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Predynastic rulers: Dynasty 0 - ca. 3170 BCE

Since these kings precede the First Dynasty, they have been informally grouped as "Dynasty 0". [clarification needed]

The following list of predynastic rulers may be incomplete:

Image Name Comments Dates
[Crocodile] Potentially read Shendjw; identity and existence are disputed.[26]
Around 3170 BC
Iry-Hor Correct chronological position unclear.[27]
Around 3170 BC
Ka Maybe read Sekhen rather than Ka. Correct chronological position unclear.[28]
Around 3170 BC
[Scorpion II] Potentially read Serqet; possibly the same person as Narmer.[29]
Around 3170 BC

Early Dynastic Period - ca. 3100-2686 BCE

The Early Dynastic Period of Egypt stretches from around 3100 to 2686 BC. [30]

1st Dynasty - 3100-2890 BCE

The First Dynasty ruled from around 3100 to 2890 BC.[31]

Image Name Personal name Comments Dates
Narmer Menes? Believed by many scholars to be the same person as Menes, due to the preponderance of evidence indicating this.[32] His name is widely attested across Egypt, and has also been found at Nahal Tillah in Israel, which is much farther afield than his predecessors.[33] Around 3150 BC[31]
Hor-Aha Teti Greek form: Athotís.[34] May also be Menes although Narmer is more likely.[32] Trade was largely replaced by direct exploitation of resources via outposts during his reign.[35] Possibly the son of Narmer. Around 3125 BC
Djer[36] Itetj Greek form: Kénkenes. His tomb was later thought to be the legendary tomb of Osiris. First pharaoh with a full Golden Horus name. Interest and trade with Egypt's North Eastern borders appears to have been renewed during Djer's reign.[35] 54 years[37]
Djet[38] Ita Greek form: Ouenephes. Indications show that Djet did not reign for long.[39] 10 years[40]
Merneith Possibly the first female Pharaoh of Egypt. She may have ruled as regent for her son Den. Her tomb is notable for being on the same scale as other tombs of other kings of that period. Around 2950 BC
Den[41] Khasti Greek form: Ousaphaidos. Den was the first pharaoh to have a Nesut-biti(dual king) name, and is the first pharaoh attested wearing the double crown (pschent) of upper and lower Egypt.[42] A second sed festival is attested from his reign, indicating he enjoyed a long time in power.[42] Den focused on the northeastern part of Egypt during his reign, and also led a few small battles in the northeast which are attested on the Palermo stone.[43] 42 years[40]
Adjib Merybiap Greek form: Miebidós.[44]

Known for his ominous nebwy-title.[45]

10 years
Semerkhet Iry Greek form: Semempsés.[46]

First Egyptian ruler with a fully developed Nebty name. His complete reign is preserved on the Cairo Stone. Many stone vessels of his predecessor were found reinscribed for Semerkhet so he may have been a usurper.[47]

8+12 years[40]
Qa'a Sen Greek form: Bienékhes.[48]

Ruled very long, his tomb is the last one with subsidiary tombs.

34 years
Sneferka Very short reign, correct chronological position unknown. Around 2900 BC
[Horus Bird] Very short reign, correct chronological position unknown. Around 2900 BC

2nd Dynasty - 2890-2686 BCE

The Second Dynasty ruled from 2890 to 2686 BC.[31]

Image Throne name Personal name Comments Dates
Hotepsekhemwy[49] Sehotep Manetho names him Boëthos and reports that under this ruler an earthquake killed many people. Hotepsekhemwy broke the tradition of being buried at the Abydos royal cemetery at Umm-el-Qa'ab, where most of the 1st dynasty kings are buried, and chose to be buried at Saqqara instead to be closer to the capital. [50] 15 years
Nebra[51] Greek form: Kaíechós (after the Ramesside cartouche name Kakaw).

First ruler who uses the sun-symbol in his royal name, could be identical to king Weneg.

14 years
Nynetjer[52] Banetjer? Greek form: Binóthris.

May have divided Egypt between his successors, allegedly allowed women to rule like pharaohs.

43–45 years
Ba May have been an independent ruler succeeding Nynetjer. Alternatively, he may have ruled in the 1st or 3rd dynasties or be the same person as Horus Bird. Unknown
Weneg-Nebty[53] Greek form: Ougotlas / Tlás.

Could be an independent ruler succeeding Nynetjer or the same as Peribsen, Sekhemib-Perenmaat, or Raneb.

Around 2740 BC
Wadjenes Greek form: Tlas

May have been a misinterpretation of the hieroglyphic sign of a flower called Weneg. May have been a crown prince or be the same person as Weneg-Nebty.

Around 2740 BC
Nubnefer May have been the birth name of Nebra. May either be the successor of Wadjenes or Nynetjer. Unknown
Senedj[54] Greek form: Sethenes.

Possibly the same person as Peribsen. This, however, is highly disputed.[55]

47 years (supposedly)
Seth-Peribsen Peribsen Used a Seth-animal above his serekh rather than a Horus falcon. He promoted the sun-cult in Egypt and reduced the powers of officials, nomarchs and palatines. Some scholars believe that he ruled over a divided Egypt.[56] Unknown
Sekhemib Sekhemib-Perenmaat Could be the same person as Seth-Peribsen.[57] Around 2720 BC
Neferkara I Greek form: Néphercherés.

Known only from Ramesside king lists, not archaeologically attested.

25 years (according to Manetho)
Neferkasokar Greek form: Sesóchris.

Known only from Ramesside king lists, not archaeologically attested. Old Kingdom legends claim that this ruler saved Egypt from a long-lasting drought.[58]

8 years
Horus Sa May have been a short form of the Horus-name Sanakht. May have been the Horus-name of Weneg or Senedj, correct chronological position unclear. Unknown
– ("Hudjefa") Known only from Ramesside king lists, his "name" is actually a paraphrase pointing out that the original name of the king was already lost in Ramesside times. 11 years (according to the Turin Canon)
Khasekhem/Khasekhemwy[50] Beb(e)ty Greek form: Chenerés.

It is probable that when Khasekhem acceded kingship he was a ruler of upper Egypt, he led campaigns against lower Egypt that ended in his victory, to commemorate his achievement of reunifying Egypt he changed his name to Khasekhemwy.[50] His serekh name is unique for presenting both Horus and Set. He was one of Egypt's first master builders, his funerary enclosure known as Shunet-ez-Zebib is a colossal mudbrick structure.[59]

18 years

Old Kingdom - 2686 to 2181 BCE

The Old Kingdom of Egypt is the long period of stability and growth following the Early Dynastic Period and preceding the troubled First Intermediate Period. The kingdom spanned from 2686 to 2181 BC.

3rd Dynasty - 2686 to 2613 BC

The Third Dynasty ruled from 2686 to 2613 BC.[31]

Image Throne name Personal name Comments Dates
Djoser[60] [61] Netjerikhet Hellenized names Sesorthos and Tosórthros.

Commissioned the first Pyramid in Egypt, created by chief architect and scribe Imhotep.

19 or 28 years, possibly around 2650 BC[62]
(Djoser-)Teti Sekhemkhet[63] Greek form: Tyréis (after the Ramesside cartouche name for Sekhemkhet, Teti).

In the necropolis of his unfinished step pyramid, the remains of a 2-year old infant were found.[64]

2649–2643 BC
Nebka? Sanakht Likely to be identified with the throne name Nebka; Hellenized names Necherôchis and Necherôphes. May have reigned 6 years if identified with the penultimate king of the Dynasty on the Turin canon. Around 2650 BC
Qahedjet Possibly be the same person as Huni or an archaistic representation of Thutmose III, correct chronological position unknown. Unknown
Khaba Possibly built an unfinished step pyramid, could be identical with Huni. 2643–2637 BC
Huni[65] Greek form: Áches.

Could be the same as Qahedjet or Khaba. Possibly built an unfinished step pyramid and several cultic pyramids throughout Egypt. Huni was for a long time credited with the building of the pyramid of Meidum. This, however, is disproved by New Kingdom graffiti that praise king Sneferu, not Huni.

2637–2613 BC

4th Dynasty - 2613 to 2496 BCE

The Fourth Dynasty ruled from 2613 to 2496 BC.[31]

Image Throne name Personal name Comments Dates
Sneferu Nebmaat Greek form: Sóris.

Reigned 48 years, giving him enough time to build the Meidum Pyramid, the Bent Pyramid and the Red Pyramid. Some scholars believe that he was buried in the Red Pyramid. For a long time it was thought that the Meidum Pyramid was not Sneferu's work, but that of king Huni. Ancient Egyptian documents describe Sneferu as a pious, generous and even accostable ruler.[66]

2613–2589 BC[31]
(Khnum-) Khufu Medjedu Greek form: Cheops and Suphis.

