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Jericho - Tulul Abu al-'Alayiq (Hasmonean royal winter palaces)

Aerial View of Tel Abu Alak Tulul Abu al-'Alayiq

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Transliterated Name Source Name
Tulul Abu al-'Alayiq Arabic
Tel Abu Alak Arabic

Netzer (1975:89) reports that the earliest remains of the Hellensitic-Roman periods at Tel Abu Alaik are pre-Herodian and probably Hasmonean. Netzer (1975:92) also reports that, as of 1975, no evidence had been found to establish a building date for the winter palace at the site but finds of pottery and coins indicate that it was used at least by the last Hasmonean Kings, as well as by Herod in the early years of his reign.


The town of Jericho is situated on the wide plain of the Jordan Valley, about 10 km ( 6 mi.) north of the Dead Sea and close to the steep cliffs that fringe the valley to the west(map reference 193.142). At a depth of 250 m below sea level, it is the lowest town on the surface of the earth. This location, shut in by mountain walls to the east and west, has a climate that is tropical in summer and usually mild in winter. The amount of rainfall is small, about 140 mm a year, most of which falls in a few violent downpours - in some years there is virtually none. The flourishing agriculture of which the area is capable is dependent on the spring known as Elisha's Well, or 'Ein es-Sultan. With irrigation based on the spring, the valley's alluvial soil can produce crops of almost every kind, tropical and temperate in habitat - dates, green vegetables, or wheat. In times of expansion, the waters of 'Ein es-Sultan can be supplemented by those of'Ein ed-Duk (Na'aran), some 3 km (2 mi.) to the northwest, which, as in the Early Arab period and today, can be brought to Jericho by aqueduct. With irrigation, an extensive oasis can be created; but when it is neglected, the area reverts to the parched scrub of the adjacent valley, as is seen in nineteenth-century photographs taken in the immediate neighborhood of 'Ein es-Sultan. Destruction of the irrigation system by enemies, or the interruption of the water supply as a result of the earth movements to which the Jordan Valley is liable, may account for the periodic abandonments of the ancient site that excavation has revealed.

Hellenistic, Roman, and Byzantine History

Historians of the Hellenistic-Roman period (Strabo, Pliny, and Josephus) stress Jericho's economic and military importance. In the tropical climate prevailing in the vale, the groves of Jericho produced high-quality dates and various medicinal plants and spices, particularly balsam, which thrives on intensive irrigation. Because of these products, famed throughout antiquity, Josephus considered the valley a veritable paradise (War IV, 469).

Because it was situated at the eastern approaches to Judea, the Jericho district was also of great strategic importance. This was the main reason fortresses were established here at various times. These served also to defend the plantations that constituted an important source of revenue for all rulers of the area. Jericho was a district headquarters during the Persian period. Later rulers retained this administrative pattern. It seems that the Jericho district already constituted a portion of the private domain of the ruler at the time of Alexander the Great's conquest. It became the property of the conqueror and his heirs, being "spear-won" land, according to Hellenistic custom. Consequently, the Jericho area was not urbanized and thus did not prejudice either the king's revenue or his estates.

The Syrian general Bacchides fortified Jericho (I Mace. 9:50; Josephus, Antiq. XIII, 15). On the basis of the excavations at Tulul Abu el-' Alayiq, these fortifications are identified with the remains of two towers from the Hellenistic period. These are probably the forts of Threx and Taurus that were irrigation installations until the valley was replete with ponds and gardens. Surveys and excavations have brought to light five aqueducts that distributed water throughout the city and the valley.

Upon Herod's death, his slave Simeon declared himself king and set fire to his master's palace and other edifices (War II, 57). Archelaus, after succeeding to power, reconstructed the palace magnificently (Antiq. XVII, 340). Apparently, no alteration occurred in the status of Jericho when, on the extinction of the Herodian dynasty, it became an estate of the Roman emperor. Throughout the Second Temple period, Jericho was occupied by a Jewish community, which, as may be concluded from Talmudic sources, continued to exist there in the post destruction period. In the fourth century CE, Jericho contained a Christian community with a bishop. Christian literature, in accounts up to the sixth century, mentions five local bishops by name. The city quarreled perpetually with its Jewish rival at Na'aran (Lam. Rab. 1: 17).

