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Historical Sources














Guides to the Sources

Syriac Literature

e- Gedesh - Gorgias Encyclopedic Dictionary of the Syriac Heritage: Electronic Edition

Brock, S.B. (1979). "Syriac Historical Writing: A Survey of the Main Sources." Journal of the Iraqi Academy, Syriac Corporation 5.

Brock, S.B. (1976). "Syriac Sources for Seventh-Century History." Byzantine and modern Greek studies 2.

Historiography in the Syriac-speaking world, 300-1000

syri.ac - An annotated bibliography of Syriac resources online

Beth Mardutho - The Syriac Institute

Resources for Syriac Studies from Dumbarton Oaks

Byzantine Literature (Greek and Latin)

Neville, L. (2018). Guide to Byzantine Historical Writing. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. This handy reference guide makes it easier to access and understand histories written in Greek between 600 and 1480 CE.. N

Arabic Literature

Encyclopedia of Islam

Encyclopedia of Islam at archive.org



Encyclopedia of Islam at Brill (not free)

History of the Arabic Written Tradition

Roger Pearse on History of the Arabic Written Tradition

Roger Pearse notes the following

If you want to know what texts exist in Arabic, then the classic resource is Carl Brockelmann’s Geschichte der arabischen Litteratur, published in seven volumes, in a terrible, disorganised, highly abbreviated format, starting in the 19th century. This is essentially unreadable, even if you have good German. The first 2 volumes are the original edition; there are 3 volumes of supplements; and then 2 volumes of a revised edition which refers to both the original and the supplements. It is a monster work of scholarship, but quite unusable. Paula Skreslet wrote:
Specialists in Islamic literature must make the effort to become conversant with Carl Brockelmann’s classic of Orientalist scholarship, Geschichte der arabischen Litteratur. It is partly a narrative history, but chiefly an encyclopedia of entries on individual Arab writers and their work. Vol. 1 is organized chronologically, then by type/genre of literature (or subject matter), then geographically; vol. 2 organizes first by chronology, then geography, then genre or subject. Indexes for authors, titles, and the European editors of texts arc found in the third supplemental volume (after the entries on the modern era up to 1939). Even those who read German easily find Brockelmann’s work challenging to use, thanks to his difficult systems of abbreviation and transliteration, the lack of cross-references, the relationship between the supplements and the original volumes, and the proliferation of addenda and corrigenda.[1]
... Dutch translator Joep Lameer ... translated the lot into English, reorganised it, de-abbreviated the text, and generally cleaned it up and brought it up to date. ... His translation is titled, “History of the Arabic Written Tradition”, and is available from Brill here, for about $50 a volume.
Brockelmann, C. and J. Lameer (2023). History of the Arabic Written Tradition Volume 1, Brill.

Brockelmann, C. and J. Lameer (2023). History of the Arabic Written Tradition Supplement Volume 1, Brill.

Brockelmann, C. and J. Lameer (2023). History of the Arabic Written Tradition Volume 2, Brill.

Brockelmann, C. and J. Lameer (2023). History of the Arabic Written Tradition Supplement Volume 2, Brill.

History of the Arabic Written Tradition Supplement Volume 3 - ii

Note: I have copies of all above books on my hard drive

Brockelmann, C., 1909, Geschichte der arabischen Litteratur - open access at archive.org

Brockelmann, C., 1909, Geschichte der arabischen Litteratur - open access at archive.org - all 5 volumes

Clément, H. and Loyd, M.S., 1901, A history of Arabic literature - open access at archive.org

Wikipedia page on History of the Arabic Written Tradition



Ancient Texts

Ancient Texts

Patrologia Orientalis (Translations from Syriac, Armenian, Arabic, Coptic, Ge'ez, Georgian, and Slavonic)

Wikipedia

  • from Wikipedia - click link to open new tab


Roger Pearse

  • from Wikipedia - click link to open new tab


Die Griechischen Christlichen Schriftsteller (GCS) PDF’s


Die Griechischen Christlichen Schriftsteller (GCS) PDF’s

Back in 2008, the PLGO group laboriously compiled a list of the volumes of out-of-copyright volumes of the GCS, with links to online copies.   This useful resource has recently disappeared.  A copy exists in ScribD, but this is not nearly as accessible.  A set of copies can be found in ScribD here.  I have transcribed the list here.  (And I gather the PLGO list has reappeared here).  I have also added further volumes in the IA not in the original list.

A new addition here is some links to a Polish library, the Kaiser Wilhelm Library in Posen (full list here).  The volumes are available to download, but in a strange format – DjVu – for which you will need a reader.  See the bottom of this page for more instructions.

UPDATE (2019) – an official GCS page with a list and links is here.  They’re adding more volumes too, although in a hard-to-use online viewer.

Key: Site=IA=Internet Archive; GB=Google books; PL=wbc.poznan.pl (located by searches in europeana.eu).