Built the Great Pyramid of Giza. Khufu is depicted as a cruel tyrant by ancient Greek authors; Ancient Egyptian sources however describe him as a generous and pious ruler. He is the main protagonist in the Westcar Papyrus. The first imprinted papyri originate from Khufu's reign, which may have made ancient Greek authors believe that Khufu wrote books in attempt to praise the gods.

2589–2566 BC
Djedefre Kheper Greek form: Rátoises.

Some scholars believe he created the Great Sphinx of Giza as a monument for his deceased father. He also created a pyramid at Abu Rawash. However, this pyramid is no longer extant; it is believed the Romans re-purposed the materials from which it was made.

2566–2558 BC
Khafre Userib Greek form: Chéphren and Suphis II.

His pyramid is the second largest in Giza. Some scholars prefer him as the creator of the Great Sphinx before Djedefra. His funerary complex was the largest at the Giza plateau.

2558–2532 BC
Baka Greek form: Bikheris.

Could be the owner of the Unfinished Northern Pyramid of Zawyet el'Aryan. Possibly fictional.

Around 2570 BC
Menkaure Kakhet Greek form: Menchéres.

His pyramid is the third and smallest in Giza. A legend claims that his only daughter died due to an illness and Menkaura buried her in a golden coffin in the shape of a cow.

2532–2503 BC
Shepseskaf Shepeskhet Greek form: Seberchéres.

Owner of the Mastabat el-Fara'un.

2503–2498 BC
(Thamphthis) According to Manetho the last king of the 4th dynasty. He is not archaeologically attested and thus possibly fictional. Around 2500 BC

5th Dynasty - 2496 to 2345 BCE

The Fifth Dynasty ruled from 2496 to 2345 BC.[31]

Image Throne name Personal name Comments Dates
Irimaat Userkaf Buried in a pyramid in Saqqara. Built the first solar temple at Abusir. 2496–2491 BC
Sahure Moved the royal necropolis to Abusir, where he built his pyramid. 2490–2477 BC
Neferirkare Kakai Son of Sahure, born with the name Ranefer 2477–2467 BC
Neferefre Izi Son of Neferirkare 2460–2458 BC
Shepseskare Netjeruser Reigned most likely after Neferefre and for only a few months, possibly a son of Sahure.[67] A few months
Nyuserre Ini Brother to Neferefre, built extensively in the Abusir necropolis. 2445–2422 BC
Menkauhor Ikau Last pharaoh to build a sun temple 2422–2414 BC
Djedkare Isesi Effected comprehensive reforms of the Egyptian administration. Enjoyed the longest reign of his dynasty, with likely more than 35 years on the throne. 2414–2375 BC
Unas The Pyramid of Unas is inscribed with the earliest instance of the pyramid texts. He also constructed Unas's causeway a 500m long causeway from the bank of the river Nile to his funerary complex, this is where his funerary precession would have taken place. 2375–2345 BC

6th Dynasty - 2345 to 2181 BCE

The Sixth Dynasty ruled from 2345 to 2181 BC.

Image Throne name Personal name Comments Dates
Teti According to Manetho, he was murdered. 2345–2333 BC
Userkare Reigned one to five years, may have usurped the throne at the expense of Teti 2333–2332 BC
Meryre Pepi I Faced conspiracies and political troubles yet became the most prolific builder of his dynasty 2332–2283 BC
Merenre Nemtyemsaf I Reformed the administration of Upper Egypt by decentralization, received the submission of Lower Nubia 2283–2278 BC
Neferkare Pepi II Possibly the longest-reigning monarch in human history, with 94 years on the throne. Alternatively, may have reigned only 64 years. 2278–2183 BC
Neferka Reigned during Pepi II; was possibly his son or co-ruler. Possibly writing mistake for "Neferkare" 2200–2199 BC
Merenre Nemtyemsaf II[68] Short lived pharaoh, possibly an aged son of Pepi II. 1 year and 1 month c. 2183 BC
Netjerkare I Neitiqerty Siptah (Nitocris) This male king gave rise to the legendary queen Nitocris of Herodotus and Manetho.[69] Sometimes classified as the first king of the combined 7th/8th Dynasties. Short reign: c. 2182–2179 BC

1st Intermediate Period - 2183–2060 BCE

The First Intermediate Period (2183–2060 BC) is a period of disarray and chaos between the end of the Old Kingdom and the advent of the Middle Kingdom.

The Old Kingdom rapidly collapsed after the death of Pepi II. He had reigned for more than 64 and likely up to 94 years, longer than any monarch in history. The latter years of his reign were marked by inefficiency because of his advanced age. The union of the Two Kingdoms fell apart and regional leaders had to cope with the resulting famine.

The kings of the 7th and 8th Dynasties, who represented the successors of the 6th Dynasty, tried to hold onto some power in Memphis but owed much of it to powerful nomarchs. After 20 to 45 years, they were overthrown by a new line of pharaohs based in Herakleopolis Magna. Some time after these events, a rival line based at Thebes revolted against their nominal Northern overlords and united Upper Egypt. Around 2055 BC, Mentuhotep II, the son and successor of pharaoh Intef III defeated the Herakleopolitan pharaohs and reunited the Two Lands, thereby starting the Middle Kingdom.

7th and 8th Dynasties - ruled for approximately 20–45 years

The Seventh and Eighth Dynasties ruled for approximately 20–45 years. They comprise numerous ephemeral kings reigning from Memphis over a possibly divided Egypt and, in any case, holding only limited power owing to the effectively feudal system into which the administration had evolved. The list below is based on the Abydos King List dating to the reign of Seti I and taken from Jürgen von Beckerath's Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen [70] as well as from Kim Ryholt's latest reconstruction of the Turin canon, another king list dating to the Ramesside Era.[71]

Image Throne name Personal name Comments Dates
Menkare Likely attested by a relief fragment from the tomb of queen Neit.[72][73][74] Probably short, around 2181 BC
Neferkare II Unknown
Neferkare III Neby Attested by inscriptions in the tomb of his mother Ankhesenpepi, started the construction of a pyramid in Saqqara. Unknown
Djedkare Shemai Unknown
Neferkare IV Unknown
Merenhor Unknown
Neferkamin I / Sneferka Unknown
Nikare Possibly attested by a cylinder-seal. Unknown
Neferkare V Tereru Unknown
Neferkahor Attested by a cylinder seal. Unknown
Neferkare VI Pepiseneb Unknown to 2171 BC
Neferkamin Anu Around 2170 BC
Qakare Ibi Built a poorly constructed pyramid at Saqqara inscribed with the last known instance of the Pyramid Texts 2175–2171 BC
Neferkaure Attested by one to three decrees from the temple of Min at Coptos. 2167–2163 BC
Neferkauhor Khuwihapi Attested by eight decrees from the temple of Min and an inscription in the tomb of Shemay. 2163–2161 BC
Neferirkare Pepi Possibly to be identified with horus Demedjibtawy, in which case he is attested by a decree from the temple of Min. 2161–2160 BC

9th Dynasty - 2160 to 2130 BCE

The Ninth Dynasty[75] ruled from 2160 to 2130 BC.[31]

The Turin King List has 18 kings reigning in the Ninth and Tenth Dynasties. Of these, twelve names are missing and four are partial.[75]

Image Name Comments Dates
Meryibre Khety I (Acthoes I) Manetho states that Achthoes founded this dynasty. 2160 BC–unknown[31]
Name lost Unknown
Neferkare VII Unknown
Nebkaure Khety II (Acthoes II) Unknown
Senenh— or Setut Unknown
Name lost Unknown
Mery— Unknown
Shed— Unknown
H— Unknown
Name lost Unknown
Name lost Unknown
Name lost Unknown
User(?)[...] Unknown
Imhotep Ephemeral ruler of the Ninth Dynasty. Only known from two rock inscriptions in the Wadi Hammamat.[76][77][78][79][80][81] Correct chronological position unknown. Unknown

10th Dynasty - 2130 to 2040 BCE

The Tenth Dynasty was a local group that held sway over Lower Egypt and ruled from 2130 to 2040 BC.[31]

Image Name Comments Dates
Meryhathor 2130 BC–unknown
Neferkare VIII Between 2130 and 2040 BCE
Wahkare Khety III (Acthoes III) Unknown
Merykare Unknown–2040 BC
Name lost Few months

11th Dynasty - 2134 to 1991 BCE

The Eleventh Dynasty originated from a group of Theban nomarchs serving kings of the 8th, 9th or 10th dynasty with roots in Upper Egypt that ruled from 2134 to 1991 BC.

Image Name Comments Dates
Intef the Elder Theban nomarch (Iry-pat) serving an unnamed king, later considered a founding figure of the 11th Dynasty. Unknown

The successors of Intef the Elder, starting with Mentuhotep I, became independent from their northern overlords and eventually conquered Egypt under Mentuhotep II.

