|Rabbat Bnei ʿAmmon"||Biblical Hebrew||רבת בני עמון|
|Rabbaṯ Bəne ʿAmmôn||Tiberian Hebrew|
|Rabbat Ammon||Modern Hebrew|
Assyrian texts. It was renamed Philadelphia at the time of Ptolemy II Philadelphus (283-246 BCE); its earliest name was revived as 'Amman in the Islamic period. The Amman district is a fertile area that drops down through rough terrain and occasionally forested hillsides to the Jordan Valley to the west and merges gradually into the steppe like desert to the east.
Amman is the Neolithic village of 'Ain Ghazal. Its occupation extended from the Natufian and Pre-Pottery Neolithic (PPN) periods through an early pottery phase of the Yarmukian culture. The site's most remarkable remains are rectilinear structures with plastered walls from the PPN B that are associated with burials of plastered skulls and caches of the earliest known reed-and-plaster human statuary.
Jebel Qal'a have been excavated in more areas and in larger exposures than for earlier periods, but still not enough to reveal a coherent plan. Several centuries of Iron II occupation are represented, but they only give limited insight into the nature of the settlement. Portions of fortification walls and a possible gateway were excavated from the tenth and ninth centuries BCE (Dornemann, 1983, pp. 90-92) and sections of defense walls have been found in several other areas (Humbert and Zayadine, 1992). A large building of late Iron II date has been excavated on the second plateau (Humbert and Zayadine, 1992). The first excavators, an Italian expedition in 1934 (Bartoccini, 1933-1934), suggested that temple remains existed in what was later the precinct of the Roman Temple of Hercules. However, the "temple " was badly destroyed by the Roman construction, making the designation questionable. A large number of rich Iron Age tombs have been excavated in Amman and its vicinity. A tomb near the royal palace provided evidence that spanned the end of the Bronze Age and Iron I and II. This supplements the meager evidence from Jebel Qal'a for the beginning of the Iron Age. The early pottery traditions of the Iron Age show limited examples of the decorated pottery with an Aegean influence that is so characteristic in coastal assemblages from the period. Although a variety of painted pottery is present, the assemblage is dominated by plain wares that show a transition in form and technique from the Bronze Age to Iron II materials. A long list of neighboring sites has now been investigated to help develop a picture of the area's material culture in the Iron Age. Excavation has now been carried out or tombs excavated at Tell el-'Umeiri, Tell Jawa, Tell Safut, Tell Siran, Khilda, Khirbet el-Hajjar, Meqabelein, Rujm el-Malfuf, and Tell Sahab. [See 'Umeiri, Tell el-; Safut, Tell; and Sahab.]
Alexander the Great, Amman was included in the sphere of control of the Ptolemies. Ptolemy II Philadelphus (285-247 BCE) rebuilt the city and renamed it Philadelphia. Amman later came under the control of the Seleucid dynasty of Syria. Only scattered building remains of this period have bee n encountered so far on the two upper plateaus of the citadel, but the ceramic remains, coins, and other small finds again indicate a rich and prosperous city.
Northedge, A., et al.:
1992 Studies on Roman and Islamic Amman. The Excavations of Mrs C.-M.
Bennett and Other investigations, British Academy Monographs in
Archaeology, 3 (Oxford: Oxford University Press for the British Institute
at Amman for Archaeology and History).
Northedge, A., et al.: 1992 Studies on Roman and Islamic Amman. The Excavations of Mrs C.-M. Bennett and Other investigations, British Academy Monographs in Archaeology, 3 (Oxford: Oxford University Press for the British Institute at Amman for Archaeology and History).
Northedge, A. and C. M. Bennett (1992). "Studies on Roman and Islamic `Amman : the excavations of Mrs. C-M Bennett and other investigations."
Almagro Gorbea, A. (1983). El palacio Omeya de Amman. Institution Hispano-Árabe de Cultura, Dir. General de Ralaciones Culturales.
Olávarri-Goicoechea, E. (1985). El Palacio omeya de Amman II: la Arquologia, Instituto Espanol Biblico y Arquelogico.
Almagro Gorbea, A. et al (2000). El Palacio Omeya de 'Ammān, III. Investigación arqueológica y restauración, 1989-1997 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (España)
Almagro, Gorbea Antonio. "The Photogrammetric Survey of the Citadel of Amman and Other Archaeological Sites in Jordan. " Annual
of the Department of Antiquities of Jordan 24 (1980); 111-119 .
Bartoccini, Renato. "Scavi ad Amman della missione archeologica italiana." Bolleltino dell' Associazione interna degli studi mediterranei 4 (1933-1934): fasc. 4-5 , PP. 10-15 .
Butler, Howard Crosby. Ancient Architecture in Syria. Publications of the Princeton University Archaeological Expedition to Syria, 1904-1905 and 1909, Division 2, Section A. Leiden, 1907. Includes a survey of Amman when major ruins were still visible (see pp . 34-62)-
Dornemann, Rudolph H. The Archaeology of the Transjordan in the Bronze and Iron Ages. Milwaukee, 1983. Major synthesis of archaeological remains in the Transjordan concentrating on remains from Amman.
Geraty, Lawrence T., et al. "Madeba Plains Project: A Preliminary Report of the 1987 Season at Tell 'Umeiri and Vicinity." Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, no. 26 (1990): 59-88. Re port of an ongoing project that is doing major work in the area and integrating remains from stratigraphic excavation with systematic survey of the surroundings.
Glueck, Nelson. Explorations in Eastern Palestine. Vol. 3. Annual of the American Schools of Oriental Research, 18/19 . New Haven, 1939. One of four volumes in a landmark survey covering all of the Transjordan, including materials from the Amman area.
Harding, G. Lankester. The Antiquities of Jordan. London, 1959. Excellent overview of the cultural remains of Jordan.
Homes-Fredericq, Denyse, and J. Basil Hennessy, eds. Archaeology of Jordan, vol. I, Bibliography and Gazetteer of Surveys and Sites. Louvain, 1986. Very useful summary of sites and excavations in Jordan.
Humbert, Jean-Baptiste, and Fawzi Zayadine. "Trois campagnes de fouilles a Amma n (1988-1991). Trosieme Terrasse de la citadelle (Mission Franco-Jordanienne)." Revue Biblique 99 (1992): 214-260 .
LaBianca, Oystein S. Hesban, vol. 1, Sedentarization and Nomadization: Food System Cycles at Hesban and Vicinity in Transjordan. Berrien Springs, Mich., 1990. Innovative work interpreting tire remains encountered in surveys of the Hesban and Amman areas.
Landes, George M. "The Material Civilization of the Ammonites. " Biblical Archaeologist 24 (1961): 65-86. Important synthesis of Ammonite culture and history.
Northedge, Alastair. Studies on Roman and Islamic Amman: The Excavations of Mrs. C.-M. Bennett, and Other Investigations. Oxford, 1992. Major study of the architecture and other remains of the Roman and Islamic periods in Amman .
Yassine, Khair. Archaeology of Jordan: Essays and Reports. Amman , 1988.