Site Link Descriptio
GB http://books.google.com/books?id=UdIYAAAAYAAJ 1. Hippolytus Werke I. Commentarius in Danielem (1. Aufl. 1897: Georg Nathanel Bonwetsch/Hans Achelis; 2. Aufl. 2002: s. GCS NF 7)
IA[GB] http://www.archive.org/details/origeneswerke00klosgoog 2. Origenes Werke I. Contra Celsum I-IV (1. Aufl. 1899: Paul Koetschau)
IA[GB] http://www.archive.org/details/origeneswerke01origgoog 3. Origenes Werke II. Contra Celsum V-VIII, De oratione (1. Aufl. 1899: Paul Koetschau)
GB http://books.google.com/books?id=EgAYAAAAYAAJ 4. Anonymus (Adamantius). De recta in Deum fide (1. Aufl. 1901: W.H. van de Sande Bakhuyzen)
IA http://www.archive.org/details/dasbuchhenochhrs00flemuoft 5. Das Buch Henoch (1. Aufl. 1901: Johannes Flemming / Ludwig Radermacher)
GB http://books.google.com/books?id=1e-KJPWWEb0C 6 Origenes Werke III. Homiliae in Ieremiam, Fragmenta in Lamentationes (1. Aufl. 1901:Erich Klostermann; 2. Aufl. 1983: Pierre Nautin)
IA http://www.archive.org/details/werkehrsgimauftr01euseuoft 7 Eusebius Werke I. Vita Constantini, De laudibus Constantini, Constantini imperatoris oratioad sanctorum coetum (1. Aufl. 1902: Ivar A. Heikel; Auszug 1975 und 1991: s. GCS 7/1)
GCS viewer https://digilib.bbaw.de/digitallibrary/digilib.html?fn=/silo10/GCS/GCS_7_1/ 7/1 Eusebius Werke I/1. Vita Constantini (1. Aufl. 1975: Friedhelm Winkelmann; 2. Aufl.1991: Nachdruck)
IA http://www.archive.org/details/dieoraculasibyll00geffuoft 8 Oracula Sibyllina (1. Aufl. 1902: Johannes Geffcken; 2. Aufl. 1967: NachdruckZentralantiquariat Leipzig)
GB / IA http://books.google.com/books?id=IdooAAAAYAAJ
http://archive.org/details/p1eusebiuswerke02euse
9/1 Eusebius Werke II/1. Historia ecclesiastica (1. Aufl. 1903: Eduard Schwartz/TheodorMommsen; 2. Aufl. 1999: s. GCS NF 6/1)
IA http://www.archive.org/details/werkehrsgimauftr02euseuoft 9/2 Eusebius Werke II/2. Historia ecclesiastica (1. Aufl. 1908: Eduard Schwartz/TheodorMommsen; Nachdruck 1999: s. GCS NF 6/2)
IA http://www.archive.org/details/pt3werkehrsgimau02euseuoft 9/3 Eusebius Werke II/3. Historia ecclesiastica (1. Aufl. 1909: Eduard Schwartz/TheodorMommsen; 2. Aufl. 1999: s. GCS NF 6/3)
GB http://books.google.com/books?id=6NkYAAAAYAAJ 10 Origenes Werke IV. Commentarius in Iohannem (1. Aufl. 1903: Erwin Preuschen)
 IA [GB] http://www.archive.org/details/werke00eusegoog 11/1 Eusebius Werke III/1. Onomasticon (1. Aufl. 1904: Erich Klostermann)
IA http://www.archive.org/details/diegriechischen00religoog 11/2 Eusebius Werke III/2. Theophania (1. Aufl. 1904: Hugo Gressmann; 2. Aufl. 1992: Adolf Laminski)
IA http://www.archive.org/details/clemensalexandri01clemuoft 12 Clemens Alexandrinus I. Protrepticus und Paedagogus (1. Aufl. 1905: Otto Stählin; 2.Aufl. 1936: Otto Stählin; 3. Aufl. 1972: Ursula Treu)
IA http://www.archive.org/details/koptischgnostisc00schmuoft 13 Koptisch-Gnostische Schriften I. Pistis Sophia; Die beiden Bücher des Jeû; Unbekanntesaltgnostisches Werk (1. Aufl. 1905: Carl Schmidt; 2. Aufl. s. GCS 45) 2
GB
IA
http://books.google.com/books?id=ff07AAAAIAAJ
http://archive.org/details/eusebiuswerke04euse
14 Eusebius Werke IV. Contra Marcellum, De ecclesiastica theologia (1. Aufl. 1906: Erich Klostermann; 2. Aufl. 1972: Günther Christian Hansen; 3. Aufl. 1991: Günther Christian Hansen)
GB http://books.google.com/books?id=n1wPAAAAYAAJ
https://archive.org/details/clemensalexandr00berlgoog
15 Clemens Alexandrinus II. Stromata I-VI (1. Aufl. 1906: Otto Stählin; 2. Aufl. 1936: Otto Stählin; 3. und 4. Aufl.: s. GCS 52)
IA [GB] http://www.archive.org/details/hegemoniusactaa00beesgoog 16 Hegemonius, Acta Archelai (1. Aufl. 1906: Charles Henry Beeson)
IA http://www.archive.org/details/clemensalexandri17clemuoft 17 Clemens Alexandrinus III. Stromata Buch VII und VIII (1. Aufl. 1909: Otto Stählin; 2. Aufl.1970: Ludwig Früchtel)
PL http://www.wbc.poznan.pl/dlibra/docmetadata?id=131265 18 Die Esra-Apokalypse I (IV. Esra) (1. Aufl. 1910: Bruno Violet; 2. Aufl. 1992: A. Frederik J.Klijn)
IA http://www.archive.org/details/kirchengeschicht00theouoft 19 Theodoretus Cyri, Historia ecclesiastica (1. Aufl. 1911: Léon Parmentier; 2. Aufl. 1954: s.GCS 44; Felix Scheidweiler; 3. Aufl. 1998: s. GCS NF 5)
IA http://www.archive.org/details/eusebiuswerke05euse 20 Eusebius Werke V. Die Chronik, aus dem Armenischen übersetzt (1. Aufl. 1911: Josef Karst)
IA http://www.archive.org/details/kirchengeschicht21philuoft 21 Philostorgius, Historia ecclesiastica (1. Aufl. 1913: J. Bidez; 2. Aufl. 1970: FriedhelmWinkelmann; 3. Aufl. 1981: Friedhelm Winkelmann)
IA http://www.archive.org/details/origeneswerke05orig 22 Origenes Werke V. De principiis (1. Aufl. 1913: Paul Koetschau)
IA http://www.archive.org/details/eusebiuswerke06euse 23 Eusebius Werke VI. Demonstratio euangelica (1. Aufl. 1913: Ivar A. Heikel)
IA http://www.archive.org/details/p1eusebiuswer07euse 24 Eusebius Werke VII/1. Hieronymi chronicon (1. Aufl. 1913: Rudolf Helm; 2. und 3. Aufl.: s.GCS 47)
IA http://www.archive.org/details/epiphanius01epip 25 Epiphanius I. Ancoratus und Panarion haer. 1-33 (1. Aufl. 1915: Karl Holl; 2. Aufl. s. GCSNF 10)
IA http://www.archive.org/details/hippolytuswerke03hipp 26 Hippolytus Werke III. Refutatio omnium haeresium (1. Aufl. 1916: Paul Wendland)
IA http://www.archive.org/details/methodiusherausg00meth 27 Methodius, Olympius, Werke (1. Aufl. 1917: Georg Nathanael Bonwetsch)
IA http://www.archive.org/details/gelasiuskircheng28gelauoft 28 Gelasius Cyzicenus, Historia ecclesiastica (1. Aufl. 1918: Gerhard Loeschke/MargretHeinemann; 2. Aufl. 2002: s. GCS NF 9)
IA http://www.archive.org/details/origeneswerke06orig 29 Origenes Werke VI. Homilien zum Hexateuch (1. Aufl. 1920: W. A. Baehrens)
IA http://www.archive.org/details/origeneswerke07orig 30 Origenes Werke VII. Homilien zum Hexateuch (1. Aufl. 1921: W. A. Baehrens)
IA http://www.archive.org/details/epiphanius02epip 31 Epiphanius II. Panarion haer. 34-64 (1. Aufl. 1922: Karl Holl; 2. Aufl. 1980: Jürgen Dummer)
PL http://www.wbc.poznan.pl/dlibra/docmetadata?id=136133 (Tr) 32 Die Apokalypsen des Esra und des Baruch (1. Aufl. 1924: Bruno Violet)
IA / PL https://archive.org/details/GCS33
http://www.wbc.poznan.pl/dlibra/doccontent?id=143808
33 Origenes Werke VIII. Homiliae in Regn., Ez. et al. (1. Aufl. 1925: W. A. Baehrens)
IA http://www.archive.org/details/p2werkee07euse 34 Eusebius Werke VII/2. Hieronymi chronicon (1. Aufl. 1926: Rudolf Helm; 2. und 3. Aufl.: s.GCS 47)
PL http://www.wbc.poznan.pl/dlibra/docmetadata?id=137915 35 Origenes Werke IX. Homiliae in Lucam (1. Aufl. 1931: Max Rauer; 2. Aufl. s. GCS 49)
PL http://www.wbc.poznan.pl/dlibra/docmetadata?id=137945 36 Hippolytus Werke IV. Chronicon (1. Aufl. 1929: Rudolf Helm; 2. Aufl. s. GCS 46)
PL http://www.wbc.poznan.pl/dlibra/docmetadata?id=146011 37 Epiphanius III. Panarion haer. 65-80; De fide (1. Aufl. 1933: K. Holl, 2. Aufl. 1985: J.Dummer)
PL http://www.wbc.poznan.pl/dlibra/docmetadata?id=137916 38 Origenes Werke XI. Commentarius in Matthaeum II (1. Aufl. 1933: Erich Klostermann / Ernst Benz; 2. Aufl. 1976: Ursula Treu)
IA http://www.archive.org/details/clemensalexandri04clemuoft 39/1 Clemens Alexandrinus IV. Register 1 (1. Aufl. 1936: Otto Stählin, 2. Aufl. 1980: Ursula Treu)
PL http://www.wbc.poznan.pl/dlibra/docmetadata?id=144882 39/2 Clemens Alexandrinus IV. Register 2 (1. Aufl. 1936: Otto Stählin)
IA / PL GCS 40 at the IA