Image Throne name Personal name Comments Dates
Tepia Mentuhotep I Nominally a Theban nomarch (Tepy-a) but may have ruled independently. Unknown – 2133 BC
Sehertawy Intef I First member of the dynasty to claim a Horus name. 2133–2117 BC[31]
Wahankh Intef II Conquered Abydos and its nome. 2117–2068 BC[31]
Nakhtnebtepnefer Intef III Conquered Asyut and possibly moved further North up to the 17th nome.[82] 2068–2060 BC[31]

Middle Kingdom - 2040–1802 BCE

The Middle Kingdom of Egypt (2040–1802 BC) is the period from the end of the First Intermediate Period to the beginning of the Second Intermediate Period. In addition to the Twelfth Dynasty, some scholars include the Eleventh, Thirteenth and Fourteenth Dynasties in the Middle Kingdom.

The Middle Kingdom can be noted for the expansion of trade outside of the kingdom that occurred during this time.

11th Dynasty continued - 2060-1991 BCE

The second part of the Eleventh Dynasty is usually considered to be the beginning of the Middle Kingdom of Egypt.

Image Throne name Personal name Comments Dates
Nebhepetre Mentuhotep II[83] Mentuhotep II regained all Egypt c. 2015 BC, Middle Kingdom begins, becomes first pharaoh of Middle Kingdom.
  • 2060–2040 BC[31]
    (King of Upper Egypt only)
  • 2040–2009 BC[31]
    (King of Upper and Lower Egypt)
Sankhkare Mentuhotep III[84] Commanded the first expedition to Punt of the Middle Kingdom 2009–1997 BC[31]
Nebtawyre Mentuhotep IV[85] Obscure pharaoh absent from later king lists; tomb unknown. May have been overthrown by his vizier and successor Amenemhat I. 1997–1991 BC[31]

Enigmatic kings, only attested in Lower Nubia:

Image Throne name Personal name Comments Dates
Menkhkare Segerseni[86] Obscure pharaoh absent from later king lists, tomb unknown. Only attested in Lower Nubia, most likely a usurper at the end of the Eleventh Dynasty or early Twelfth Dynasty. Early 20th century BC
Qakare Ini[86] Obscure pharaoh absent from later king lists, tomb unknown. Only attested in Lower Nubia, most likely a usurper at the end of the Eleventh Dynasty or early Twelfth Dynasty. Early 20th century BC
Iyibkhentre[86] Geregtaw(y)ef Obscure pharaoh absent from later king lists, tomb unknown. Only attested in Lower Nubia, most likely a usurper at the end of the Eleventh Dynasty or early Twelfth Dynasty. Early 20th century BC

12th Dynasty - 1991 to 1802 BCE

The Twelfth Dynasty ruled from 1991 to 1802 BC.

Image Throne name Personal name Comments Dates
Sehetepibre Amenemhat I[87][88] (Ammanemes I)[89] Amenemhat I was not from a royal family, and built the first substantial pyramid since Pepi II at Lisht.[90] He restored order in Egypt, and then built a new capital called Itjtawy. Amenemhat I was probably assassinated.[91] 1991–1962 BC[31]
Kheperkare Senusret I[92] (Sesonchosis)[93] Senusret I built extensively in upper Egypt, including the temple of Amun at Karnak.[90] Senusret I claimed to have sent 17,000 people into the Wadi Hammamat to bring back stone for 150 statues and 60 sphinxes.[94] He also constructed a pyramid at Lisht near his fathers pyramid. 1971–1926 BC
Nubkaure Amenemhat II[95] (Ammenemes II)[96] Amenemhat II recorded his reign in now fragmented annals.[90] The Egyptian navy may have attacked Cyprus during his campaigns.[97] Amenemhat II also built a pyramid at Dashur. Ruled for at least 35 years. 1929–1895 BC[31]
Khakheperre Senusret II[98]
(No name given by Manetho)[99]
Senusret II developed the Fayyum as a major agricultural resource during his reign.[100] He also built a pyramid at Lahun. 1897–1878 BC[31]
Khakaure Senusret III[101] (Sesostris)[102] Senusret III got rid of nomarchs and made 3 administrative districts.[103] He also led campaigns into Lower Nubia in his 8th, 10th, 16th, and 18th regnal years.[97] Senusret III also built his own pyramid at Dashur and was the most powerful and influential pharaoh of the 12th dynasty. 1878–1839 BC
Nimaatre Amenemhat III[104] (Lamares)[105] Amenemhat III further developed the Fayyum as an agricultural region.[90] He also constructed a large mortuary complex at Hawara including his pyramid, the mortuary complex was probably the labyrinth that inspired the ancient Greek authors.[106] 1860–1814 BC
Maakherure Amenemhat IV[107] (Ammenemes)[108] Had a co-regency lasting at least 1 year based on an inscription at Konosso. 1816–1807 BC
Sobekkare Sobekneferu[109] (Skemiophris)[110] The first known archeologically attested female Pharaoh. 1807–1802 BC

The position of a possible additional ruler, Seankhibtawy Seankhibra, is uncertain. He may be an ephemeral king, or a name variant of a king of the 12th or 13th Dynasty.

2nd Intermediate Period - 1802–1550 BE

The Second Intermediate Period (1802–1550 BC) is a period of disarray between the end of the Middle Kingdom, and the start of the New Kingdom. It is best known as when the Hyksos, whose reign comprised the Fifteenth Dynasty, made their appearance in Egypt.

The Thirteenth Dynasty was much weaker than the Twelfth Dynasty, and was unable to hold onto the two lands of Egypt. Either at the start of the dynasty, c. 1805 BC or toward the middle of it in c. 1710 BC, the provincial ruling family in Xois, located in the marshes of the eastern Delta, broke away from the central authority to form the Canaanite Fourteenth Dynasty.

The Hyksos made their first appearance during the reign of Sobekhotep IV, and around 1720 BC took control of the town of Avaris (the modern Tell el-Dab'a/Khata'na), conquering the kingdom of the 14th dynasty. Sometime around 1650 BC the Hyksos, perhaps led by Salitis the founder of the Fifteenth Dynasty, conquered Memphis, thereby terminating the 13th dynasty. The power vacuum in Upper Egypt resulting from the collapse of the 13th dynasty allowed the 16th dynasty to declare its independence in Thebes, only to be overrun by the Hyksos kings shortly thereafter.

Subsequently, as the Hyksos withdrew from Upper Egypt, the native Egyptian ruling house in Thebes set itself up as the Seventeenth Dynasty. This dynasty eventually drove the Hyksos back into Asia under Seqenenre Tao, Kamose and finally Ahmose, first pharaoh of the New Kingdom.

13th Dynasty - ca. 1802 to ca. 1649 BCE

The Thirteenth Dynasty (following the Turin King List) ruled from 1802 to around 1649 BC and lasted 153 or 154 years according to Manetho.

This table should be contrasted with Known kings of the 13th Dynasty:

Image Throne name Personal name Comments Dates
Sekhemre Khutawy Sobekhotep I Founded the 13th Dynasty. His reign is well attested. Referred to as Sobekhotep I in dominant hypothesis, known as Sobekhotep II in older studies 1802–1800 BC[111]
Mehibtawy Sekhemkare Amenemhat Sonbef Perhaps a brother of Sekhemre Khutawy Sobekhotep and son of Amenemhat IV[111] 1800–1796 BC[111]
Nerikare Sobek[...] Attested on a Nile record from Semna.[citation needed] 1796 BC
Sekhemkare Amenemhat V Ruled for 3 to 4 years[111] 1796–1793 BC[111]
Ameny Qemau Buried in his pyramid in south Dashur 1795–1792 BC
Hotepibre Qemau Siharnedjheritef Also called Sehotepibre 1792–1790 BC
Iufni Only attested on the Turin canon Very short reign, possibly c. 1790–1788 BC[111]
Seankhibre Amenemhat VI Attested on the Turin Canon.[citation needed] 1788–1785 BC
Semenkare Nebnuni Attested on the Turin Canon[citation needed] 1785–1783 BC[111] or 1739 BC[112]
Sehetepibre Sewesekhtawy Attested on the Turin Canon.[citation needed] 1783–1781 BC[111]
Sewadjkare I Known only from the Turin canon 1781 BCE
Nedjemibre Known only from the Turin canon 7 months, 1780 BC[111] or 1736 BC[112]
Khaankhre Sobekhotep Referred to as Sobekhotep II in dominant hypothesis, known as Sobekhotep I in older studies Reigned c. 3 years, 1780–1777 BC[111]
Renseneb 4 months 1777 BC[111]
Awybre Hor Famous for his intact tomb treasure and Ka statue Reigned 1 year and 6 months, 1777–1775 BC[111]
Sekhemrekhutawy Khabaw Possibly a son of Hor Awibre Estimated reign 3 years, 1775–1772 BC[111]
Djedkheperew Possibly a son of Hor Awibre and brother of Khabaw, previously identified with Khendjer Estimated reign 2 years, 1772–1770 BC[111]
Sebkay Possibly two kings, Seb and his son Kay.[111]
Sedjefakare Kay Amenemhat A well known king attested on numerous stelas and other documents. 5 to 7 years or 3 years, 1769–1766 BC[111]
Khutawyre Wegaf Founder of the dynasty in old studies Around 1767 BC
Userkare Khendjer Possibly the first Semitic pharaoh, built a pyramid at Saqqara Minimum 4 years and 3 months c. 1765 BC
Smenkhkare Imyremeshaw Attested by two colossal statues Reigned less than 10 years, starting 1759 BC[111] or 1711 BC.[113]
Sehetepkare Intef IV Less than 10 years
Meribre Seth Reign ended 1749 BCE
Sekhemresewadjtawy Sobekhotep III 4 years and 2 months 1755–1751 BC
Khasekhemre Neferhotep I 11 years 1751–1740 BC
Menwadjre Sihathor Ephemeral coregent with his brother Neferhotep I, may not have reigned independently. 1739 BC[111]
Khaneferre Sobekhotep IV 10 or 11 years 1740–1730 BC
Merhotepre Sobekhotep V
1730 BC
Khahotepre Sobekhotep VI 4 years 8 months and 29 days Around 1725 BC
Wahibre Ibiau 10 years and 8 months 1725–1714 BC or 1712–1701 BC[111]
Merneferre Ay I Longest reigning king of the dynasty 23 years, 8 months and 18 days, 1701–1677 BC[111] or 1714–1691 BC
Merhotepre Ini Possibly a son of his predecessor 2 years, 3 or 4 months and 9 days, 1677–1675 BC[111] or 1691–1689 BC
Sankhenre Sewadjtu Attested only on the Turin canon 3 years and 2–4 months, 1675–1672 BC[111]
Mersekhemre Ined May be the same person as Neferhotep II 3 years, 1672–1669 BC[111]
Sewadjkare II Hori Reigned 5 years 5 years
Merkawre Sobekhotep VII Reigned 2 years and 6 months[111] 1664–1663 BC[111]
Name lost Seven kings Names lost in a lacuna of the Turin canon[111] 1663 BC –?[111]
Name lost
Name lost
Name lost
Name lost
Name lost
Name lost
Mer[...]re Unknown
Merkheperre Some time between 1663 BC and 1649 BC[111]
Merkare Attested only on the Turin canon Some time between 1663 BC and 1649 BC[111]
Name lost Unknown
Sewadjare Mentuhotep V Around 1655 BC[111]
[...]mosre Unknown
Ibi [...]maatre Unknown
Hor[...] [...]webenre Unknown
Se...kare Unknown Unknown
Seheqenre Sankhptahi May be the son of his predecessor Between 1663 and 1649 BC Unknown Unknown
Se...enre Unknown Unknown – 1649 BC[111]

The position of the following kings is uncertain:

Image Throne name Personal name Comments Dates
Djedhotepre Dedumose I Possibly a king of the 16th dynasty Around 1654 BC
Djedneferre Dedumose II Possibly a king of the 16th dynasty Unknown
Maare Sobekhotep IX Late 13th dynasty. Unknown
Sewahenre Senebmiu Late 13th dynasty. After 1660 BC.[111]
Mershepsesre Ini II Late 13th dynasty. Unknown
Menkhaure Snaaib Possibly a king of the Abydos Dynasty Unknown

14th Dynasty - from either 1805 BCE or around 1710 BCE until around 1650 BCE

The Fourteenth Dynasty was a local group from the eastern Delta, based at Avaris,[114] that ruled from either 1805 BC or around 1710 BC until around 1650 BC.

Some of the contested rulers of the 14th Dynasty (proposed by Kim Ryholt) are commonly identified by Egyptologists as being of Canaanite (Semitic) descent, owing to the distinct origins of the names of some of their kings and princes. However, the dynasty rulers are not referred to as Hyksos in the Turin kings list.[115] It is here given according to Ryholt; however, this reconstruction of the dynasty is heavily debated with the position of the five kings preceding Nehesy highly disputed.

Image Throne name Personal name Comments Dates
Sekhaenre Yakbim Chronological position uncertain, here given according to Ryholt[114] 1805–1780 BC
Nubwoserre Ya'ammu Chronological position uncertain, here given per Ryholt[114] 1780–1770 BC
Khawoserre[114] Qareh Chronological position uncertain, here given per Ryholt[114] 1770–1760 BC
Aahotepre[114] 'Ammu Chronological position uncertain, here given per Ryholt[114] 1760–1745 BC
Maaibre Sheshi[116] Chronological position, duration of reign and extend of rule uncertain, here given according to Ryholt.[114] Alternatively, he could be an early Hyksos king, a Hyksos ruler of the second part of the 15th Dynasty or a vassal of the Hyksos. 1745–1705 BC
Aasehre Nehesy Short reign, perhaps a son of Sheshi[114] Around 1705 BC
Khakherewre Unknown
Nebefawre Around 1704 BC
Sehebre Possibly identifiable with Wazad or Sheneh[111] Around 1704 to 1699 BC
Merdjefare Possibly identifiable with Wazad or Sheneh[111] Around 1699 BC
Sewadjkare III Unknown
Nebdjefare 1694 BC
Webenre Unknown
Name lost Unknown
[...]djefare Unknown
[...]webenre Around 1690 BC
Awibre II Unknown
Heribre Unknown
Nebsenre[114] Attested by a jar bearing his prenomen At least 5 months of reign, some time between 1690 BC and 1649 BC
Name lost Unknown
[...]re Unknown
Sekheperenre[114] Attested by a single scarab seal 2 months, some time between 1690 BC and 1649 BC
Djedkherewre Unknown
Sankhibre II Unknown
Nefertum[...]re Unknown
Sekhem[...]re Unknown
Kakemure Unknown
Neferibre Unknown
I[...]re Unknown
Khakare Unknown
Akare[117] Only known from the Turin canon Unknown
Semenenre Hapu Unknown
Djedkare[114] Anati Only known from the Turin canon Unknown
Bebnum[114] Only known from the Turin canon Some time between 1690 BC and 1649 BC
Name lost Eight lines lost in the Turin canon Unknown
Name lost Unknown
Name lost Unknown
Name lost Unknown
Name lost Unknown
Name lost Unknown
Name lost Unknown
Name lost Unknown
Senefer[...]re Unknown
Men[...]re Unknown
Djed[...]re Unknown
Name lost Three lines lost in the Turin canon Unknown
Name lost Unknown
Name lost Unknown
Ink[...] Unknown
'A[...][118] Only known from the Turin canon. Name may be read as "Ineb" according to Alan Gardiner.[118] Unknown
'Apepi[114] Possibly attested as a king's son by 5 scarabs-seals c. 1650 BC
Name lost Five lines lost in the Turin canon Unknown
Name lost Unknown
Name lost Unknown
Name lost Unknown
Name lost Unknown

The position and identity of the following pharaohs is uncertain:

Image Throne name Personal name Comments Dates
Khamure[111] Unknown
Nuya[111] Attested by a scarab-seal Unknown
Sheneh[111] May be identifiable with Sehebre or Merdjefare Unknown
Shenshek[111] Attested by a scarab-seal Unknown
Wazad[111] May be identifiable with Sehebre or Merdjefare Around 1700 BC ?
Yakareb[111] Unknown
Meruserre Yaqub-Har[116] May belong to the 14th dynasty, the 15th dynasty or be a vassal of the Hyksos. 17th–16th centuries BC

The Turin King List provides additional names, none of which are attested beyond the list.

15th Dynasty - Hyksos - 1674 to 1535 BCE

The Fifteenth Dynasty arose from among the Hyksos people who emerged from the Fertile Crescent to establish a short-lived governance over much of the Nile region, and ruled from 1674 to 1535 BC.