Exploration and Excavations

Exploration until 1951

In 1838, the site was first discovered by E. Robinson, at the debouchment of Wadi Qelt from the hills. In 1868, C. Warren conducted excavations at the two mounds of'Alayiq (map reference 191.139) as part of his examination of nine mounds in the Jericho area. He cut large trenches (3m deep) in an east-west direction and ascribed his finds to the Roman period. On mound 1, south of Wadi Qelt, many glass fragments and a Roman amphora with a seal impression on its handle were found; and on mound 2, north of the wadi, walls of sun-dried brick, some of them decorated with painted plaster, were exposed.

In 1909, an expedition headed by A. Niildeke, C. Watzinger, and E. Sellin conducted a small excavation in the vicinity of Tulul Abu el-'Alayiq. In 1911, they conducted another (unpublished) excavation and surveyed the entire area. The excavators identified the site with Herodian Jericho; the settlement's remains - aqueducts, pools, and a crescent-shaped mound (perhaps the theater mentioned by Josephus ) - were uncovered along Wadi Qelt, mostly in the north. The excavations on mound 1 yielded the remains of opus reticulatum walls (0.8-1 m wide), whose continuation was later traced by the American expedition in 1950. The remains of additional walls using the same method were found all along the wadi, as were remains of stucco and of columns grooved with stucco.

Excavations at Roman Jericho were renewed in 1950-1951. The 1950 campaign was conducted by a joint expedition of the American Schools of Oriental Research and the Pittsburgh-Xenia Theological Seminary. The work was directed by J. L. Kelso and D. C. Baramki. In 1951, the American Schools conducted another season of excavations, first directed by A. H. Detweiler, and then by F. V. Winnett and J. B. Pritchard, who supervised the field work.

Both excavations were conducted within the same complex of buildings but were published separately (by Kelso and Baramki and by Pritchard). Kelso's expedition concentrated mainly on the southern mound (1); they also probed the northern mound (2) and uncovered the remains of the opus reticulatum walls north of mound 1, on both sides of Wadi Qelt. On the top of the southern mound remains of an Early Arab fortress from the eighth and ninth centuries were found. The fortress is oval (31 m long and 27m wide) and its outer walls are 1.05 to 1.1 m thick; it contains a polygonal courtyard surrounded by a row of rooms. The most important discovery in the fortress was that of a marble slab inscribed with twenty-six lines from the Koran. Twenty-three types of pottery from this period were distinguished; the absence of glazed and molded pottery was especially noted. Only two Umayyad coins from the eighth century were recovered. Under the fortress the excavators found remains which they mistakenly ascribed to three periods. At the center ofthe mound a structure, built of field stones, with a square outer face (c. 20 by 20m) and a round inner face, was uncovered; the excavators viewed it as a Hellenistic ruin - one of the two towers of Threx and Taurus. Overlying this structure were field-stone and ashlar-built walls that had been incorporated with wooden beams. Several walls covered with opus reticulatum were also found, as was a pile of large blocks of Roman "cement," faced in similar fashion. From E. Netzer's excavations, and according to Z. Meshel's proposal, as well, it became clear that the remains under the Early Arab fortress all belonged to a single structure from the Herodian period.

North of the mound, adjacent to the southern bank of Wadi Qelt, Kelso and Baramki uncovered the remains of a magnificent structure that they called the sunken garden. In their opinion, it was part of Jericho's civic center. A broad facade, with an exedra in its center flanked by twenty-five alternating rectangular and round niches, was also uncovered here. To its north lay the "sunken garden," bounded on the north by Wadi Qelt and on the east and west by revetment walls. Alongside these walls were remains of painted plaster and stucco, as well as fragments of columns. At both ends of the facade were rooms. A set of steps (50 m long and c. 4 m wide)in front of the eastern wing led to a building on the top of mound 1. Because of the building's poor state of preservation, a reconstruction could not be made.

