 104.


L. Kadman, The Coins of Akko-Ptolemais, Jerusalem 1961

H. Seyrig, Syria 39 (1962), 193-207

A. Lemaire, Revue Numismatique 18 (1976), 11-24

A. Kindler, BASOR 231 (1978), 51-56

W. Moore, Israel Numismatic Journal 9 (1986-1987), 27-28.


M. Avi-Yonah,IEJ9 (1959), 1-12

Y. H. Landau, ibid. II (1961), 118-126

Y. Soreq,Jnn : Sh Quarterly Review 65 (1974), 221-224.

The Crusader City

Main publication

B. Dichter, The Orders and Churches of Crusader Acre, Acre 1979.

Other studies

F. M. Abel, RB 33 (1924), 388-390; 43 (1934), 265-284

G. Beyer, ZDPV67 (1945), 183-260

N. Makhouly and C. N. Johns, Guide to Acre, 2d ed., Jerusalem 1946

Acre: The Old City, Survey and Planning, Acre 1962

Z. Goldmann, CNI 12/4 (1962), 15-19; 13/1 (1962), 33-34

id., Archaeology 19 (1966), 182-189

id., Archaeological Discoveries in the Holy Land, New York 1967, 199-206

id., BTS 160 (1974), 8-18

J. Schwartz, IEJ !2 (1962), 135-136

M. Barasch, Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities Proceedings 4/11 (1970), 197-238

id., Scripta Hierosolymitana 24 (1972), 72-105

M. Benvenisti, The Crusaders in the Holy Land, Jerusalem 1970, 78-113

B. Dichter, The Maps of Acre: An Historical Cartography, Acre 1973

J. Prawer, IEJ24 (1974), 241-251

D. Jacoby, Studi Medievali 20 (1979), 1-45

id., Outremer, Jerusalem 1982, 205-217

L. Y. Rahmani, 'Atiqot 14 (1980), 111-113; M.-L. Favreau-Lilie, Outremer, Jerusalem 1982, 272-284

A Druks, ESI 3 (1984), 2-4

R. Frankel, IEJ 37 (1987), 256-261; 38 (1988), 249-272.

Persian Garden

G. Edelstein, RB 80 (1973), 570-572

S. Ben-Arieh and G. Edelstein, Akko: Tombs Near the Persian Garden ('Atiqot 12), Jerusalem 1977

ibid. (Reviews), PEQ 112 (1980), 63.-- BASOR 248 (1982), 72-74.

Maritime Acco


N. Makhouly and C. N. Johns, Guide to Acre (lac. cit.)

B. Dichter, The Maps of Acre (loc. cit.)

D. Jacoby, Studi Medievali 20 (1979), 1-45

Surveys and excavations

E. Linder and A. Raban, Marine Archaeology 1975, 63-67

M. Dothan, BASOR 224 (1976), 37-45

A. Raban (and E. Linder), IJNA 7 (1978), 238-243;

id., Archaeology 36/1 (1983), 60-61

id., Harbour Archaeology, 37-44

id., Michmanim 5 (1991), 17-34

id., The Mediterranean Continental Margin of lsrael(eds. Y. Mart and B. Galil), Haifa 1991, 24-30; HUCMS Reports 2 (1979), 10 (1984); 16 (1989)

HUCMS News 8 (1982), 4; 9 (1983), 4

IJNA 12 (1983), 268; 15 (1986), 261

Hecht Museum, Mound and Sea: Akko and Caesarea Trading Centers, Haifa 1985.