Image Throne name Personal name Comments Dates
(Salitis) Ruled Lower Egypt and founded the 15th Dynasty around 1650 BCE
Semqen Chronological position uncertain. 1649 BC – Unknown
'Aper-'Anat Chronological position uncertain. Unknown
Sakir-Har Unknown
Yakub-Har Yakub From Turin papyrus. either 8 or 18 years
Seuserenre Khyan Apex of the Hyksos' power, conquered Thebes toward the end of his reign likely 30–35 years
Nebkhepeshre / Aqenenre / Auserre Apepi 1590 BC?
Nakhtyre / Hotepibre Khamudi 1555–1544 BC

Abydos Dynasty - 1650 BCE until 1600 BCE

The Second Intermediate Period may include an independent dynasty reigning over Abydos from around 1650 BC until 1600 BC.[119][120][121]

Four attested kings may be tentatively attributed to the Abydos Dynasty, and they are given here without regard for their (unknown) chronological order:

Image Prenomen Nomen Comments Dates
Woseribre Senebkay Tomb discovered in 2014. Perhaps identifiable with a Woser[...]re of the Turin canon. Around 1650 BC
Menkhaure Snaaib May belong to the late 13th Dynasty.[122][123][124] Uncertain
Sekhemrekhutawy Pantjeny May belong to the late 16th Dynasty[125] Uncertain
Sekhemraneferkhau Wepwawetemsaf May belong to the late 16th Dynasty[125] Uncertain
[...]hebre Only known from the Turin Canon. Believed by Kim Ryholt to have been part of the Abydos dynasty.[126] Uncertain

16th Dynasty - ca. 1650 BCE - ca. 1580 BCE

The Sixteenth Dynasty was a native Theban dynasty emerging from the collapse of the Memphis-based 13th dynasty around 1650 BC. They were finally conquered by the Hyksos 15th dynasty around 1580 BC.

The 16th dynasty held sway over Upper Egypt only.

Image Throne name Personal name Comments Dates
Name of the first king is lost here in the Turin King List and cannot be recovered Unknown
Sekhemresementawy Djehuti 3 years
Sekhemreseusertawy Sobekhotep VIII 16 years
Sekhemresankhtawy Neferhotep III 1 year
Seankhenre Mentuhotepi May be a king of the 17th Dynasty[123] <l1 year
Sewadjenre Nebiryraw I 26 years
Neferkare (?) Nebiryraw II Around 1600 BC
Semenre Around 1600 BC
Seuserenre Bebiankh 12 years
Djedhotepre Dedumose I May be a king of the 13th Dynasty[123] Around 1588–1582 BC
Djedneferre Dedumose II Around 1588–1582 BC
Djedankhre Montemsaf Around 1590 BC
Merankhre Mentuhotep VI Short reign, around 1585 BC
Seneferibre Senusret IV Unknown
Sekhemre Shedwast May be the same as Sekhemre Shedtawy Sobekemsaf II Unknown

The 16th Dynasty may also have comprised the reigns of pharaohs Sneferankhre Pepi III[127] and Nebmaatre. Their chronological position is uncertain.[122][123]

17th Dynasty - 1650 to 1550 BCE

The Seventeenth Dynasty was based in Upper Egypt and ruled from 1650 to 1550 BC:

Image Throne name Personal name Comments Dates
Sekhemrewahkhaw Rahotep Around 1620 BC
Sekhemre Wadjkhaw Sobekemsaf I At least 7 years
Sekhemre Shedtawy Sobekemsaf II His tomb was robbed and burned during the reign of Ramesses IX. Unknown to around 1573 BC
Sekhemre-Wepmaat Intef V Possibly around 1573-1571 BC
Nubkheperre Intef VI Reigned more than 3 years Around 1571 to the mid-1560s BC
Sekhemre-Heruhirmaat Intef VII Late 1560s BC
Senakhtenre Ahmose Around 1558 BC
Seqenenre Tao Died in battle against the Hyksos. 1558–1554 BC
Wadjkheperre Kamose 1554–1549 BC

The early 17th Dynasty may also have included the reign of a pharaoh Nebmaatre, whose chronological position is uncertain.[111]

New Kingdom - 1550–1077 BCE

The New Kingdom (1550–1077 BC) is the period covering the Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth dynasty of Egypt, from the 16th to the 11th century BC, between the Second Intermediate Period, and the Third Intermediate Period.

Through military dominance abroad, the New Kingdom saw Egypt's greatest territorial extent. It expanded far into Nubia in the south, and held wide territories in the Near East. Egyptian armies fought with Hittite armies for control of modern-day Syria.

Three of the best known pharaohs of the New Kingdom are Akhenaten, also known as Amenhotep IV, whose exclusive worship of the Aten is often interpreted as the first instance of monotheism, Tutankhamun known for the discovery of his nearly intact tomb, and Ramesses II who attempted to recover the territories in modern Israel/Palestine, Lebanon and Syria that had been held in the Eighteenth Dynasty. His reconquest led to the Battle of Qadesh, where he led the Egyptian armies against the army of the Hittite king Muwatalli II.

18th Dynasty - ca. 1550 to 1292 BCE

The Eighteenth Dynasty ruled from c. 1550 to 1292 BC:

Image Throne name Personal name Comments Dates
Nebpehtire Ahmose I (Ahmosis I) Brother and successor to Kamose, conquered north of Egypt from the Hyksos.
Around 1550–1525 BC; Radiocarbon date range for the start of his reign is 1570–1544 BC, the mean point of which is 1557 BC[128]
Djeserkare Amenhotep I Son of Ahmose I. Amenhotep I led campaigns in nubia down to the 3rd Nile cataract.[129] He also introduced the practice of having the tomb and funerary temple in separate locations rather than in the same location.[130] It is possible that Amenhotep I and his mother Ahmose-Nefertari founded the tomb workers village of Deir-el-Medina, the two were honored as gods by later residents.[131]
1541–1520 BC
Aakheperkare Thutmose I Father unknown, though possibly Amenhotep I. His mother is known to be Senseneb. Thutmose I established family control over the Egyptian throne for the next 175 years.[129] Thutmose I defeated the Kingdom of Kush and destroyed Kerma in Nubia, he campaigned in Syria as far as the Euphrates River.[129] He is also the father of Thutmose II and Hatshepsut.[129]
1520–1492 BC
Aakheperenre Thutmose II Son of Thutmose I. Grandson of Amenhotep I through his mother, Mutnofret.
1492–1479 BC
Maatkare Hatshepsut The second known female ruler of Egypt. May have ruled jointly with her nephew Thutmose III during the early part of her reign. Famous for her expedition to Punt documented on her famous Mortuary Temple at Deir el-Bahari. Built many temples and monuments. Ruled during the height of Egypt's power. Was the daughter of Thutmose I and the Great Wife of her brother Thutmose II.
1479–1458 BC
Menkheperre Thutmose III Son of Thutmose II. May have ruled jointly with Hatshepsut, his aunt and step-mother, during the early part of her reign. Famous for his territorial expansion into the Levant and Nubia. Under his reign, the Ancient Egyptian Empire was at its greatest extent. Ruled during the height of Egypt's Power. Before the end of his reign, he obliterated Hatshepsut's name and image from temples and monuments.
1458–1425 BC
Aakheperrure Amenhotep II Son of Thutmose III. Ruled during the height of Egypt's Power.
1425–1400 BC
Menkheperure Thutmose IV Famous for his Dream Stele. Son of Amenhotep II. Ruled during the height of Egypt's Power.
1400–1390 BC
Nebmaatre Amenhotep III Father of Akhenaten and grandfather of Tutankhamun. Ruled Egypt at the height of its power. Built many temples and monuments, including his enormous Mortuary Temple. Was the son of Thutmose IV.
1390–1352 BC
Neferkheperure Waenre Amenhotep IV / Akhenaten (Achencheres) Founder of the Amarna Period in which he changed the state religion from the polytheistic Ancient Egyptian religion to the Monotheistic Atenism, centered around the worship of the Aten, an image of the sun disc. He moved the capital to Akhetaten. Was the second son of Amenhotep III. He changed his name from Amenhotep (Amun is pleased) to Akhenaten (Effective for the Aten) to reflect his religion change.
1352–1336 BC
Ankhkheperure Smenkhkare Ruled jointly with Akhenaten during the later years of his reign. Unknown if Smenkhare ever ruled in his own right.

Identity and even the gender of Smenkhare is uncertain. Some suggest he may have been the son of Akhenaten, possibly the same person as Tutankhamun; others speculate Smenkhare may have been Nefertiti or Meritaten. May have been succeeded by or identical with a female Pharaoh named Neferneferuaten.

1335–1334 BC
Ankhkheperure mery Neferkheperure Neferneferuaten A female Pharaoh, possibly the same ruler as Smenkhkare. Archaeological evidence relates to a woman who reigned as pharaoh toward the end of the Amarna Period. It is likely she was Nefertiti.
1334-1332 BC
Nebkheperure Tutankhaten / Tutankhamun Commonly believed to be the son of Akhenaten, most likely reinstated the polytheistic Ancient Egyptian religion. His name change from Tutankhaten to Tutankhamun reflects the change in religion from the monolatristic Atenism to the classic religion, of which Amun is a major deity. He is thought to have taken the throne at around age eight or nine and to have died around age eighteen or nineteen, giving him the nickname "The Boy King." Tutankhamun was a weak ruler suffering from multiple health issues. However, he became famous for being buried in a decorative tomb intended for someone else called KV62.
1332–1324 BC
Kheperkheperure Ay II Was Grand Vizier to Tutankhamun and an important official during the reigns of Akhenaten and Smenkhkare. Possibly the brother of Tiye, Great Wife of Amenhotep III, and also possibly father of Nefertiti, Great Wife of Akhenaten. Believed to have been born into nobility, but not royalty. Succeeded Tutankhamun due to his lack of an heir.
1324–1320 BC
Djeserkheperure Setpenre Horemheb Born a Commoner. Was a General during the Amarna Period. Obliterated Images of the Amarna Pharaohs and destroyed and vandalized buildings and monuments associated with them. Succeeded Ay despite Nakhtmin being the intended heir.
1320–1292 BC

19th Dynasty - 1292 to 1186 BCE

The Nineteenth Dynasty ruled from 1292 to 1186 BC and includes one of the greatest pharaohs: Ramesses II the Great.