http://www.wbc.poznan.pl/dlibra/docmetadata?id=142570

40 Origenes Werke X. Commentarius in Matthaeum I (1. Aufl. 1935: Erich Klostermann/Ernst Benz)
PL http://www.wbc.poznan.pl/dlibra/docmetadata?id=137917 41/1 Origenes Werke XII. Commentarius in Matthaeum III,1 (1. Aufl. 1941: Erich Klostermann/Ernst Benz)
GCS Viewer https://digilib.bbaw.de/digitallibrary/digilib.html?fn=/silo10/GCS/GCS_41_1/ 41/2 Origenes Werke XII. Commentarius in Matthaeum III,2 (1. Aufl. 1955: ErichKlostermann / Ludwig Früchtel; 2. Aufl. 1968: Ursula Treu)
GCS Viewer https://digilib.bbaw.de/digitallibrary/digilib.html?fn=/silo10/GCS/GCS_41_2/ 42 Die Pseudoklementinen I. Homilien (1. Aufl. 1953: Bernhard Rehm; 2. Aufl. 1969: FranzPaschke; 3. Aufl. 1992: Georg Strecker)
IA http://www.archive.org/details/werkehrsgimauftr43euseuoft 43/1 Eusebius Werke VIII/1. Praeparatio euangelica (1. Aufl. 1954: Karl Mras; 2. Aufl. 1982:Édouard des Places)
IA https://archive.org/details/werkehrsgimauf08euse 43/2 Eusebius Werke VIII/2. Praeparatio euangelica (1. Aufl. 1956: Karl Mras; 2. Aufl. 1983:Édouard des Places)
Deest 44 Theodoretus Cyri, Historia ecclesiastica 1. Aufl. 1911: s. GCS 19; 2. Aufl. 1954: FelixScheidweiler; 3. Aufl. 1998: s. GCS NF 5
IA https://archive.org/details/koptischgnostis00schm 45 Koptisch-Gnostische Schriften I. Pistis Sophia; Die beiden Bücher des Jeû; Unbekanntesaltgnostisches Werk (1. Aufl. 1905: s. GCS 13; 2. Aufl. 1954: Walter Till; 4. Aufl. 1981:Nachdruck)
GCS Viewer https://digilib.bbaw.de/digitallibrary/digilib.html?fn=/silo10/GCS/GCS_46 46 Hippolytus Werke IV. Chronicon (1. Aufl. s. GCS 36; 2. Aufl. 1955: Rudolf Helm)
IA https://archive.org/details/p1eusebiuswer07euse