Fragmentary remains of a building (or buildings), also covered with opus reticulatum, were found north of Wadi Qelt. On mound 2 walls built of field stones, surrounding a square (11 by 11m), were exposed; alongside them were sun-dried brick walls, some coated with painted plaster (like the ones previously found here by Warren). The excavators attributed some of the remains to a Roman guard post from the second and third centuries, and others to a tower from the Hellenistic period.

Pritchard's expedition concentrated mainly on clearing a large structure (46 by 87 m) that was identified by him as a gymnasium; this identification, however, was opposed by R. de Vaux, K. M. Kenyon, and others, who suggested that it was Herod's palace, or part of it. Its northeastern corner is situated about 117 m from the sunken garden. The structure, whose walls, are one meter thick on average, consists of a large courtyard apparently surrounded by columns and rooms on three sides. A passage on its west led to the remains of a structure enclosed by rows of pedestals on three sides; the excavators identified this structure with a courtyard, but it appears more likely to have been a roofed hall. A hypocaust, which was found amid the rooms, was adjoined by two rooms with floors of white mosaic within black rectangular borders. The apodyterium was flanked by well-plastered bathrooms, similar to those found at Khirbet Qumran. The building had a sophisticated water-supply and drainage system. A group of 122 pyriform unguentaria for oils or spices was found-further evidence, according to Pritchard, that this building was a gymnasium.

Among the ruins of the building, 266 coins from the Early Arab period most of them Umayyad and a few Abbasid - were found. Coins later than the ninth century are rare, probably left here by wayfarers. The few changes made in the northwest corner of the building probably date to this period.

Exploration between 1973 and 1993

Excavations were carried out from 1973 by a Hebrew University expedition headed by E. Netzer, with the assistance of the Israel Exploration Society and the staff officer for archaeology in Judea and Samaria. The excavations were conducted annually from 1973 to 1983 and in 1986-1987. Mounds 1 and 2 were reexamined and large areas to the west and east of mound 2 and to the north of mound 1 were cleared; these were the most extensive excavations ever conducted at the site. In addition, the extensive system of aqueducts west and north of the site (originally surveyed by the British Palestine Exploration Fund) was resurveyed and investigated; numerous agricultural installations were discovered in the vicinity of this water-supply system

1998-2000 Excavations

Several short excavation seasons were conducted in 1998–2000 at the Second Temple period winter palaces in the area of Tulul Abu el-‘Alayiq in Jericho. The excavations were conducted by an expedition of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem under the direction of E. Netzer, with the assistance of Y. Kalman and R. Laureys-Chachy. The work concentrated upon the area east of the twin palaces, the area northeast of Herod’s second palace, and the workshop area.

Jericho - Introduction Webpage

Aerial Views, Maps, Plans, and Drawings
Aerial Views, Maps, Plans, and Drawings

Aerial Views

  • Annotated Satellite Image (google) of the Jericho area from
  • Tulul Abu al-'Alayiq in Google Earth
  • Tulul Abu al-'Alayiq on


  • Location Map from Stern et. al. (1993 v.2)
  • Fig. 1 - Location Map from Netzer (1975)

Plans and Drawings

Site Plans

Normal Size

  • General Plan from Stern et. al. (1993 v.2)
  • Fig. 2 - Plan of the site in different periods from Netzer (1975)


  • General Plan from Stern et. al. (1993 v.2)
  • Fig. 2 - Plan of the site in different periods from Netzer (1975)

Area Plans

Hasmonean Palace

Normal Size

  • Plan of the Hasmonean Palace from Stern et. al. (1993 v.2)
  • Fig. 4 - Reconstruction of the enlarged palace complex from Netzer (1975)
  • Fig. 22 - The Hasmonean Winter Palace in its latest phase (mid-lst century BCE) from Bedal (2003)