Image Throne name Personal name Comments Dates
Menpehtire Ramesses I[132] Already Grand Vizier, of non-royal birth. Succeeded Horemheb due to his lack of an heir.
1292–1290 BC
Menmaatre Seti I Regained much of the territory that was lost under the reign of Akhenaten.
1290–1279 BC
Usermaatre Setpenre (Ozymandias) Ramesses II the Great Continued expanding Egypt's territory until he reached a stalemate with the Hittite Empire at the Battle of Kadesh in 1275 BC, after which the famous Egyptian–Hittite peace treaty was signed in 1258 BC. Had one of the longest Egyptian reigns. Known for his large scale construction projects, including many now famous monuments.
1279–1213 BC
Banenre Merneptah[133] Thirteenth son of Ramesses II.
1213–1203 BC
Menmire Setpenre Amenmesse Most likely a usurper to the throne. Possibly ruled in opposition to Seti II. Suggested son of Merneptah.
1203–1200 BC
Userkheperure Seti II[134] Son of Merneptah. May have had to overcome a contest by Amenmesse before he could solidify his claim to the throne.
1203–1197 BC
Sekhaenre / Akhenre (Merenptah) Siptah[135] Possibly son of Seti II or Amenmesse, ascended to throne at a young age.
1197–1191 BC
Satre Merenamun Tausret Probably the wife of Seti II. Also known as Twosret or Tawosret.
1191–1189 BC

20th Dynasty - 1190 to 1077 BCE

The Twentieth Dynasty ruled from 1190 to 1077 BC:

Image Throne name Personal name Comments Dates
Userkhaure Setnakhte Not related to Seti II, Siptah, or Tausret. May have usurped the throne from Tausret. Did not recognize Siptah or Tausret as legitimate rulers. Possibly a member of a minor line of the Ramesside royal family. Also called Setnakt.
1190–1186 BC
Usermaatre Meryamun Ramesses III Son of Setnakhte. Fought the Sea Peoples in 1175 BC. Possibly assassinated (Harem conspiracy).
1186–1155 BC
Usermaatre / Heqamaatre Setpenamun Ramesses IV Son of Ramesses III. During his reign, Egyptian power started to decline.
1155–1149 BC
Usermaatre Sekheperenre Ramesses V Son of Ramesses IV
1149–1145 BC
Nebmaatre Meryamun Ramesses VI Son of Ramesses III. Brother of Ramesses IV. Uncle of Ramesses V.
1145–1137 BC
Usermaatre Setpenre Meryamun Ramesses VII Son of Ramesses VI.
1137–1130 BC
Usermaatre Akhenamun Ramesses VIII An obscure Pharaoh, who reigned only around a year. Identifiable with Prince Sethiherkhepeshef II. Son of Ramesses III. Brother of Ramesses IV and Ramesses VI. Uncle of Ramesses V and Ramesses VII. He is the sole Pharaoh of the Twentieth Dynasty whose tomb has not been found.
1130–1129 BC
Neferkare Setpenre Ramesses IX Probably grandson of Ramesses III through his father, Montuherkhopshef. First cousin of Ramesses V and Ramesses VII.
1129–1111 BC
Khepermaatre Setpenptah Ramesses X[136] A poorly documented Pharaoh, his reign was between 3 and 10 years long. His origins are completely uncertain.
1111–1107 BC
Menmaatre Setpenptah Ramesses XI[137] Possibly the son of Ramesses X. During the second half of his reign, High Priest of Amun Herihor ruled over the south from Thebes, limiting his power to Lower (Northern) Egypt. He was succeeded in the north by Smendes.
1107–1077 BC

3rd Intermediate Period - 1077-664 BCE

The Third Intermediate Period (1077–664 BC) marked the end of the New Kingdom after the collapse of the Egyptian empire at the end of the Bronze Age. Two dynasties of Libyan origin ruled, giving this period its alternative name of the Libyan Period.

21st Dynasty - 1077 - 943 BCE

The Twenty-First Dynasty was based at Tanis and was a relatively weak group. Theoretically, they were rulers of all Egypt, but in practice their influence was limited to Lower Egypt. They ruled from 1077 to 943 BC.

Image Throne name Personal name Comments Dates
Hedjkheperre-Setpenre Nesbanebdjed I[138] (Smendes I) Married to Tentamun, probable daughter of Ramesses XI. 1077–1051 BC
Neferkare Amenemnisu Obscure four-year reign. 1051–1047 BC
Aakheperre Pasebakhenniut I (Psusennes I) Son of Pinedjem I, a High Priest of Amun. Ruled for 40 to 51 years. Famous for his intact tomb at Tanis. Known as "The Silver Pharaoh" due to the magnificent silver coffin he was buried in. One of the most powerful rulers of the Dynasty. 1047–1001 BC
Usermaatre Amenemope Son of Psusennes I. 1001–992 BC
Aakheperre Setepenre Osorkon the Elder Son of Shoshenq A, Great Chief of the Meshwesh (Libya). Also known as Osochor. 992–986 BC
Netjerikheperre-Setpenamun Siamun Unknown Origins. Built extensively for a third intermediate period Pharaoh. One of the most powerful rulers of the dynasty. 986–967 BC
Titkheperure Pasebakhenniut II (Psusennes II) Son of Pinedjem II, a High Priest of Amun. 967–943 BC

Theban High Priests of Amun - 1080 - 943 BCE

Though not officially pharaohs, the High Priests of Amun at Thebes were the de facto rulers of Upper Egypt during the Twenty-first dynasty, writing their names in cartouches and being buried in royal tombs.

Image Throne name Personal name Comments Dates
Hemnetjertepenamun Herihor Siamun Ruled in the south in Thebes, while Ramesses XI ruled from the north in Pi-Ramesses. Some sources suggest he may have reigned after Piankh. 1080–1074 BC
Piankh Some sources suggest he may have reigned before Herihor. 1074–1070 BC
Kheperkhawra Setepenamun Pinedjem I Meriamun Son of Piankh. Father of Psusennes I. 1070–1032 BC
Masaharta Son of Pinedjem I. 1054–1045 BC
Djedkhonsuefankh Son of Pinedjem I. 1046–1045 BC
Hemnetjertepienamun Menkheperre Son of Pinedjem I. 1045–992 BC
Nesbanebdjed II (Smendes II) Son of Menkheperre. 992–990 BC
Pinedjem II Son of Menkheperre, Father of Psusennes II. 990–976 BC
Titkheprure Hemnetjertepienamun Pasebakhaennuit (Psusennes III) Possibly the same person as Psusennes II. Either he or Pinedjem II is generally considered to be the last High Priest of Amun to consider himself as a pharaoh-like figure. 976–943 BC

22nd Dynasty - 943 - 728 BCE

The pharaohs of the Twenty-Second Dynasty were Libyans, ruling from around 943 to 728 BC.

Image Throne name Personal name Comments Dates
Hedjkheperre Setpenre Shoshenq I Meriamun Son of Nimlot A, a brother of Osorkon the Elder and a Great Chief of the Meshwesh (Libyans). Possibly the biblical Shishaq 943–922 BC
Sekhemkheperre Setepenre Osorkon I Meriamun Son of Shoshenq I. 922–887 BC
Heqakheperre Setepenre Shoshenq II Meriamun Obscure pharaoh, possibly a usurper. 887–885 BC
Tutkheperre Shoshenq IIb Obscure pharaoh, placement uncertain. 880s BC
Hedjkheperre Setepenamun Harsiese Meriamun A An obscure rebel, at Thebes. 880–860 BC
Hedjkheperre Setepenre Takelot I Meriamun Son of Osorkon I. 885–872 BC
Usermaatre Setpenamun Osorkon II Meriamun Son of Takelot I. 872–837 BC
Usermaatre Setpenre Shoshenq III Meriamun 837–798 BC
Hedjkheperre Setepenre Shoshenq IV Meriamun Sabast Netjerheqaiunu 798–785 BC
Usermaatre Setpenre Pami Meriamun 785–778 BC
Aakheperre Shoshenq V 778–740 BC
Usermaatre Osorkon IV 740–720 BC

23rd Dynasty - 837 - ca. 735 BCE

The Twenty-Third Dynasty was a local group, again of Libyan origin, based at Herakleopolis and Thebes that ruled from 837 to c. 735 BC.