https://archive.org/details/p2werkee07euse

47 Eusebius Werke VII. Die Chronik des Hieronymus (1 Aufl. s. GCS 23 und 34; 2. Aufl.1956: Rudolf Helm; 3. Aufl. 1984: Nachdruck Ursula Treu)
PL http://www.wbc.poznan.pl/dlibra/docmetadata?id=138153 48 Die Apostolischen Väter I. Der Hirt des Hermas (1. Aufl. 1956: Molly Whittaker; 2. Aufl.1967: Molly Whittaker)
IA https://archive.org/details/origeneswerkehrs09origuoft 49 Origenes Werke IX. Homiliae in Lucam (1. Aufl. 1931: s. GCS 35; 2. Aufl. 1959: Max Rauer)
Deest 50 Sozomenus, Historia ecclesiastica (1. Aufl. 1960: Joseph Bidez und Günther Christian Hansen; 2. Aufl. s. GCS NF 4)
Deest 51 Die Pseudoklementinen II. Rekognitionen (1. Aufl. 1965: Bernhard Rehm / FranzPaschke; 2. Aufl. 1994: Georg Strecker)
Deest 52 Clemens Alexandrinus II, Stromata I-VI (1. und 2. Aufl. s. GCS 15; 3. Aufl. 1960: Ludwig Früchtel; 4. Aufl. 1985: Ursula Treu)
Deest 53 Gregorius Nazianzenus, Epistulae (1. Aufl. 1969: Paul Gallay)
Deest Theodorus Anagnostes, Historia ecclesiastica (1. Aufl. 1971: Günther Christian Hansen; 2. Aufl. s. GCSNF 3)
Deest Pseudo-Macarius Alexandrinus/Symeon, Reden und Briefe I. Die Sammlung I desVaticanus Graecus 694B (1. Aufl. 1973: Heinz Berthold)
Deest Pseudo-Macarius Alexandrinus /Symeon, Reden und Briefe II. Die Sammlung I desVaticanus Graecus 694B (1. Aufl. 1973: Heinz Berthold)
Deest Eusebius Werke IX. Commentarius in Isaiam (1. Aufl. 1975: Joseph Ziegler)Deesto.Nr. Die Pseudoklementinen III/1 (1. Aufl. 1986: Georg Strecker)
Deest Die Pseudoklementinen III/2 (1. Aufl. 1989: Georg Strecker)Deesto.Nr. Pseudo-Caesarius, Quaestiones et responsiones (1. Aufl. 1989: Rudolf Riedinger)
 NEW SERIES
Deest NF 1 Socrates Scholasticus, Historia ecclesiastica (1. Aufl. 1995: Günther Christian Hansen)
Deest NF 2 Basilius von Caesarea, Homilien in Hexaemeron (1. Aufl. 1997: Emmanuel Amand De Mendieta† und Stig Y. Rudberg)
Deest NF 3 Theodorus Anagnostes, Historia ecclesiastica (1. Aufl. 1971: s. GCS o.Nr.; 2. Aufl.1995: Günther Christian Hansen)
Deest NF 4 Sozomenus, Historia ecclesiastica (1. Aufl. 1960: s. GCS 50; 2. Aufl. 1995: GüntherChristian Hansen)
Deest NF 5 Theodoretus Cyri, Historia ecclesiastica (1. Aufl 1911 und 2. Aufl. 1954: s. GCS 19; 3.Aufl. 1998: Günther Christian Hansen)
Deest NF 6/1 Eusebius Werke II/1. Historia ecclesiastica (1. Aufl. 1903: s. GCS 9/1; 2. Aufl. 1999:Nachdruck)
Deest NF 6/2 Eusebius Werke II/2. Historia ecclesiastica (1. Aufl. 1908: s. GCS 9/2; 2. Aufl. 1999:Nachdruck)
Deest NF 6/3 Eusebius Werke II/3. Historia ecclesiastica (1. Aufl. 1909: s. GCS 9/3; 2. Aufl. 1999:Nachdruck)
Deest NF 7 Hippolytus Werke I. Commentarius in Danielem (1. Aufl. 1897: s. GCS 1; 2. Aufl. 2000:Marcel Richard)
Deest NF 8 Koptisch-gnostische Schriften II. Nag Hammadi Deutsch 1 (NHC I,1-V,1) (1. Aufl. 2001: H.-M. Schenke, H.- G.Bethge und U.U. Kaiser)
Deest NF 9 Anonyme Kirchengeschichte (Gelasius Cyzicenus, CPG 6034) (1. Aufl. 1918: s. GCS28; 2. Aufl. 2002: Günther Christian Hansen)
IA https://archive.org/details/epiphanius01epip NF 10 Epiphanius I. Ancoratus und Panarion haer. 1-33 (1. Aufl. 1915: s. GCS 25; 2. Aufl:Nachdruck in Vorbereitung)
Deest NF 11 Neutestamentliche Apokryphen I. Das Petrusevangelium und die Petrusapokalypse.(1. Aufl. 2004: Thomas J. Kraus /Tobias Nicklas)
Deest NF 12 Koptisch-gnostische Schriften III. Nag Hammadi Deutsch 2 (NHC V,2-XIII,1; BG 1 und4) (1. Aufl. 2003: H.-M.Schenke, H.- G.Bethge und U.U. Kaiser)
Deest NF 13 Epiphanius IV. Register (1. Aufl. 2006: Christian-Friedrich Collatz / Arnd Rattmann)
Deest NF 14 Neutestamentliche Apokryphen II. Transitus Mariae (1. Aufl. 2006: Hans Förster)

Berlin-Brandenburgische Akademie der Wissenschaften: Die Griechischen Christlichen Schriftsteller (GCS)

Notes on downloading from the Wielkopolska Biblioteka Cyfrowa.

Go to the site given in the links above.  Then you have two choices:

1.  On each page, there is a “download” link on the left.  Clicking this gives you a zip file; if you unzip it to a new directory, you get a mass of .djvu files.  To read the book, double-click on the index.djvu.  It does work, actually.

2.  If you would rather have a single file, you need to open the content in your browser.  This does not work in all browsers, tho, and requires Java to be active, plus the Djvu Reader mentioned earlier.  I couldn’t get it to work in IE8 — the downloaded files just vanished — but Firefox 5.0 was fine.

On the page, instead of “download”, you click on the “Resource identifier” instead.  This is towards the bottom of the page in the middle.   The GCS document opens, and there is a menu at the top.  On the top left is the “Save to disk” icon of a diskette.  This  can be used to save the whole document as a single .djvu file.

Links Galore (links to digital copies of books collections of books of interest to classicists, medievalists etc.)



How to download a pdf of a manuscript from the Oxford Bodleian Library

Bodleian Library manuscripts can now be downloaded as PDFs!!

I was looking at the online copy of the Bodleian manuscript of Plato, the “Clarkianus” 39 (here), when I discovered something wonderful.  We can now download the whole thing as a PDF!

This is just so amazing!  It also means that any cyber-attack can only do so much damage, if you have offline copies.

Here’s the screen grabs of what to do:

  1.  Go to the manuscript online:

2.  Click on the “Download” icon and you get this.

3.  Click on the download for the whole item.

Note that if you select a page range, it has to assemble that offline and email you, so it takes longer.

That’s it!  It’s actually the best user interface for downloads that I’ve yet seen.  Nice!

The only downside is resolution.  The download of this manuscript (871 pages) is a pretty massive 800mb.  If you look at folio 1r, the scholia are a bit fuzzy.  So for these you still need to use the website.  It would be good to have an “ultra-high res, kiss your disk space goodbye” option.  But it’s still a huge step forward.

How to download a manuscript at the Austrian National Library (Österreichische Nationalbibliothek)

This is for all you non-German speakers out there. Yes, it is indeed possible to download a PDF of manuscripts at the ONB in Vienna!

All the fully-digitised manuscripts for the Österreichische Nationalbibliothek are listed on a page here:. (The link doesn't look very permanent, so you might have to search at manuscripta.at).