Plain of Acco

Tel Ma'amer

J. Garstang, Joshua-Judges, London 1931, 296-297

Abel, GP 2, 343-344

B. Mazar,HUCA 24 (1952-1953), 80; BBSAJ 2 (1922), 14-15.

Tel Regev

BBSAJ 2 (1922), 12-14; 4 (1924), 45-46

Bibliography from Stern et al (2008)

Main publications

Z. Goldmann, Akko in the Time of the Crusades: The Convent of the Order of St. John, 2nd ed., Acre 1994

‘Akko (Acre): Excavation Reports and Historical Studies (‘Atiqot 31), Jerusalem 1997; G. Voulgaridis, Les ateliers monétaires de Ptolemais-‘Akko et d’Ascalon sous la domination Seleucide, 1–2 (Ph.D. diss.), Strasbourg 2000

T. Philipp, Acre: The Rise and Fall of a Palestinian City 1730–1831 (History and Society of the Modern Middle East Series), New York 2001

R. Beeri, A Collection of Historical Sources on Akko from the Middle Bronze Age Until the Arab Conquest, Haifa 2004

Shared Heritage of Akko: Preliminary Draft Report, 1: Recognizing and Preserving the Common Heritage of Israel and the Palestinian National Authority, Haifa 2004.

Tel Acco

Main publication

N. Messika, The Terracotta Figurines from Acco in the Persian and the Hellenistic Period (6th–1st Century bce) (M.A. thesis), Jerusalem 1996 (Eng. abstract)

R. Beeri, Middle and Late Bronze Age Tombs from Tel Akko (Area AB) (M.A. thesis), Haifa 2003 (Eng. abstract).


M. Dothan, ABD, 1, New York 1992, 50–53

H. G. Buchholz, Studies in the Archaeology and History of Ancient Israel, Haifa 1993, 41*–55*

D. Conrad, ibid., 127*–142*

id., “Ihr Völker alle, Klatscht in die Hände?” (E. S. Gerstenberger Fest.

eds. R. Kessler et al.), Münster 1997, 333–349

id., Michmanim 11 (1997), 53*–63*

id., Periplus (H. -G. Buchholz Fest.

SIMA 127

eds. P. Aström & D. Sürenhagen), Jonsered 2000, 37–41

A. Raban, Studies in the Archaeology and History of Ancient Israel, Haifa 1993, 73*–98*

id., Cyprus and the Sea: Proceedings of the International Symposium, Nicosia, 25–26.9.1993 (eds. V. Karageorghis & D. Michaelides), Nicosia 1995, 139–188

id., Michmanim 17 (2003), 40*

Corpus, 1 (O. Keel), Göttingen 1997, 530–537

W. G. Dever, OEANE, 1, New York 1997, 54–55

M. Artzy, HUCMS News 26 (1999), 3–4

id., The White Slip Ware of Late Bronze Age Cyprus, Wien 2001, 107–115

id., Aegaeum 25 (2005), 355–361

J. Gunneweg & H. V. Michal, JAS 26 (1999), 989–995

E. Stern, Ki Baruch hu: Ancient Near Eastern, Biblical and Judaic Studies (B. A. Levine Fest.

eds. R. Chazan et al.), Winona Lake, IN 1999, 635

M. Bietak & K. Kopetzky, Synchronisation, Wien 2000, 98

A. Gilboa, Southern Phoenicia during Iron Age I–IIA in the Light of the Tel Dor Excavations: The Evidence of Pottery, 1–2 (Ph.D. diss.), Jerusalem 2001

P. Beck, Imagery and Representation, Tel Aviv 2002, 369–379

S. L. Cohen, Canaanites, Chronologies, and Connections, Winona Lake, IN 2002 (index)

A. Yasur-Landau, Social Aspects of Aegean Settlement in the Southern Levant in the End of the 2nd Millennium bce (Ph.D. diss.), Tel Aviv 2002

M. Peilstöcker, “Einen Altar von Erde mache mir…” (D. Conrad Fest.

Kleine Arbeiten zum Alten und Neuen Testament 4/5

eds. J. F. Diehl et al.), Waltrop 2003, 221–237

M. Aviam, Jews, Pagans and Christians in the Galilee: 25 Years of Archaeological Excavations and Surveys—Hellenistic to Byzantine Periods (Land of Galilee 1), Rochester, NY 2004