Image Throne name Personal name Comments Dates
Hedjkheperre Setpenre Takelot II Siesemeriamun Previously thought to be a 22nd Dynasty pharaoh, he is now known to be the founder of the 23rd. 837–813 BC
Usermaatre Setpenamun Meriamun Pedubast I A rebel—seized Thebes from Takelot II. 826–801 BC
Iuput I Meriamun Co-regent with Pedubast. 812–811 BC
Usermaatre Meryamun Shoshenq VI Meriamun Successor to Pedubast. 801–795 BC
Usermaatre Setpenamun Osorkon III Saisetmeriamun Son of Takelot II; recovered Thebes, then proclaimed himself king. 795–767 BC
Usermaatre-Setpenamun Takelot III Meriamun Saisetmeriamun Co-reign with his father Osorkon III for the first five years of his reign. 773–765 BC
Usermaatre-Setpenamun Meriamun Rudamun Younger son of Osorkon III and brother of Takelot III. 765–762 BC
Uasnetjerre/Hedjkheperre Setepenre Shoshenq VII Saisetmeriamun A poorly attested king.

Rudamun was succeeded in Thebes by a local ruler:

Image Throne name Personal name Comments Dates
Menkheperre Ini Reigned at Thebes only. 762–Unknown BC

24th Dynasty - 732 - 720 BCE

The Twenty-fourth Dynasty was a short-lived rival dynasty located in the western Delta (Sais), with only two pharaohs ruling from 732 to 720 BC.

Image Throne name Personal name Comments Dates
Shepsesre Tefnakhte 732–725 BC
Wahkare Bakenrenef (Bocchoris) 725–720 BC

25th Dynasty - 744-656 BCE

Nubians invaded Lower Egypt and took the throne of Egypt under Piye although they already controlled Thebes and Upper Egypt in the early years of Piye's reign. Piye's conquest of Lower Egypt established the Twenty-fifth Dynasty which ruled until 656 BC.

Image Throne name Personal name Comments Dates
Usermaatre Piye King of Nubia; conquered Egypt in his 20th year; full reign at least 24 years, possibly 30+ years 744–714 BC, according to Frédéric Payraudeau[139]
Djedkaure Shebitku Believed to be Shabaka's successor until the 2010s 714–705 BC, according to Frédéric Payraudeau[139]
Neferkare Shabaka Believed to be Shebitku's predecessor until the 2010s 705–690 BC, according to Frédéric Payraudeau[139]
Khuinefertemre Taharqa Died in 664 BC 690–664 BC[140]
Bakare Tantamani Lost control of Upper Egypt in 656 BC when Psamtik I extended his authority into Thebes in that year. 664–653 BC

They were ultimately driven back into Nubia, where they established a kingdom at Napata (656–590), and, later, at Meroë (590 BC – AD 500).

Late Period - ca. 664 - 332 BE

The Late Period runs from around 664 to 332 BC, and includes periods of rule by native Egyptians and Persians.

26th Dynasty - ca. 664 - 525 BCE

The Twenty-sixth Dynasty ruled from around 664 to 525 BC.[141]

Image Throne name Personal name Comments Dates
Menibre? Iribre? Tefnakht II (Stephinates) Manetho's Stephinates. May have been a descendant of the Twenty-fourth Dynasty. The father of Necho I. 685–678 BC
Nekauba (Nechepsos) Manetho's Nechepsos. His existence has been questioned. 678–672 BC
Menkheperre Nekau I (Necho I) Was killed by an invading Kushite force in 664 BC under Tantamani. Father of Psamtik I. 672–664 BC

The son and successor of Nekau I, Psamtik I, managed to reunify Egypt and is generally regarded as the founder of the Twenty-sixth Dynasty.

Image Throne name Personal name Comments Dates
Wahibre Psamtik I (Psammetichus I) Reunified Egypt. Son of Necho I and father of Necho II. 664–610 BC[142]
Wehemibre Nekau II (Necho II) Most likely the pharaoh mentioned in several books of the Bible and the death of Josiah. Son of Psamtik I and father of Psamtik II. 610–595 BC[142]
Neferibre Psamtik II (Psammetichus II) Son of Necho II and father of Apries. 595–589 BC[142]
Haaibre Wahibre (Apries) Fled Egypt after Amasis II (who was a general at the time) declared himself pharaoh following a civil war. Son of Psamtik II. 589–570 BC[142]
Khnemibre Ahmose II (Amasis II) He was the last great ruler of Egypt before the Persian conquest. According to the Greek historian Herodotus, he was of common origins. Father of Psamtik III. 570–526 BC[142]
Ankhkaenre Psamtik III (Psammetichus III) Son of Amasis II. Ruled for about six months before being defeated by the Persians in the Battle of Pelusium and subsequently executed for attempting to revolt. 526–525 BC[142]

27th Dynasty - 505 - 404 BCE

Egypt was conquered by the Persian Empire in 525 BC by king Cambyses II, the son of Cyrus the Great, and remained Persian satrapy for more than one hundred years until regaining independence in 404 BC. The Achaemenid kings were acknowledged as Pharaohs in this era, forming the 27th Dynasty:

Image Throne name Name Comments Dates
Mesutre Kembydjet (Cambyses II) Defeated Psamtik III at the Battle of Pelusium at 525 BC. 525–1 July 522 BC[142]
Bardiya (Smerdis) / Gaumata Son of Cyrus the Great. 522 BC[142]
Seteture Deriush (Darius I) Ascended throne by overthrowing Gaumata[citation needed] 522–November 486 BC[142]
Kheshayarusha (Xerxes I) Assassinated by Artabanus of Persia. November 486–December 465 BC[142]
Artabanus the Hyrcanian 465-464 BC
Arutakhshashas (Artaxerxes I) Died in 424 BC 464–424 BC
Xerxes II A claimant. 424–423 BC[142]
Sogdianus A claimant. 423–July 423 BC[142]
Darius II Died in 404 BC July 423–March 404 BC[142]

Several native rebellions took place during the 27th dynasty:

Image Throne name Personal name Comments Dates
Seheruibre Petubastis III[143] A native Egyptian rebel in the Delta. 522/21–520 BC
Ahmose? Nebkaenre? Psammetichus IV[143] A proposed native Egyptian rebel leader. Exact date uncertain. Possibly in the 480s BC

28th Dynasty - 404-398 BCE

The Twenty-eighth Dynasty lasted only 6 years, from 404 to 398 BC, with one pharaoh:

Image Name Comments Dates
Amunirdisu (Amyrtaeus) Descendant of the Saite pharaohs of the Twenty-sixth Dynasty; led a successful revolt against the Persians. 404–398 BC

29h Dynasty - 398 - 380 BCE

The Twenty-ninth Dynasty ruled from 398 to 380 BC:

Image Throne name Personal name Comments Dates
Baenre Merynetjeru Nefaarud I (Nepherites I) Also known as Nepherites. Defeated Amyrtaeus in open battle and had him executed. 398–393 BC
Khnemmaatre Setepenkhnemu Hakor (Achoris) Son of Nefaarud I. Around 392–around 391 BC
Userre Setepenptah Pasherienmut (Psammuthes) Possibly dethroned Hakor for a year. Around 391 BC
Khnemmaatre Setepenkhnemu Hakor (Achoris) Retook the throne from Psammuthes. Around 390–around 379 BC
Nefaarud II (Nepherites II) Was deposed and likely killed by Nectanebo I after ruling for only 4 months. Son of Hakor. Around 379 BC
Muthis Possible pharaoh attested in Eusebius's epitome; not known archaeologically and his chronological placement is disputed. Possibly between 393 and 380 BC

30th Dynasty - 379/8 - ca. 340 BCE

The Thirtieth Dynasty ruled from 379/8 until Egypt once more came under Persian rule c. 340 BC:[144][145]

Image Throne name Personal name Comments Dates
Kheperkare Nekhtnebef (Nectanebo I) Also known as Nekhtnebef. Deposed and likely killed Nefaarud II, starting the last dynasty of native Egyptians. Father of Teos. 379/8–361/0 BC
Irimaatenre Djedher (Teos) Co-regent with his father Nectanebo I from about 365 BC. Was overthrown by Nectanebo II with the aid of Agesilaus II of Sparta. 361/0–359/8 BC
Snedjemibre Setepenanhur Nakhthorhebyt Merihathor (Nectanebo II) Last native ruler of ancient Egypt[146] to be recognized by Manetho. 359/8–341/0 BC