But it is very useful to have them all on one page! Ctrl-F to find the manuscript you want by number.

Here's a screen-grab of the top of the page:

Click on the manuscript you want. I've highlighted ONB 6. Here's the next page:

What you want is the "Volldigitalisat" - "Fully digitised". Click on the "Quicksearch" link:

I had to use Chrome's automatic translate facility to work out which, if any of this, was relevant. It's "Online-Zugriff". Click there. That will take you down the page, to somewhere seemingly random:

Clicking on "Digitales Objeckt" will, at last, take you to the online manuscript.

Right-click on the image, and the menu above will appear. This contains the exciting words "Objekt herunterladen" - "Download Object". If you click on this, you will be prompted to download a PDF of the "Gesamtes Objekt" - the whole thing.

Marvellous! Well done the ONB. Now I can mark up the PDF and do some work on the manuscript.

Libraries with Manuscript Collections

British Museum - London

Bodleian Library - Oxford

Cambridge University Library - Cambridge

Vatican Library - Rome

National Library of France

National Library of Russia

Bibliotheca Laureshamensis digital Lorsch Manuscripts Worldwide - The Lorsch manuscripts of the former monastic library and scriptorium

Abdallah Guennoun Library in Tangier, Morocco

Public Libraries which contain more than 5000 Manuscripts
Translations Available For Download - Roger Pearse

Chronologies

Chronologies

Pharaohs/Egypt

Rome and Byzantium - Emperors, Battles, and other info

Roman Emperors

  • from Wikipedia - click link to open in a new tab
  • Scroll down to see list


List of Roman external wars and battles

  • from Wikipedia - click link to open in a new tab


Ancient Rome: Websites



Byzantine Emperors



Byzantine Battles



Seleucid and Ptolemaic Emperors

Seleucid Emperors
Ptolemaic Emperors

Rulers and Consorts

Seleucid Kings of Antioch in Malalas

Table Explanation

In the following table Malalas' information concerning the succession of the Seleucid kings is outlined at the left, with the accepted sequence at the right.2 His account of the Seleucids is preserved in the Church Slavonic version as well as in the Greek text of the Codex Baroccianus at Oxford: the two texts agree save in a few instances, so that the Greek text (Ox.) is used, and the Slavonic version (Slav.) is cited only when it is evident that it is more complete or correct.3
Footnotes

2 The lengths of some of the reigns are still not certain, but since it is not the purpose of this study to evaluate Malalas' information in this respect, the chronology of Bouche-Leclercq is followed, unless otherwise stated (see his table, op. cit., pp. 640-641). Reference may also be made to Wilcken, "Antiochos," R.E. I, 2450-2487, and "Alexandros," nos. 22-23, ibid., 1437-1439; Stahelin, "Seleukos," R.E. II A, 1210-1246; and Willrich, "Demetrios," nos. 40-42, R.E. IV, 2795-2802.

3 See the Church Slavonic text cited above, p. 108, n. 1.

Tables

Seleucid Period
King Notes Years of Reign
(Malalas)
Accepted Sequence2 References
Seleucus Nicator died aged 72 not given Seleucus I Nicator, died 280/14 Malalas (204, 17-208, 21)
Antiochus Soter married his step- 20 Antiochus I Soter, 281-261 mother Stratonice and had 2 sons, Seleucus (died as a child), and Antiochus Theoeides 20 Antiochus I Soter, 281-261 Malalas (204, 17-208, 21)
Antiochus Theoeides 15 Antiochus II Theos, 261-246 Malalas (204, 17-208, 21)
Seleucus Callinicus son of Antiochus Theoeides and Berenice 24 Seleucus II Callinicus, 246-226; son of Antiochus II and Laodice, Berenice being the second wife of Antiochus II Malalas (204, 17-208, 21)
Alexander Nicator1a 4 Seleucus III Soter, 226-223; originally named Alexander, took the name Seleucus at accession Malalas (204, 17-208, 21)
Antiochus Grypus 36 Antiochus III, the Great, 223-187 Malalas (204, 17-208, 21)
Seleucus Philopator 10 Seleucus IV Philopator, 187/6-176/52a Malalas (204, 17-208, 21)
Antiochus Epiphanes3a 12 Antiochus IV Epiphanes, 175-164 Malalas (204, 17-208, 21)
Antiochus Glaucus Hierax son of Antiochus Epiphanes 2 Error for Antiochus V Eupator (son of Epiphanes), 164-162; the only Antiochus called Hierax was the younger son of Seleucus Callinicus, who never ruled, and died 227.4a "Glaucus" is not attested for any Seleucid Malalas (204, 17-208, 21)
Demetrianus son of Seleucus5a 8 Demetrius I Soter, 162-150 - up to Demetrius I Soter, we have 131 years (281-150 BCE) Malalas (204, 17-208, 21)
Antiochus ekgonos of Grypus son of Laodice, daughter of Ariarathes, king of Cappadocia. The earthquake occurred in the 8th year of his reign 9 Alexander Balas, 150-145 (usurper)
Demetrius II Nicator, 146-125
Antiochus VI Dionysus, 145-142
Tryphon Diodotus, 140-137 (usurper)
Malalas (204, 17-208, 21)
Antiochus Euergetes6a his son Antiochus Cyzicenus married Brittane, daughter of Arsaces Antiochus VII Euergetes Sidetes, 138-129; Antiochus IX Cyzicenus was his son, but he married Cleopatra IV and Cleopatra Selene Malalas (204, 17-208, 21)
After Antiochus Euergetes there reigned 9 of his descendants until the reign of Antiochus Dionysus the Leper, father of Cleopatra and Antiochis.7a Alexander II Zabinas, 128-123
Antiochus VIII Grypus, 125-96
Seleucus V, 125
Antiochus IX Cyzicenus, 116-95
Antiochus X Eusebes, 94—83
Antiochus XI Epiphanes Philadelphus, 92
Philip I, 92-83
Demetrius III, 95-88
Antiochus XII Dionysus, 89-84
Malalas (204, 17-208, 21)
In the 15th year of Antiochus Dionysus, Tigranes made war on Antiochus and took Antioch, which was later occupied by Pompey [Tigranes, 86 or 84-69]
Antiochus XIII Asiaticus, 68 and 65 or 65/48a
Philip II Barypous, 67/6
Malalas (211, 4)
Pompey restored the kingdom to Dionysus, who left it to the Romans at his death; the Seleucid kings had ruled 263 years The reckoning (312/1-263=49/8 B.C.) refers to the introduction of the era of Caesar at Antioch, not to the Roman occupation of Syria1b Malalas (212, 9)
Roman Period
King Notes Years of Reign
(Malalas)
Accepted Sequence2 References
Philip Barypous Philip II, 67/6 Malalas (225, 9)
Antiochus Philadelphus Antiochus XI Epiphanes Philadelphus, 92 Malalas (234, 1)
Antiochus Philopator Antiochus IX or XII (?) Malalas (235, 18)
Footnotes