  • Plan of the Hasmonean Palace from Stern et. al. (1993 v.2)
  • Fig. 4 - Reconstruction of the enlarged palace complex from Netzer (1975)
  • Fig. 22 - The Hasmonean Winter Palace in its latest phase (mid-lst century BCE) from Bedal (2003)

Northern Wing

Normal Size

  • Fig. 3 - Detailed Plan of the northern wing from Netzer (1975)
  • Plan of Northern Wing of Herod's 3rd Palace from Stern et. al. (1993 v.2)


  • Fig. 3 - Detailed Plan of the northern wing from Netzer (1975)
  • Plan of Northern Wing of Herod's 3rd Palace from Stern et. al. (1993 v.2)


Normal Size

  • Plan of Workshop area during Herod's reign from Stern et. al. (2008)


  • Plan of Workshop area during Herod's reign from Stern et. al. (2008)

Synagogue Complex

Normal Size

  • Plan of Synagogue Complex (3 Phases) from Stern et. al. (2008)


  • Plan of Synagogue Complex (3 Phases) from Stern et. al. (2008)

Recreational Complex

Normal Size

  • Fig. 23 - Reconstructed isometric view of the recreational complex from Bedal (2003)


  • Fig. 23 - Reconstructed isometric view of the recreational complex from Bedal (2003)

31 BCE Earthquake

King Herod received a Hasmonean Winter Palace at Jericho which may have been destroyed by the 31 BCE Josephus Quake. Herod subsequently rebuilt a palace at a different but nearby location on top of a damaged synagogue. Roller (1998) notes that the original Hasmonean palace remained in use until the 30's BCE "as the drowning of Aristobulus in 36 BCE demonstrates" (see Antiquities of the Jews Book XV Chapter 3 Paragraph 3). This would indicate that Ambraseys (2009) was mistaken in his assertion that it is more probable that the structure was destroyed by war when Herod conquered Jericho in 39 BCE taking it from Antigonus II Mattathias - the last Hasmonean King of Judea. Karcz et al (1977) reports that a strong earthquake in 31 BCE destroyed the palace.

Seismic Effects
31 BCE Earthquake

Effect Location Image(s) Description
  • Tilted Walls           
  • Distorted Walls
  • Collapsed Walls
  • Subsidence
  • Breakage

Intensity Estimates
31 BCE Earthquake

Effect Location Image(s) Description Intensity
  • Tilted Walls           
  • Distorted Walls (displaced or folded walls)
  • Collapsed Walls
  • Subsidence
  • Breakage
  • VI+
  • VII+
  • VIII+
  • VI+
  • ?
The archeoseismic evidence requires a minimum Intensity of VIII (8) when using the Earthquake Archeological Effects chart of Rodríguez-Pascua et al (2013: 221-224).

Notes and further reading

Bibliography from Stern et. al. (1993)


R. Beauvery, RB 64 (1957), 72-101

A. Spaer, Numismatic Chronicle Series 7/10 (1970), 23-28; 142 (1982) 140-142

P. D. C. Brown, Levant 3 (1971), 95-96.


Schiirer, GJV2, 3-4; 380 n. 67, 382

L. Mowry, BA IS (1952), 33-42

M. Avi-Yonah, The Holy Land, Grand Rapids 1962; id., The Jews of Palestine, Oxford 1973, passim

A. Schalit, Ko'nig Herodes, Berlin 1969. Tulul Abu ei-'Ala'iq

Main publications

J. L. Kelso and D. C. Baramki, Excavations at New Testament Jericho and Khirbet en-Nitla (AASOR 29-30), New Haven 1955

J. B. Pritchard, The Excavation at Herodian Jericho 1951 (AASOR 32-33), New Haven 1958

G. Garbrecht and E. Netzer, Die Wasserversorgung des geschichtlichen Jericho und seiner /Wniglichen Anlagen (Gut, Winterpalaste) (Leichtweiss-Institut fiir Wasserbau der Technischen Universitiit Braunschweig, Mitteilungen 115), Braunschweig 1991.