31st Dynasty - 340 - 332 BCE

Egypt again came under the control of the Achaemenid Persians. After the practice of Manetho, the Persian rulers from 340 to 332 BC are occasionally designated as the Thirty-first Dynasty:

Image Name Comments Dates
Artaxerxes III Egypt came under Persian rule for the second time. Did not adopt any pharaonic titulary. c. 341/339 – 338 BC[147]
Artaxerxes IV Arses Only reigned in Lower Egypt. Did not adopt any pharaonic titulary. 338–336 BC
Darius III Upper Egypt returned to Persian control in 335 BC. His name, Deriush, was written in a cartouche as a pharaonic nomen would be. 336–332 BC

Hellenistic Period - 332 - 30 BCE

Argead Dynasty - 332 - 309 BCE

The Macedonian Greeks under Alexander the Great ushered in the Hellenistic period with his conquest of Persia and Egypt. The Argeads ruled from 332 to 309 BC:

Image Throne name Personal name Comments Dates
Setpenre Meryamun Aluksindres (Alexander the Great) Formally Alexander III of Macedon conquered Persia and Egypt. 332–13 June 323 BC[142]
Setpenre Meryamun Pelupuisa (Philip Arrhidaeus) Formally Philip III of Macedon. Mentally disabled half-brother of Alexander the Great. 323–317 BC
Khaibre Setepenamun Aluksindres (Alexander IV) Formally Alexander IV of Macedon. Son of Alexander the Great and Roxana. 317–309 BC

Ptolemaic Dynasty - 305 - 30 BCE

The second Hellenistic dynasty, the Ptolemies, ruled Egypt from 305 BC until Egypt became a province of Rome in 30 BC (whenever two dates overlap, that means there was a co-regency). The most famous member of this dynasty was Cleopatra VII, in modern times known simply as Cleopatra, who was successively the consort of Julius Caesar and, after Caesar's death, of Mark Antony, having children with both of them.

Cleopatra strove to create a dynastic and political union between Egypt and Rome, but the assassination of Caesar and the defeat of Mark Antony doomed her plans.[citation needed]

Caesarion (Ptolemy XV Philopator Philometor Caesar) was the last king of the Ptolemaic Dynasty of Egypt, and he reigned jointly with his mother Cleopatra VII of Egypt, from September 2, 47 BC. He was the eldest son of Cleopatra VII, and possibly the only son of Julius Caesar, after whom he was named. Between the alleged death of Cleopatra, on August 12, 30 BC, up to his own alleged death on August 23, 30 BC, he was nominally the sole pharaoh. It is tradition that he was hunted down and killed on the orders of Octavian, who would become the Roman emperor Augustus, but the historical evidence does not exist.[citation needed]

Image Throne name Personal name Comments Dates
Setpenre Meryamun Ptolemy I Soter Abdicated in 285 BC[citation needed] 7 November 305 – January 282 BC[142]
Weserkare Meryamun Ptolemy II Philadelphos 28 March 284 – 28 January 246 BC
Khenem(et)ibenmaat Mer(et)netjru Arsinoe II Wife of Ptolemy II c. 277 – July 270 BC[142]
Iwaensenwinetjerwy Setepenre Sekhemankhenamun Ptolemy III Euergetes 28 January 246 – November/December 222 BC
Bereniket Meritnetjerou Berenice II Wife of Ptolemy III. Murdered. 244/243 – 222 BC
Iwaennetjerwymenekhwy Setepenptah Userkare Sekhemankhamun Ptolemy IV Philopator Died in unclear circumstances, possibly by fire in the palace or murder. November/December 222 – July/August 204 BC
Arsinoe III Wife of Ptolemy IV. Murdered. 220–204 BC
Iwaennetjerwymer(wy)it Setepenptah Userkare Sekhemankhamun Ptolemy V Epiphanes Upper Egypt in revolt 207–186 BC July/August 204 – September 180 BC
Hunu Zatheqa Iretenheqa Mereneterubaqet Kheqerenshenemu Tatetzat Huti Werpehti Sehertawi Redinesnebetirekhitenneferu Qenisinetnebzau Tenisiathoremmeruts Cleopatra I Syra Wife of Ptolemy V, co-regent with Ptolemy VI during his minority c. February 193 – 176 BC[142]
Iwaennetjerwyperu Setepenptahkheperi Irymaatamunre Ptolemy VI Philometor Lived under the control of Ptolemy VIII 164 BC–163 BC; restored 163 BC Died 145 BC c. May 180 – October 164 BC[142]and

163 – c. July 145 BC[142]

Cleopatra II Wife of Ptolemy VI. Married Ptolemy VIII around 145 BC; led revolt against him in 131 BC and became sole ruler of Egypt. Later reconciled with Ptolemy VIII; co-ruled with Cleopatra III and Ptolemy VIII until 116 BC. 175 – October 164 BC


163–127 BC


124–116 BC

Iwaennetjerwyperwy Setepenptah Irymaatre Sekhemankhenamun Ptolemy VIII Physcon Proclaimed king by Alexandrians in 170 BC; ruled jointly with Ptolemy VI Philometor and Cleopatra II from 169 to 164 BC. Restored 145–131 BC and again in 127 BC. Died 116 BC 171–163 BC


144–131 BC


127–116 BC

Panetjerhunu Meriyetef Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator Proclaimed co-ruler by his father; later ruled under regency of his mother Cleopatra II 145–144 BC
Nebtaoui Kanekhet Cleopatra III Second wife of Ptolemy VIII. Restored with Ptolemy VIII in 127 BC; later co-regent with Ptolemy IX and X. Murdered by her own son Ptolemy X. 142–131 BC


127–107 BC

Ptolemy Memphites Proclaimed King by Cleopatra II; soon killed by Ptolemy VIII 131 BC
Iwa(en)netjermenekhnetjeretmeretmutesnedjet(et) Setepenptah Irimaatre Sekhemankhamun Ptolemy IX Soter Died 80 BC 28 June 116–October 110 BC[142]
Cleopatra IV Briefly married to Ptolemy IX, but was pushed out by Cleopatra III. Later murdered. 28 June 116–115 BC[142]
Iwa(en)netjermenekhenetjeretmenkhetre Setepenptah Irimaatre Senenankhenamun Ptolemy X Alexander Died 88 BC October 110–February 109 BC[142]
Kliapadrat Bereniket Berenice III Forced to marry Ptolemy XI; murdered on his orders 19 days later 81–80 BC
Ptolemy XI Alexander Young son of Ptolemy X Alexander; installed by Sulla; ruled for 80 days before being lynched by citizens for killing Berenice III 80 BC[142]
Iwaenpanetjernehem Setepenptah Irimaatenre Sekhemankhamen Ptolemy XII Auletes Son of Ptolemy IX; deposed in 58 BC Reigned briefly with his daughter Cleopatra VII before his death in 51 BC 80–58 BC[142]


55–51 BC[142]

Cleopatra V Tryphaena Wife of Ptolemy XII, mother of Berenice IV 79–68 BC
Cleopatra VI Daughter of Ptolemy XII, but theorised by some Egyptologists to actually be the same person as Cleopatra V.[148] 58–57 BC
Berenice IV Daughter of Ptolemy XII; forced to marry Seleucus Kybiosaktes, but had him strangled. Joint rule with Cleopatra VI until 57 BC. 58–55 BC[142]
Weretnebetneferu Akhetzeh Cleopatra VII Ruled jointly with her father Ptolemy XII, her brother Ptolemy XIII, her brother-husband Ptolemy XIV, and her son Ptolemy XV. In modern usage, the stand-alone use of "Cleopatra" with no ordinal number usually refers to Cleopatra VII. Committed suicide. 31 May 52[149] – 12 August 30 BC[142]
Ptolemy XIII Theos Philopator Brother and first husband of Cleopatra VII 51–13 January 47 BC
Arsinoe IV In opposition to Cleopatra VII December 48 – January 47 BC
Ptolemy XIV Philopator Younger brother of Cleopatra VII and Ptolemy XIII 13 January 47–26 July 44 BC
Iwapanetjernetynehem Setepenptah Irimaatre Sekhem(ankh)enamun Ptolemy XV Caesar Infant son of Cleopatra VII; aged 3 when proclaimed co-ruler with Cleopatra. Last known ruler of ancient Egypt when Rome took over. 2 September 44 – August 30 BC

Native rebellions also took place under Greek rule:

Image Throne name Personal name Comments Dates
Hugronaphor Revolutionary pharaoh in the South 205–199 BC
Ankhmakis Revolutionary pharaoh in the South 199–185 BC
Harsiesi Revolutionary pharaoh in the South 131–130 BC

Notes and Further Reading
Wikipedia Pages

Dynasties of ancient Egypt

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List of pharaohs

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18th Dynasty of Egypt

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19th Dynasty of Egypt

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20th Dynasty of Egypt

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