A. Brody, ASOR Annual Meeting 2004,

Y. Elitzur, Ancient Place Names in the Holy Land: Preservation and History, Jerusalem 2004, 163–167

Y. Goren et al., Inscribed in Clay, Tel Aviv 2004, 237–239

E. Ambar-Armon, Cathedra 116 (2005), 177

W. Eck & Y. Tepper, SCI 24 (2005), 119–123.

Excavations in the Modern City

Main publications

Z. Goldmann, Akko in the Time of the Crusades: The Convent of the Order of St. John, 2nd ed., Acre 1994

Acri 1291 (ed. F. Tommasi), Perugia 1996

San Giovanni d’Acri (Luciana Menozzi Fest.; G. F. Piccaluga, ed.), Roma 1996

‘Akko (Acre): Excavation Reports and Historical Studies (‘Atiqot 31), Jerusalem 1997

G. Voulgaridis, Les ateliers monétaires de Ptolemais-‘Akko et d’Ascalon sous la domination Seleucide, 1–2 (Ph.D. diss.), Strasbourg 2000


U. Rappaport, Numismatique et historique economique phéniciennes et puniques (Numismatica Lovaniensia 9), Leuven 1992, 261–268

A. Grabois, Studies in the Archaeology and History of Ancient Israel, Haifa 1993, 26*

id., Le Moyen Age 103 (1997), 53–66

M. Hartal, ESI 13 (1993), 22–24

D. Jacoby, ZDPV 109 (1993), 83–96

Y. Meshorer, BAT II, Jerusalem 1993, 141–146

Holy Land 14 (1994), 92–96

E. Stern, ESI 12 (1994), 112

16 (1997), 27–29

109 (1999), 10*–13*

110 (1999), 11*–12*


113 (2001), 12*–13*

id., MdB 103 (1997), 52–54

id., AJA 102 (1998), 800

G. Bijovsky, INJ 13 (1994–1999), 39–45

H. Gitler & A. Kushnir-Stein, ibid, 46–53

D. Syon, ibid. 163–166

id. (& A. Tatcher), ESI 20 (2000), 11*–16*; id., Knights of the Holy Land: The Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem (ed. S. Rozenberg), Jerusalem 1999, 111–115

M. Avissar & E. Stern, ESI 14 (1995), 22–25

18 (1998), 13–14

B. Z. Kedar & E. Stern, ‘Atiqot 26 (1995), 105–111

31 (1997), 157–180

id., Montjoie (H. E. Mayer Fest.

eds. B. Z. Kedar et al.), Aldershot 1997, 113–122

Y. Shkolnik, Eretz 10/1 (1995), 19–26

E. J. Stern, Cyprus and the Crusades. International Conference, 6–9.9.1994, Nicosia 1995, 325–335

id., ‘Atiqot 36 (1998), 23–25

id. (& M. Shalvi-Abbas), ESI 19 (1999), 10*–12*

A. Muqari, ibid. 15 (1996), 27–28

A. M. Berlin, BASOR 306 (1997), 75–88

I. Segal & N. Porat, Roman Wall Painting: Materials, Techniques, Analysis and Conservation (Proceedings of the International Workshop, Fribourg 7–9.3.1996 (eds. H. Béarat et al.), Fribourg 1997, 85–91

id., Michmanim 14 (2000), 7*–12*

A. J. Boas, NEA (Journal) 61 (1998), 138–173

Z. Gal, BAIAS 16 (1998), 121–122

B. Hamilton, The Crusades, Phoenix Mill, Stroud, Gloucestershire 1998

R. Lieberman-Wander et al., ESI 18 (1998), 11–12

S. Schein, From Clermont to Jerusalem: The Crusades and Crusader Societies, 1095–1500. Selected Proceedings of the International Medieval Congress, Univ. of Leeds, July 1995 (ed. A. V. Murray), Turnhout 1998, 141–150