Other studies

J. L. Kelso, BASOR 120 (1950), 11-22; 121 (1951), 6-8; id., BA 14 (1951), 34-43

A. Augustinovic, Gerico e Dintorni: Guida, Jerusalem 1951

J. B. Pritchard, BAS OR 123 (1951), 8-17

E. Netzer, IEJ23 (I 973), 260; 25 (1975), 89-100; id., RB 82 (1975), 270-274; id., Archilologia 110 (1977), 70; id. (with E. M. Meyers), BASOR 228 (1977), 1-14, 15-28; id., BTS 189 (1977), 8-16; id., BAR 4/4 (1978), 10-15; id., ASR, 49-51; id., MdB 17 (1981), 28-31; id., ES11 (1982), 44-49; 2 (1983), 50-51; 5 (1986), 55; id., Jerusalem Cathedra 2 (1982), 106-119; id., Leichtweiss-Institut fur Wasserbau der Technischen Univ. Braunschweig Mitteilungen 82 (1984), 1-12; id., Recherches Archlologiques en Israiil, 190-199; id., Judaica 45 (1989), 21-44; id., Akten des XIII Internatzionalen Kongresses fur Klassische Archaologie Berlin 1988, Mainz 1990, 37-50

S. F. Singer, BAR 3/2 (1977), I, 6-17

V. Tzaferis, CNI 26 (1976-1978), 29-31

K. L. Gleason, BAlAS 7 (1987-1988), 21-39; id., AJA 94 (1990), 299-300

J. Schwartz, Jewish Quarterly Review 79 (1988), 23-48

F. Brassier, MdB 69 (1991), 33-37

Y. Yellin and J. Gunneweg, 1EJ 39 (1989), 85-90.

Bibliography from Stern et. al. (2008)

Main Publications

Hasmonean and Herodian Palaces at Jericho: Final Reports of the 1973–1987 Excavations (director E. Netzer), I: Stratigraphy and Architecture, by E. Netzer, Jerusalem 2001; ibid. (Reviews) BAR 28/4 (2002), 56–58. — BAIAS 21 (2003), 87–91. — IEJ 53 (2003), 259–261. — JRA 16 (2003), 659– 664; II: Stratigraphy and Architecture, by E. Netzer & R. Laureys-Chachy. — The Coins, by Y. Meshorer, Jerusalem 2004; III: The Pottery, by R. Bar-Nathan, Jerusalem 2002; ibid. (Review) Dead Sea Discoveries 10 (2003), 421–428

E. Netzer, The Palaces of the Hasmoneans and Herod the Great, Jerusalem 2001 (Heb.); ibid. (Review) BAIAS 19–20 (2001–2002), 180–181.


T. A. Holland & E. Netzer, ABD, 3, New York 1992, 737–740

K. L. Gleason, Landscape Journal 12 (1993), 156–167; id., Albright News 3 (1997), 8–10

E. Netzer, BA 56 (1993), 144–146; id., BAT II, Jerusalem 1993, 126–136; id., JSRS 5 (1995), xiv–xv; 11 (2002), xii–xiii; 12 (2003), xi–xii; id., Basileia: Die Paläste der hellenistischen Könige. Internationales Symposium, Berlin, 16–20.12.1992 (Schriften des Seminars für klassische Archäologie der Freien Universität, Berlin; eds. W. Höpfner & G. Brands), Mainz am Rhein 1996, 203–208; id., Caesarea Maritima: A Retrospective after Two Millennia (Documenta et Monumenta Orientis Antiqui 21; eds. A. Raban & K. G. Holum), Leiden 1996, 193–206; id., Judaea and the Greco-Roman World in the Time of Herod in the Light of Archaeological Evidence, Göttingen 1996, 27–54; id., Archéo 14/7 (1998), 32–37; id., IEJ 49 (1999), 203–221; id., Die Paläste der Hasmonäer und Herodes’ des Grossen (Antike Welt Sonderhefte; Zaberns Bildbände zur Archäologie), Mainz am Rhein 1999; id., Roman Baths and Bathing, 1: Bathing and Society (JRA Suppl. Series 37), Portsmouth, RI 1999, 45–55; id., Antike Welt 31 (2000), 477–484; id., MdB 131 (2000), 60; id. (& G. Garbrecht), The Aqueducts of Israel, Portsmouth, RI 2002, 366–379; id., The Architecture of Herod, the Great Builder, Tübingen (forthcoming)