2 The lengths of some of the reigns are still not certain, but since it is not the purpose of this study to evaluate Malalas' information in this respect, the chronology of Bouche-Leclercq is followed, unless otherwise stated (see his table, op. cit., pp. 640-641). Reference may also be made to Wilcken, "Antiochos," R.E. I, 2450-2487, and "Alexandros," nos. 22-23, ibid., 1437-1439; Stahelin, "Seleukos," R.E. II A, 1210-1246; and Willrich, "Demetrios," nos. 40-42, R.E. IV, 2795-2802.

4 Stahelin assigns the death of Seleucus to the end of 281 or the beginning of 280, R.E. II A, 1225-1226; W. Kolbe limits it to Dec. 281 or Jan. 280, "Beitrage zur syr. u. jud. Gesch.," Beitrage zur Wiss. vom Alt. Test., N.F. Heft 10, Stuttgart, 1926, pp. 14-15.

1a Ox. has "Alexander Nicator, 36 years" (205, 5), while Slav. has "Alexander Nicator, 4 years; and Antiochus Grypus, 36 years" (6, 3).

2a This is Stahelin's chronology (R.E. II A, 1242 ff.), which is more instructive for comparison with Malalas' evidence than the years 187-175 given by Bouche-Leclercq.

3a In 234, 1 Malalas calls Antiochus 'Αντιοχου του επιφανεστατςυ βασιλεωσ..

4a Wilcken, R.E. I, 2457 ff.

5a With "Demetrianos" for "Demetrios," compare "Markianos" for "Markios" in 225, 8. Further examples of Malalas' distortion of names are listed in my article cited above (p. 107, n. 3), p. 144, n. 5.

6a Slav.: "Antiochus Euprepes" (7, 22).

7a Ox.: "Antiochus Dionicus" (208, 13, 15; 211, 5; 212, 9, 17, 20); Slav.: "Antiochus Dionysus" (7, 28, 31; 10, 11, 13).

8a On the chronology of Antiochus XIII and Philip II, see my article cited above, p. 107, n. 3.

1b On the date of the introduction of the era of Caesar at Antioch, see Stauffenberg, op. cit., pp. 108-117.

Hasmonean Leaders

Rebel Leaders

  1. Mattathias, 170–167 BCE
  2. Judas Maccabeus, 167–160 BCE
  3. Jonathan Apphus, 160–143 BCE (High Priest from 152 BCE)

Monarchs (Ethnarchs and Kings) and High Priests

  1. Simon Thassi, 142–135 BCE (Ethnarch and High Priest)
  2. John Hyrcanus I, 134–104 BCE (Ethnarch and High Priest)
  3. Aristobulus I, 104–103 BCE (King and High Priest)
  4. Alexander Jannaeus, 103–76 BCE (King and High Priest)
  5. Salome Alexandra, 76–67 BCE (the only Queen regnant)
  6. Hyrcanus II, 67–66 BCE (King from 67 BCE; High Priest from 76 BCE)
  7. Aristobulus II, 66–63 BCE (King and High Priest)
  8. Hyrcanus II (restored), 63–40 BCE (High Priest from 63 BCE; Ethnarch from 47 BCE)
  9. Antigonus, 40–37 BCE (King and High Priest)
  10. Aristobulus III, 36 BCE (only High Priest)

Territories

  • from wikipedia
  • scroll down to Hasmonean leaders section

Bishops and Patriarchs of Rome, Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem - 35 - 815 CE

Introduction

Bishops of Rome




Bishops and Patriarchs of Constantinople





Bishops and Patriarchs of Alexandria



Bishops and Patriarchs of Antioch




Bishops and Patriarchs of Jerusalem



Synoptic Chart of the Patriarchs













Iranian Rulers - ca. 559 BCE - 651 CE

Introduction

Achaemenids - ca. 559 BCE - 330 BCE

Arsacids (Parthians) - ca. 247 BCE - 224 CE


Sassanids - 224 CE - 651 CE


Caliphs

List of Caliphs - Wikipedia

  • from Wikipedia - click link to open in a new tab
  • Scroll down to see list


List of Rulers of the Islamic World

  • from The Met - click link to open in a new tab

Book Format Converters

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Archiving pdfs

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How to Manage Your Collection of PDF Files (2011)

How Do I Create a Searchable Archive of PDFs ? (2019)

Languages

OCR, Machine Translators and AI

OCR (Optical Character Recognition)

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Translator Links

Translators (non literal)
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Greek and Latin

Quick Latin translator software

Beginners Latin

Transliterate English to Greek

Lexilogos - Ancient Greek Dictionary - has many useful Greek Language links

Greek Word Study Tool at perseus.tufts.edu

Transliterate Greek and Hebrew

Enigma - offers possible resolutions of words for which only some letters can be read

Juxta - an aid to comparing variant texts

Chrysocollate - fairly new, automates many collation and editing tasks

Logeion - offers free integrated access to a large number of Latin and Greek dictionaries, including the Dictionary of Medieval Latin from British Sources, very useful for Christian Latin in general, especially after AD 600, where Lewis & Short stops

Thesaurus Linguae Latinae (online and open access)

Syriac and Aramaic

Syriac Dictionary at lexilogos

Syriac Word Search at Beth Mardutha

Lexicon Search at dukhrana.com

LEXICA, DICTIONARIES, AND GLOSSARIES at syri.ac

Syriac at Wikipedia

Syriac at Omniglot.com

Aramaic at Omniglot.com

Arabic

Arabic to Latin Script conversion

Steps to Convert Your Scanned Arabic Text to Microsoft Word

Hebrew

Hebrew OCR document converter (10 pages free)

Transliterating English to Hebrew in One Step

Transliterate Greek and Hebrew

html - Structural markup and right-to-left text in HTML

Turkish

Coptic

Coptic in unicode when you don’t know the alphabet

Slavonic

Unicode fonts for Old Slavonic

Etymology

Online Etymology Dictionary

Religious Texts

Judaism and Christianity

Bible Hub - Interlinear Bible



Bible Gateway



sefaria.org - 3,000 years of Jewish texts in English and Hebrew with commentary and links