A. Tatcher, ESI 18 (1998), 12–13


112 (2000), 14*–15*

Annual Report of the Israel Science Foundation 23 (1998–1999), 69–70

M. Broshi & Y. Nir-El, Tamid 2 (1998– 1999), 201–203

D. Avshalom-Gorni, ESI 19 (1999), 12*–14*

S. Rozenberg, Knights of the Holy Land: The Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem (Israel Museum, Catalogue 422

ed. S. Rozenberg), Jerusalem 1999, 217–229

H. Smithline & E. Stern, ESI 110 (1999), 12*–13*

W. Zanger, BAR 25/3 (1999), 60–61

D. M. Detcalf, Numismatic Chronicle 160 (2000), 203–218

D. Yalcıklı, Istanbuler Mitteilungen 50 (2000), 113– 130

B. Bagatti, Ancient Christian Villages of Galilee (SBF Collectio Minor 37), Jerusalem 2001, 132–141; S. A. Kingsley, Recent Research in Late-Antique Urbanism (JRA Suppl. Series 42), Portsmouth, RI 2001, 69–87

E. Schuman, The Shekel 34/6 (2001), 16–19

R. Frankel, The Aqueducts of Israel (JRA Suppl. 46), Portsmouth, RI 2002, 83–87

id., Cura Aquarum in Israel, Siegburg 2002, 89–92

E. Friedheim, Cathedra 105 (2002), 201

R. Gilbert, Archaeological Textiles Newsletter 34 (2002), 26–27

M. Rosen-Ayalon, Art et archéologie islamiques en Palestine, Paris 2002, 153–161

A. Hillman & O. Nagar-Hillman, Michmanim 18 (2004), 31*–32*

S. Scham, Archaeology 55/5 (2002), 24–30

J. Häser, SHAJ 8 (2004), 155–159

D. T. Ariel, ‘Atiqot 50 (2005), 181–193

M. -L. Favreau-Lilie, Saladin und die Kreuzfahrer (Publikationen der Reiss-Engelhorn-Museen 17

Schriftenreihe des Landesmuseums für Natur und Mensch, Oldenburg, 37; eds. A. Wieczorek et al.), Mainz am Rhein 2005, 73–82

H. Gaube, ibid., 253–256

B. Schneidmüller, ibid., 359–363

J. Sudilovsky, BAR 31/2 (2005), 16

F. Vitto, ‘Atiqot 50 (2005), 153–179.

Maritime Acco

Main publications

‘Akko (Acre): Excavation Reports and Historical Studies (‘Atiqot 31), Jerusalem 1997; E. Galili & R. Tuag, Akko 2004, Jerusalem 2004 (Heb.)

The Deepening of the Akko Port, 1992–1993, Final Report (IAA Reports) (eds. E. Galili et al.), Jerusalem (in press).


A. Raban, Michmanim 5 (1991), 17–34

11 (1997), 7*–27*

id., IEJ 42 (1992), 194–198

id. (& R. R. Stieglitz), Phoenicians on the Northern Coast of Israel in the Biblical World (Reuben & Edith Hecht Museum Catalogue 8), Haifa 1993

id., Cyprus and the Sea: Proceedings of the International Symposium, Nicosia, 25–26 Sept. 1993 (eds. V. Karageorghis & D. Michaelides), Nicosia 1995, 139–188

