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Ma'ayan Baruch

Orthophoto of the area around Ma'ayan Baruch (lower right) and Yuval (upper left) on

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The Acheulean open-air site of Ma'ayan Barukh is located at the northeastern tip of Upper Galilee (map reference 2070.2950), on the [former] northern shore of Lake Hula. The finds are scattered over a triangular core area of roughly 5,000 sq m, between 250 and 275 m above sea level. There are sparser occurrences downslope, over an area of 1 by 1 km, to an elevation of 170m. The prehistoric tools are found on top of, and embedded in, a terra rossa layer (0. 5-2 m thick) whose age is unknown.

Maps and Aerial Views
Maps and Aerial Views


  • Map of Ma'ayan Barukh from Stern et al (1993 v.3)

Aerial Views

  • Ma'ayan Baruch in Google Earth
  • Ma'ayan Baruch on

363 CE Earthquake - background information

Negev (1969) published a description of an inscription regarding a restored Temple which he interpreted as attributing the restoration to Emperor Julian II (aka Julian the Apostate). Julian's name is not specifically mentioned but possibly referred to as Romani orbis liberatori. An analogue to another inscription in Italy was used to hypothesize that this referred to Julian. Language in this inscription found at Ma’ayan Barukh was also compared to other inscriptions attributed to Julian which Negev (1969) used to further bolster the case that the inscription found at a Ma’ayan Barukh refers to Julian. Julian's reign was characterized by restorations of a number of Pagan Temples; some of which had been previously damaged by zealous Christians earlier during the 4th century CE. If Julian is referred to in the inscription, the use of the title "Pontifici maximo" dates the inscription to some time after the summer of 362 CE as Julian did not use that title earlier in his reign (Negev, 1969). Ambraseys (2009) misreports this to the summer of 363 CE.

The inscription was found at a site ~8 km. from Caesarea Philippi (Paneas) where once stood a famous Roman Temple (Negev, 1969). Negev (1969) conjectures that the inscription may come from the famous Roman Temple in Caesarea Philippi (Paneas) or other Temples in the region.

Notes and Further Reading

Bibliography from Stern et al (1993)

Prehistory: M. Stekelis and D. Gilead, Mitekufat Ha'even 8 (1966) (Hebrew); A. Ronen, The Quaternary of Israel (ed. A. Horowitz), New York 1979, 296-307; id. et al., IEJ 30 (1980), 17-33.

Middle Bronze Age tombs: R. Amiran, 'Atiqot 3 (1961), 84-92.

Later periods: A. Negev, IEJ 19 (1969), 170-173.

Bibliography from Stern et al (2008)

N. Goren-Inbar, The Archaeology of Society in the Holy Land, London 1995, 93–109; Z. Greenhut, TA 22 (1995), 16

R. Greenberg, The Hula Valley from the Beginning of the Early Bronze Age to the End of the Middle Bronze Age IIA (Ph.D. diss.), Jerusalem 1996

I. Saragusti (et al.), JAS 25 (1998), 817–825

id., Changes in the Morphology of Handaxes from Lower Paleolithic Assemblages in Israel (Ph.D. diss.), Jerusalem 2002; Annual Report of the Israel Science Foundation 23 (1998–1999), 70–71

W. Eck, Chiron: Mitteilungen der Kommision für alte Geschichte und Epigraphik 30 (2000), 857–859

H. DeBono & N. Goren-Inbar, Mitekufat Ha’even 31 (2001), 9–23.

Wikipedia Pages

Ma'ayan Baruch

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Terra rossa (soil)

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