  • from sefaria.org - click link to open in a new tab
  • 3,000 years of Jewish texts. in English and Hebrew with commentary and links
  • Tanakh is the Masoretic text


Babylonian Talmud



Jerusalem Talmud - Reference Material only



Christian Classics Ethereal Library



Tyndale Tech



Sacred-Texts.com

Islam

Quran



Hadith

alim.org

  • from alim.org - click link to open in a new tab


sunnah.com



Hadith Collection



Sacred-Texts.com

Other References

Encyclopedias - Catholic, Jewish, Coptic, Iranica, Syriac, Ottoman

Catholic Encyclopedia

Jewish Encyclopedia

Jewish Virtual Library



Claremont Coptic Encyclopedia

Encyclopedia Iranica

Syriac

Gorgias Encyclopedic Dictionary of the Syriac Heritage



syri.ac - An annotated bibliography of Syriac resources online

  • syri.ac - click link to open in a new tab

Beth Mardutho - The Syriac Institute



Historians of the Ottoman Empire

Josephus

Josephus - Complete Works at Christian Classics Ethereal Library



Josephus.org



sacred-texts.com

Historical Earthquakes

Tremblements de terre. Histoire et Archéologie - list of books and papers about historical earthquakes

Early Church Fathers

Early Church Fathers - Roger Pearse

The Crusades

The Crusades

Runciman (1951) History of the Crusades Vol 1-6 (archive.org)
Recueil des historiens des croisades (RHC)

RHC is a major collection of several thousand medieval documents written during the Crusades. The RHC is divided into five series:

  • Lois ("RHC Lois"; the Assizes of Jerusalem)
  • Historiens occidentaux ("RHC Oc" or "RHC Occ"; Western European texts in Latin and Old French)
  • Historiens orientaux ("RHC Or"; Arabic texts)
  • Historiens grecs ("RHC Grec"; Greek texts)
  • Historiens arméniens ("RHC Arm"; Armenian texts)
Open Access link are listed below:

Recueil des historiens des croisades (RHC) - lists authors in each volume - Wikiwand

Websites about Sources

List of sources for the Crusades - Wikipedia
Recueil des historiens des croisades (RHC) - Wikipedia
Recueil des historiens des croisades (RHC) - lists authors in each volume - Wikiwand



Crusade Sources in Translation - Fordham University

History of the Crusades

The Crusades (1095-1291 CE)
First Crusade (1096-1099 CE)
2nd Crusade (1145-1149 CE)
3rd Crusade (1189-1192 CE)
4th Crusade (1202-1204 CE)
5th Crusade (1217-1221 CE)
6th Crusade (1228-1229 CE)
Battles of the Crusades
A History of the Crusades by Steven Runciman (Runc.)

Journals and Publications

Journals

Dumbarton Oaks Papers

Dumbarton Oaks papers sorted by subject

Revue de l’Orient Chretien online; list of Syriac-related articles and links - Roger Pearse

www.persee.fr - Arts (History of art, Architecture)

www.persee.fr - Classical Studies

AWOL - The Ancient World Online

Online Publications of the German Orientalist Society (Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft) from 1847 to 2013

Al-ʿUṣūr al-Wusṭā: The Journal of Middle East Medievalists (open access)

Journal Asiatique at BnF - open access - 1822-1940

Journal Asiatique at Peeters - open access - 1999-present

The journal of the Palestine Oriental Society (JPOS) 1920-1948 open access

The Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland at JSTOR - 1824 - 2016

Bulletin d'études orientales (B.E.O.) at JSTOR

Revue Biblique at JSTOR

Cahiers de la Revue Biblique (Books)

Newspapers

Newspapers

La Gazette de France

60,000 titles of books, brochures and publications and about 700 periodicals dealing with the study of the Land of Israel and its settlement and the study of Israeli communities in the East at Yad Ben-Zvi (Hebrew webpage)

Maps

Hellenistic and Roman Near East

Hellenistic and Roman Near East
Description Image Source
Hellenistic and Roman Near East Map I - Kaizer et al (2022)
The Decapolis Map II - Kaizer et al (2022)
Commagene and Osrhoene Map III - Kaizer et al (2022)
Phoenician coast Map IV - Kaizer et al (2022)
Judaea
Palestinian coast
the Galilee
Idumaea
Samaria.
Map V - Kaizer et al (2022)
Nabatea Map VI - Kaizer et al (2022)
Northern Syria Fig. 17.1 - Bousdroukis in Kaizer et al (2022)

Late Antiquity/Early Islamic

Late Antiquity/Early Islamic
Description Image Source
Near East in Late Antiquity Map 1 - Hoyland (2011)
Early Islamic Middle East Map 2 - Hoyland (2011)
Syro-Mesopotamia 6th-8th centuries Map 3 - Hoyland (2011)
Map of Early Islamic Jordan and Palestine Figure 1 - Rattenborg and Blanke (2017)
Map of southern Bilad ash-Sham in early Islamic times Figure 1 - Barnes et al (2006)
Map of Late Roman/Early Islamic territories - Gaza to Damascus Figure 4.1 - Blanke and Walmsley (2022)
Map of the provinces of Palestine and Arabia in the sixth century Figure A - Tsafrir and Foester (1997)
Roman roads to Scythopolis Figure B - Tsafrir and Foester (1997)
The provinces of Palaestina and Arabia in the Byzantine Period Map - Meimaris and Kritikakou (2005)

Syriac Christianity



Crusader Times

Crusader Times
Description Image Source
Syria - 1096-1291 CE Map of Syria - Ryan (1969)

Ambraseys (2009)

Ambraseys (2009)
Description Image Source
Thrace Map 2 - Ambraseys (2009)
Bithynia Map 3 - Ambraseys (2009)
Pontus Map 4 - Ambraseys (2009)
Cappadocia
Armenia
Map 5 - Ambraseys (2009)
Jazira (N Mesopotamia) Map 6 - Ambraseys (2009)
N Mesopotamia
Kurdistan
Map 7 - Ambraseys (2009)
Sinai
Palestine
Moab
Map 8 - Ambraseys (2009)
Cyrenaica Map 9 - Ambraseys (2009)
Nile Delta Map 10 - Ambraseys (2009)
Greece
Macedonia
Map 11 - Ambraseys (2009)
Crete Map 12 - Ambraseys (2009)
Ionia Map 13 - Ambraseys (2009)
Pamphylia
Lycia
Map 14 - Ambraseys (2009)
Cyprus
Galatia
Map 15 - Ambraseys (2009)
N Levant Map 16 - Ambraseys (2009)
Phoenicia Map 17 - Ambraseys (2009)
Jordan Valley and to the N Map 18 - Ambraseys (2009)
Dead Sea and to the S Map 19 - Ambraseys (2009)

Guidoboni et al (1994)

Guidoboni et al (1994)
Description Image Source
760 to 303 BC 760 to 303 BC - Guidoboni et al (1994)
278 BC to 100 AD 278 BC to 100 AD - Guidoboni et al (1994)
201 to 499 AD 201 to 499 AD - Guidoboni et al (1994)
501 to 995 AD 501 to 995 AD - Guidoboni et al (1994)

References

Ambraseys, N. (2009). Earthquakes in the Mediterranean and Middle East: a multidisciplinary study of seismicity up to 1900. Cambridge, UK, Cambridge University Press.