S. Arenson, The Maritime Holy Land (ed. N. Kashtan), Haifa 1992, 97–103

M. Artzy, Studies in the Archaeology and History of Ancient Israel, Haifa 1993, 22*

id., TA 30 (2003), 232–246

A. Flinder et al., ibid., 199*–225*; E. Galili (& J. Sharvit), Thracia Pontica 5 (1994), 269–296

id. (& J. Sharvit), Brunnen der Jungsteinzeit: Internationales Symposium in Erkelenz, 27–29.10.1997 (Materialien zur Bodendenkmalpflege im Rheinland 11), Köln 1998, 31–44

id. (& J. Sharvit), ‘Atiqot 42 (2002), 326

id. (et al.), ESI 114 (2002), 12*–15*

id. (et al.), Tropis VII: 7th International Symposium on Ship Construction in Antiquity (ed. H. Tzalas), 2003; R. Gertwagen, Christianity: Eretz-Israel, 2: Medieval Period (Autour de la Premiere Croisade), Paris 1996, 553–582

D. Conrad, Michmanim 11 (1997), 53*–63*

R. Lieberman-Wander et al., ESI 18 (1998), 11–12; J. Elayi & H. Sayegh, Port, 2, Paris 2000, passim

G. Finkielsztejn, ‘Atiqot 39 (2000), 135–153

S. A. Kingsley, Recent Research in Late-Antique Urbanism (JRA Suppl. Series 42), Portsmouth, RI 2001, 69–87; E. Schuman, The Shekel 34/6 (2001), 16–19

J. Sharvit & E. Galili, ESI 114 (2002), 10*–12*.

Plain of Acco

Main publications

Y. Olami (& Z. Gal), Map of Shefar‘am (24) (Archaeological Survey of Israel), Jerusalem 2003

id., Map of Yagur (27) (Archaeological Survey of Israel), Jerusalem 2004

M. Peilstocker, The Plain of Akko from the Early Bronze Age to the Beginning of the Late Bronze Age: Historical Geography of the Plain of Akko, 3500–1400 B.C. (Ph.D. diss.), Tel Aviv (in prep.).


G. Lehmann & M. Peilstöcker, AJA 98 (1994), 515–516

id., Jahrbuch des Deutschen Evangelischen Instituts 4 (1995), 31–39

R. Frankel, From the Ancient Sites of Israel: Essays in Archaeology, History and Theology (A. Saarisalo Fest.

Theological Institute of Finland: Iustitia Suppl. Series

eds. T. Eskola & E. Junkkaala), Helsinki, 1998, 49–73

Z. Gal, ‘Atiqot 39 (2000), 83–103

id., IEJ 53 (2003), 147–150

M. Peilstöcker, ICAANE 1, Roma 2000, 1327–1343

id., AASOR Annual Meeting Abstract Book, Boulder, CO 2001, 32

E. Stern, The Sea Peoples and Their World, Philadelphia 2000, 204–205

G. Lehmann, Studies in the Archaeology of the Iron Age in Israel and Jordan, Sheffield 2001, 65–112

id., Ausgrabungen und Surveys im Vorderen Orient, 1 (Orient Archäologie 5), Rahden 2002, 49–78

Y. Goren et al., Inscribed in Clay, Tel Aviv 2004, 226–243

E. J. Stern & H. Smithline, ESI 116 (2004), 6*–8*.

Tell el-‘Idham

R. Ventura & A. Ziegelmann, ‘Atiqot 47 (2004), 101–108.

Tel Regev

D. Lipkunsky & Z. Horowitz, ESI 109 (1999), 20*

M. Peilstöcker, ICAANE 1, Roma 2000, 1337.

Tsunami Deposits and Events Tables from Shtienberg et al (2020)


from Shtienberg et al (2020)

Arcehoseismic Evidence in Petra Table S1

Compilation of previously dated tsunami deposits occurring along the eastern Mediterranean coast. The location of these events and deposits is annotated in Figure 1. Ages with * are ones that are presented for (2σ).

Shtienberg et al (2020)


from Shtienberg et al (2020)

Arcehoseismic Evidence in Petra Table S2

Compilation of previously dated tsunami events occurring in the eastern Mediterranean. The location of these events and deposits is annotated in figure 1.

Shtienberg et al (2020)

Wikipedia page for Acre (Akko)