S. Ilani & N. Porat, Geological Survey of Israel, Current Research 8 (1993), 41–43

M. Kislev, Cathedra 72 (1994), 193–194; J. Magness, Revue de Qumran 16/63 (1994), 397–419

I. Nielsen, Hellenistic Palaces: Tradition and Renewal (Studies in Hellenistic Civilization 5), Aarhus 1994

P. Richardson, Herod: King of the Jews and Friend of the Romans (Studies on Personalities of the New Testament), Columbia, SC 1996; id., Building Jewish in the Roman East, Waco, TX 2004

S. Rozenberg, Judaea and the Greco-Roman World in the Time of Herod (op. cit.), Göttingen 1996, 121–138; id., Roman Wall Painting: Materials, Techniques, Analysis and Conservation: Proceedings of the International Workshop, Fribourg, 7–9.3.1996 (eds. H. Béarat et al.), Fribourg 1997, 63–74; id., Michmanim 14 (2000), 14*–15*; id., Colour in the Ancient Mediterranean World (BAR/IS 1267; eds. L. Cleland & K. Stears), Oxford 2004, 22–31

R. Förtsch, Judaea and the Greco-Roman World in the Time of Herod (op. cit.), Göttingen 1996, 73–119

K. Fittschen, ibid., 139–161; A. M. Berlin, BA 60 (1997), 2–51

R. Hachlili, OEANE, 3, New York 1997, 16–18; Le opere fortificate de Erode il Grand, Firenze 1997; Archaeology 51/4 (1998), 27

P. Donceel-Voûte, Res Orientales 11 (1998), 93–124; id., La mosaïque gréco-romaine 8: Actes du 8. Colloque International pour l’Étude de la Mosaïque Antique et Médiévale, Lausanne, 6–11.10.1997 (Cahiers d’Archéologie romande 86; eds. D. Paunier & C. Schmidt), 2, Lausanne 2001, 490–509

N. Porat & S. Ilani, Israel Journal of Earth Sciences 47/2 (1998), 75–85; id., Michmanim 14 (2000), 168

D. W. Roller, The Building Program of Herod the Great, Berkeley, CA 1998

A. M. Schneider, Reticulum: Ausgewählte Aufsätze und Katalog seiner Sammlungen (Jahrbuch für Antike und Christentum Ergänzungsband 25), Münster 1998

D. Herman, Eretz 67 (1999), 57–60

D. M. Jacobson, BAIAS 17 (1999), 67–76; id., PEQ 134 (2002), 84–91

A. Lichtenberger, Die Baupolitik Herodes des Grossen (Abhandlungen des Deutschen Palästina-Vereins 26), Wiesbaden 1999

N. Marchetti & L. Nigro, Les Dossiers d’Archeologie 240 (1999), 98–105

Y. Porath, 7th Seminar on History of Irrigation, Drainage and Flood Control (ed. H. Fahlbusch), New Delhi 1999, 53–70

G. Garbrecht & E. Netzer, Wasser im Heiligen Land: Biblische Zeugnisse und Archäologische Forschungen (Schriftenreihe der Frontinus Gesellschaft Suppl 3; ed. W. Dierx), Mainz am Rhein 2001, 205–221

Y. Rapuano, IEJ 51 (2001), 48–56

H. Shanks, BAR 27/6 (2001), 51–57

Z. Meshel, Cura Aquarum in Israel, Siegburg 2002, 81–87

H. Schwarzer & S. Japp, Antike Welt 33 (2002), 277–288

M. Fischer, JRA 16 (2003), 659–664; id. (& O. Tal), ZDPV 119 (2003), 19–37

J. Magness, Dead Sea Discoveries 10 (2003), 421–428

F. Brossier, MdB Hors Série 2005, 46–47

A. Lewin, The Archaeology of Ancient Judea and Palestine, Los Angeles, CA 2005, 110–115.

Bibliography from Meyers et. al. (1997)

Hachlili, Rachel. "A Jerusalem Family in Jericho." Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, no. 230 (1978): 45-56.