Barnes, H. et al. 2006 From ‘Guard House’ to Congregational Mosque. Recent Discoveries on the Urban History of Islamic Jarash, in: Annual of the Department of Antiquities of Jordan 50, 285 – 314.

Blanke, L. and A. Walmsley (2022). Resilient cities: Renewal after disaster in three late antique towns of the East Mediterranean. Remembering and Forgetting the Ancient City, Oxbow Books: 69-109.

Brock, Sebastian P., Butts, Aaron M., Kiraz, George A., and Van Rompay, Lucas ed.s “Maps,” in Back Matter Digital edition prepared by David Michelson, Ute Possekel, and Daniel L. Schwartz. Gorgias Press, 2011; online ed. Beth Mardutho, 2018

Guidoboni, E., et al. (1994). Catalogue of Ancient Earthquakes in the Mediterranean Area up to the 10th Century. Rome, Istituto nazionale di geofisica.

Hoyland, R. G. (2011). Theophilus of Edessa's Chronicle and the Circulation of Historical Knowledge in Late Antiquity and Early Islam, Liverpool University Press.

Kaizer, T. ed. (2022). A Companion to the Hellenistic and Roman Near East, Wiley.

Meimaris, Y. E. and K. Kritikakou (2005). Inscriptions from Palaestina Tertia, National Hellenic Research Foundation.

Rattenborg, R. and L. Blanke (2017). "Jarash in the Islamic Ages (c. 700–1200 CE): a critical review." Levant 49(3): 312-332.

Ryan, F. trans. (1969) Fulcher of Chartres, A History of the Expedition to Jerusalem (Historia Hierosolymitana), Knoxville: University of Tenessee Press. - can be borrowed with a free account from archive.org

Tsafrir, Y. and G. Foerster (1997). "Urbanism at Scythopolis-Bet Shean in the Fourth to Seventh Centuries." Dumbarton Oaks Papers 51: 85-146.

Ancient Place Names

Ancient Place Names



Source Dependencies

Source Dependencies

Late Antiquity/Early Islamic

Late Antiquity/Early Islamic
Description Image Source
Transmission to and from
Theophilus of Edessa
Figure 1 - Hoyland (2011)
Transmission of
Theophilus of Edessa
Conrad (1992)
Transmission from
Theophilus of Edessa
Debie, M. (2015)
Sources of
Michael the Syrian
Chr. 1234
Dion. Tell-Mahre
Debie, M. (2015)

Terms and Definitions

Dating Terminology

terminus post quem - the earliest possible date for something.
terminus ante quem - the latest possible date for something..
terminus a quo - the earliest possible date for something.
terminus ad quem - the point at which something ends or finishes.

Manuscript Terminology

MS - Manuscript (written by hand)

MSS - Manuscripts

Autograph - A manuscript in an author's hand that includes the author's signature

Colophon - A statement providing the details of publication, sometimes found at the end of a book, but more often at the bottom of a printed book's title page

Titulus (plural tituli) - Title of a book - derived from ancient inscriptions which labeled items such as sculptures, art, boundaries, etc.

Folio - From the Latin word for leaf, a paper size designating one-half of a standard-size sheet of paper. Achieved by folding the sheet in half once. The front and back of a folio are referred to as recto and verso. Also the size of the book or manuscript comprising such sheets, sometimes abbreviated 2o. Shakespeare's plays were first collected in the famous First Folio of 1623.

Leaf - A single sheet of paper or vellum, each side of which constitutes a page.

Page - A single side of a leaf, and part of a system of enumerating the leaves in a book.

Recto - The front or obverse of a page, leaf, or sheet of paper, vellum, or other surface designed for writing.

Verso - The back or reverse of a leaf or sheet of paper, vellum, or other surface designed for writing.

Stemma - (pl. stemmata) The genealogy of multiple transcriptions of a work.

Archetype - an older manuscript from which younger manuscripts were copied

Palimpsest - a manuscript page, either from a scroll or a book, from which the text has been scraped or washed off so that the page can be reused for another document.

Glossary of Manuscript terms

Ancient Measures

Historical Units Converter



Ancient units of measurement



Roman Numerals

Aerial Photo of Tiberias Roman Numerals

Paintings & Drawings

Paintings & Drawings

Roberts (1855)

All 250 Lithographs from Wikipedia

  • from wikipedia - click link to open page in a separate tab and peruse individual images
  • Roberts, D. et. al.  (1855). The Holy Land, Syria, Idumea, Arabia, Egypt, and Nubia was first published by subscription between 1842 and 1849, in two separate publications: The Holy Land, Syria, Idumea and Arabia and Egypt and Nubia. It contains 250 lithographs by Louis Haghe of Roberts's watercolor sketches.


archive.org

  • from archive.org - click link to open page in a separate tab
  • Roberts, D. et. al.  (1855). The Holy Land, Syria, Idumea, Arabia, Egypt, and Nubia was first published by subscription between 1842 and 1849, in two separate publications: The Holy Land, Syria, Idumea and Arabia and Egypt and Nubia. It contains 250 lithographs by Louis Haghe of Roberts's watercolor sketches.


Inscriptions

Inscriptions

Inscriptiones Latinae Selectae (ILS) vol. 1

Inscriptiones Latinae Selectae (ILS) vol. 2 part 1

Inscriptiones Latinae Selectae (ILS) vol. 2 part 2

Inscriptiones Latinae Selectae (ILS) vol. 3

Supplementum Epigraphicum Graecum Online

Papyri

Papyri

Papyri.info

Ladders

Ladders

Using NEXUS Search bot on telegram

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