Chorazin is identified with a site situated north of the Sea of Galilee, 4 km (2.5 mi.) north of Capernaum (map reference 2031.2575), called in Arabic Khirbet Karazeh. To the west and south of the town is Nahal Chorazin, which carries a large quantity of water in winter. To the north of the town, the ancient Ptolemais-Bethsaida road crossed the Jordan River near its entry into the Sea of Galilee and joined the main road to Damascus.
Chorazin had its beginnings in the first or second century CE. Initially, it was established in the northern, higher, part of the hill. Later, it developed to the south and west. In the late third or early fourth century CE, it extended over most of the hill, up to the north bank of Nahal Chorazin. During that time the town flourished, and the civic center was built, together with the synagogue. Shortly afterward, still in the early fourth century, the houses and the synagogue were partially destroyed. The town was rebuilt on the same plan and within the same boundaries in the mid-fourth and early fifth centuries CE and continued to exist, with repairs and additions, until the Early Arab period, in the eighth century. From the eighth century onward, the city declined, until it was abandoned. In the twelfth or thirteenth century a small, sparse settlement was established that still existed in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.
Russell (1985) relates that
it has been suggested that the early 5th century destruction evidence at Khorazin
relates to this earthquake Yeivin (1973: 157 - in hebrew).
Jones (2021) reports that Magness has disputed
archaeological evidence for this earthquake at Khorazin and other sites in the Galilee
(1997: 217-18; 2005: 8-10; 2007: 271-72; 2012: 113-14).
Jones, I. W. N. (2021). "The southern Levantine earthquake of 418/419 AD and the archaeology of Byzantine Petra." Levant: 1-15.
Magness, J. (1997). "Synagogue typology and earthquake chronology at Khirbet Shema ‘, Israel." Journal of field archaeology 24(2): 211-220.
Magness, J. 2005. Heaven on earth: Helios and the zodiac cycle in ancient Palestinian synagogues. Dumbarton Oaks Papers 59: 1-52.
Magness, J. 2007. Did Galilee decline in the fifth century? The synagogue at Chorazin reconsidered. In, Zangenberg, J., Attridge, H. W. and Martin, D. B. (eds), Religion, Ethnicity, and Identity in Ancient Galilee: A Region in Transition: 259-74. Tubingen: Mohr Siebeck.
Magness, J. 2012. The pottery from the village of Capernaum and the chronology of Galilean synagogues. Tel Aviv 39(2): 110-22.
Russell, K. W. (1985). "The Earthquake Chronology of Palestine and Northwest Arabia from the 2nd through the Mid-8th Century A.D." Bulletin of the American School of Oriental Research 260: 37-59.
C. W. M. Van de Velde, Memoirs to Accompany the
Maps of the Holy Land, Gotha 1858, 304
Robinson, Biblical Researches 2, 346-360
Guerin, Galilee I, 241-242
Conder-Kitchener, SWP I, 400-402; Palestine Pilgrim Texts 3, London 1891, 16f.
Abel, GP 2, 299-300
J. G. Duncan, PEQ 58 (1926), 15-16
J. Ory, ibid. 59 (1927), 51-52
C. C. McCown, BASOR 41 (1931), 17-18
Kohl-Watzinger, Synagogen 41-58
Sukenik, Ancient Synagogues, 21-24
Goodenough, Jewish Symbols I, 193- 199
Z. Yeivin, JEJ 12 (1962), 152-153; id., ASR, 162-163; id., ESI 1 (1982), 64-67; 3 (1984), 66-71; id., BAlAS (1982-1983), 46-48; id., BAR 9/1 (1983), 75-76; 13/5 (1987), 22-36
G. Kloetzli, LA 20 (1970), 359-369
Y. Turnheim, PEQ 119 (1987), 152-155.
Z. Yeivin et al., The Synagogue at Korazim: The 1962–1964, 1980–1987 Excavations (IAA Reports 10), Jerusalem 2000 (Eng. abstracts)
R. S. Smith, ABD, 1, New York 1992, 911–912
K. M. Galor, Domestic Architecture in Galilee and Golan during the Roman and Byzantine Periods (1st Century B.C. to 7th Century A.D.) (Ph.D. diss.), Ann Arbor, MI 1996; id., NEA 66 (2003), 44–57
S. Fine, The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East, 1 (ed. E. M. Meyers), New York 1997, 490–491
Y. Stepansky, ESI 112 (2000), 9*–11*
N. May, ‘Atiqot 43 (2002), 207–252
E. Yehuda, Jahrbuch des Deutschen Evangelischen Instituts für Altertumswissenschaft des Heiligen Landes 9 (2003), 9–25
K. N. Schoville, NEAS Bulletin 49 (2004), 15–26
P. Gruson, MdB Hors Serie 2005, 24–25.