Hachlili, Rachel, Ancient Burial Customs Preserved in Jericho Hills." Biblical Archaeology Review 5 (1979a): 28-35..

Hachlili, Rachel. "The Goliath Family in Jericho: Funerary Inscriptions from a First Century A.D. Jewish Monumental Tomb. " Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, no. 235 (1979b): 31-66,.

Hachlili, Rachel, and Patricia Smith. "The Genealogy of the Goliath Family." Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, no. 235 (1979c): 67-70..

Hachlili, Rachel. "A Second Temple Period Jewish Necropolis in Jericho." Biblical Archaeologist 42 (1980): 235-240..

Hachlili, Rachel. "The Nefes: The Jericho Column-Pyramid." Palestine Exploration Quarterly 11 3 (1981): 33-38..

Hachlili, Rachel, and Ann Killebrew. "Jewish Funerary Customs during the Second Temple Period, in the Light of the Excavations at the Jericho Necropolis." Palestine Exploration Quarterly 11 5 (1983): 109 - 132 ..

Hachlili, Rachel, and Ann Killibrew. "The Saga of the Goliath Family as Revealed in Their Newly Discovered 2,000-Year-Old Tomb. " Biblical Archaeology Review 9 (1983): 44-53..

Hachlili, Rachel, and Ann Killibrew. "Was the Coin-on-Eye Custom a Jewish Burial Practice in the Second Temple Period?" Biblical Archaeologist 46 (1983): 147-153 ..

Hachlili, Rachel. "Jewish Funerary Wall-Painting of the First Century A.D. " Palestine Exploration Quarterly 11 7 (1985): 112-127 ..

Hachlili, Rachel. "Jericho: The Second Temple Period Jewish Cemetery at Jericho." In The New Encyclopedia of Archaeological Excavations in the Holy Innd, vol. 2, pp. 693-695. Jerusalem and New York, 1993,.

Kelso, James L., and D . C. Baramki. Excavations at New Testament Jericho andKhirbet en-Nitla. Annual of the American Schools of Oriental Research, 29-30. New Haven, 1955..

Netzer, Ehud. "The Hasmonean and Herodian Winter Palaces at Jericho," Israel Exploration Journal 25 (1975): 89-100..

Netzer, Ehud. "The Winter Palaces of the Judean Kings at Jericho at the End of the Second Temple Period." Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, no. 228 (1977): 1—13..

Netzer, Ehud. "The Hippodrome That Herod Built at Jericho" (in Hebrew). Qadmoniot 13 (1980): 104-107 ..

Netzer, Ehud. "The Winter Palaces and the King's Estate in Jericho" (in Hebrew). Jericho (Kardom Series) 28-30 (1983): 95-112 ..

Netzer, Ehud. "Jericho, Tulul Abu el-'Alaiq." In The New Encyclopedia of Archaeological Excavations in the Holy Land, vol. 2, pp. 682-692. Jemsalem and New York, 1993..

Pritchard, James B. The Excavation at Herodian Jericho, Annual of the American Schools of Oriental Research, 32-33 . New Haven, 1958..

Rahmani, L. Y . "Ancient Jerusalem's Funerary Customs and Tombs. " Biblical Archaeologist 44 (1981): 171-177,229-235 ; 45 (19825:43-53, 109-119 ..

Rahmani, L. Y. "Some Remarks on R. Hachlili and A. Killibrew's 'Jewish Funerary Customs.'" Palestine Exploration Quarterly 11 8 (1986): 96-100.

Wikipedia page for Tulul Abu al-'Alayiq (Hasmonean royal winter palaces)

  • from wikipedia - click link to open page in a separate tab