|Kefar ʿUthnai||Hebrew||כפר עותנאי|
|Caporcotani||Latin in the Tabula Peutingeriana Map|
Tepper et. al. (2016:91) report that
historical evidence and archaeological surveys conducted over several decades in the
Legio-Megiddo region in the Jezreel Valley, Israel indicate the presence of
the Roman VIth Ferrata Legion at the site of el-Manach Hill from the early
2nd century CE to its final abandonment by late 3rd to early 4th century CE.
1. The Latin castra has been translated into English variously as ‘camp’, ‘fort’, or ‘fortress’
regardless of the structure’s intended period of use. Noting the inconsistency, Webster
argued for a more precise use of ‘camp’ specifically for such temporary encampments as
campaign or marching camps, ‘fort’ for a more permanent establishment for single units,
and ‘fortress’ for permanent legionary bases (Webster 1998: 167). Here, we have chosen
‘legionary base’ since ‘fortress’ over-emphasises the defensive apparatus at the expense
of the administrative and settlement components of the base. Thanks to Prof. Benjamin
Isaac for discussions on this matter.
2. Since 2005, Tel Megiddo has been classified as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
3. The JVRP is a long-term, multi-disciplinary survey and excavation project investigating the history of human activity in the Jezreel Valley from the Paleolithic through the Ottoman periods. The JVRP survey is directed by Matthew J. Adams (W.F. Albright Institute of Archaeological Research) with Jonathan David (Gettysburg College), Margaret Cohen (Penn State University), and Robert Homsher (Harvard University) as assistant directors (www.jezreelvalleyregionalproject.com). The University of Hawai’i Manoa and the University of Oklahoma are consortium members of the project. In addition to the excavations at Legio, the JVRP is currently conducting a high-resolution archaeological survey of the valley and excavations at Tel Megiddo East (Adams et al. forthcoming), in addition to archaeological and historical studies of the broader region.
4. The JVRP Legio excavations operate under the auspices of the JVRP, American Archaeology Abroad, the W.F. Albright Institute of Archaeological Research, and the University of Hawaii, with the cooperation of the Tel Aviv University Megiddo Expedition. Yotam Tepper, Jonathan David, and Matthew J. Adams directed the 2013 excavations (permit G-59/2013). Assistance was provided by Robert S. Homsher (field archaeologist; geoarchaeologist), Melissa Cradic (field archaeologist; education program coordinator); Adam Prins (field archaeologist; LiDAR and Structure for Motion specialist); Nick Kraus (field archaeologist); Nadia Knudsen (field archaeologist; archaeological illustrator); Katie Hunt (osteologist; archaeological illustrator; photography; RTI); Stephanie Steinke (field archaeologist; multispectral imagery analyst); Becky Simon (registrar); Jen Thum (registrar; RTI); Margaret E. Cohen (office manager); Viv Pierce (office assistant); Tricia Colletto (field staff); Yuval Lopane, Yoav Lopane, and Moshe Lopane (metal detector survey); Donald Tzvi Ariel (numismatist); Benjamin Isaac (epigrapher); Sapir Heed (artist); JVRP students, youth from Moshav Yodfat, and members of the Regavim community at Kibbutz Megiddo. Codifi database technology was provided by the Center for Digital Archaeology (CoDA), Michael Ashley and Tyler Wilson. We thank them all.
Tepper, Y., David, J., and Adams, M.J. (2016). "The Roman VIth Legion Ferrata at Legio (el-Lajjun), Israel: A Preliminary Report of the 2013 Season."
Strata: The Bulletin of the Anglo-Israel Archaeological Society 34: 87-120.
Tepper, Y., Adams, M.J., M and Ernenwein, E. (2023) The Principia of the Sixth Legion at Legio/Caparcotani: Ground Penetrating Radar and Excavations in a Legionary Base 2023, 'Atiqot 111